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GITREPOSITORY-LAYOU(5)		  Git Manual		GITREPOSITORY-LAYOU(5)

NAME
       gitrepository-layout - Git Repository Layout

SYNOPSIS
       $GIT_DIR/*

DESCRIPTION
       A Git repository	comes in two different flavours:

       o   a .git directory at the root	of the working tree;

       o   a <project>.git directory that is a bare repository (i.e. without
	   its own working tree), that is typically used for exchanging
	   histories with others by pushing into it and	fetching from it.

       Note: Also you can have a plain text file .git at the root of your
       working tree, containing	gitdir:	<path> to point	at the real directory
       that has	the repository.	This mechanism is often	used for a working
       tree of a submodule checkout, to	allow you in the containing
       superproject to git checkout a branch that does not have	the submodule.
       The checkout has	to remove the entire submodule working tree, without
       losing the submodule repository.

       These things may	exist in a Git repository.

       objects
	   Object store	associated with	this repository. Usually an object
	   store is self sufficient (i.e. all the objects that are referred to
	   by an object	found in it are	also found in it), but there are a few
	   ways	to violate it.

	    1. You could have an incomplete but	locally	usable repository by
	       creating	a shallow clone. See git-clone(1).

	    2. You could be using the objects/info/alternates or
	       $GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES mechanisms to borrow objects
	       from other object stores. A repository with this	kind of
	       incomplete object store is not suitable to be published for use
	       with dumb transports but	otherwise is OK	as long	as
	       objects/info/alternates points at the object stores it borrows
	       from.

	       This directory is ignored if $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and
	       "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/objects" will be used instead.

       objects/[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]
	   A newly created object is stored in its own file. The objects are
	   splayed over	256 subdirectories using the first two characters of
	   the sha1 object name	to keep	the number of directory	entries	in
	   objects itself to a manageable number. Objects found	here are often
	   called unpacked (or loose) objects.

       objects/pack
	   Packs (files	that store many	objects	in compressed form, along with
	   index files to allow	them to	be randomly accessed) are found	in
	   this	directory.

       objects/info
	   Additional information about	the object store is recorded in	this
	   directory.

       objects/info/packs
	   This	file is	to help	dumb transports	discover what packs are
	   available in	this object store. Whenever a pack is added or
	   removed, git	update-server-info should be run to keep this file up
	   to date if the repository is	published for dumb transports.	git
	   repack does this by default.

       objects/info/alternates
	   This	file records paths to alternate	object stores that this	object
	   store borrows objects from, one pathname per	line. Note that	not
	   only	native Git tools use it	locally, but the HTTP fetcher also
	   tries to use	it remotely; this will usually work if you have
	   relative paths (relative to the object database, not	to the
	   repository!)	in your	alternates file, but it	will not work if you
	   use absolute	paths unless the absolute path in filesystem and web
	   URL is the same. See	also objects/info/http-alternates.

       objects/info/http-alternates
	   This	file records URLs to alternate object stores that this object
	   store borrows objects from, to be used when the repository is
	   fetched over	HTTP.

       refs
	   References are stored in subdirectories of this directory. The git
	   prune command knows to preserve objects reachable from refs found
	   in this directory and its subdirectories. This directory is ignored
	   (except refs/bisect,	refs/rewritten and refs/worktree) if
	   $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/refs" will be used
	   instead.

       refs/heads/name
	   records tip-of-the-tree commit objects of branch name

       refs/tags/name
	   records any object name (not	necessarily a commit object, or	a tag
	   object that points at a commit object).

       refs/remotes/name
	   records tip-of-the-tree commit objects of branches copied from a
	   remote repository.

       refs/replace/<obj-sha1>
	   records the SHA-1 of	the object that	replaces <obj-sha1>. This is
	   similar to info/grafts and is internally used and maintained	by
	   git-replace(1). Such	refs can be exchanged between repositories
	   while grafts	are not.

       packed-refs
	   records the same information	as refs/heads/,	refs/tags/, and
	   friends record in a more efficient way. See git-pack-refs(1). This
	   file	is ignored if $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and
	   "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/packed-refs" will be used instead.

       HEAD
	   A symref (see glossary) to the refs/heads/ namespace	describing the
	   currently active branch. It does not	mean much if the repository is
	   not associated with any working tree	(i.e. a	bare repository), but
	   a valid Git repository must have the	HEAD file; some	porcelains may
	   use it to guess the designated "default" branch of the repository
	   (usually master). It	is legal if the	named branch name does not
	   (yet) exist.	In some	legacy setups, it is a symbolic	link instead
	   of a	symref that points at the current branch.

	   HEAD	can also record	a specific commit directly, instead of being a
	   symref to point at the current branch. Such a state is often	called
	   detached HEAD.  See git-checkout(1) for details.

       config
	   Repository specific configuration file. This	file is	ignored	if
	   $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/config" will be used
	   instead.

       config.worktree
	   Working directory specific configuration file for the main working
	   directory in	multiple working directory setup (see git-
	   worktree(1)).

       branches
	   A slightly deprecated way to	store shorthands to be used to specify
	   a URL to git	fetch, git pull	and git	push. A	file can be stored as
	   branches/<name> and then name can be	given to these commands	in
	   place of repository argument. See the REMOTES section in git-
	   fetch(1) for	details. This mechanism	is legacy and not likely to be
	   found in modern repositories. This directory	is ignored if
	   $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/branches" will be used
	   instead.

       hooks
	   Hooks are customization scripts used	by various Git commands. A
	   handful of sample hooks are installed when git init is run, but all
	   of them are disabled	by default. To enable, the .sample suffix has
	   to be removed from the filename by renaming.	Read githooks(5) for
	   more	details	about each hook. This directory	is ignored if
	   $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/hooks" will be used
	   instead.

       common
	   When	multiple working trees are used, most of files in $GIT_DIR are
	   per-worktree	with a few known exceptions. All files under common
	   however will	be shared between all working trees.

       index
	   The current index file for the repository. It is usually not	found
	   in a	bare repository.

       sharedindex.<SHA-1>
	   The shared index part, to be	referenced by $GIT_DIR/index and other
	   temporary index files. Only valid in	split index mode.

       info
	   Additional information about	the repository is recorded in this
	   directory. This directory is	ignored	if $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and
	   "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/info" will be used instead.

       info/refs
	   This	file helps dumb	transports discover what refs are available in
	   this	repository. If the repository is published for dumb
	   transports, this file should	be regenerated by git
	   update-server-info every time a tag or branch is created or
	   modified. This is normally done from	the hooks/update hook, which
	   is run by the git-receive-pack command when you git push into the
	   repository.

       info/grafts
	   This	file records fake commit ancestry information, to pretend the
	   set of parents a commit has is different from how the commit	was
	   actually created. One record	per line describes a commit and	its
	   fake	parents	by listing their 40-byte hexadecimal object names
	   separated by	a space	and terminated by a newline.

	   Note	that the grafts	mechanism is outdated and can lead to problems
	   transferring	objects	between	repositories; see git-replace(1) for a
	   more	flexible and robust system to do the same thing.

       info/exclude
	   This	file, by convention among Porcelains, stores the exclude
	   pattern list.  .gitignore is	the per-directory ignore file.	git
	   status, git add, git	rm and git clean look at it but	the core Git
	   commands do not look	at it. See also: gitignore(5).

       info/attributes
	   Defines which attributes to assign to a path, similar to
	   per-directory .gitattributes	files. See also: gitattributes(5).

       info/sparse-checkout
	   This	file stores sparse checkout patterns. See also:	git-read-
	   tree(1).

       remotes
	   Stores shorthands for URL and default refnames for use when
	   interacting with remote repositories	via git	fetch, git pull	and
	   git push commands. See the REMOTES section in git-fetch(1) for
	   details. This mechanism is legacy and not likely to be found	in
	   modern repositories.	This directory is ignored if $GIT_COMMON_DIR
	   is set and "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/remotes"	will be	used instead.

       logs
	   Records of changes made to refs are stored in this directory. See
	   git-update-ref(1) for more information. This	directory is ignored
	   (except logs/HEAD) if $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set	and
	   "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/logs" will be used instead.

       logs/refs/heads/name
	   Records all changes made to the branch tip named name.

       logs/refs/tags/name
	   Records all changes made to the tag named name.

       shallow
	   This	is similar to info/grafts but is internally used and
	   maintained by shallow clone mechanism. See --depth option to	git-
	   clone(1) and	git-fetch(1). This file	is ignored if $GIT_COMMON_DIR
	   is set and "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/shallow"	will be	used instead.

       commondir
	   If this file	exists,	$GIT_COMMON_DIR	(see git(1)) will be set to
	   the path specified in this file if it is not	explicitly set.	If the
	   specified path is relative, it is relative to $GIT_DIR. The
	   repository with commondir is	incomplete without the repository
	   pointed by "commondir".

       modules
	   Contains the	git-repositories of the	submodules.

       worktrees
	   Contains administrative data	for linked working trees. Each
	   subdirectory	contains the working tree-related part of a linked
	   working tree. This directory	is ignored if $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set,
	   in which case "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/worktrees" will be used instead.

       worktrees/<id>/gitdir
	   A text file containing the absolute path back to the	.git file that
	   points to here. This	is used	to check if the	linked repository has
	   been	manually removed and there is no need to keep this directory
	   any more. The mtime of this file should be updated every time the
	   linked repository is	accessed.

       worktrees/<id>/locked
	   If this file	exists,	the linked working tree	may be on a portable
	   device and not available. The presence of this file prevents
	   worktrees/<id> from being pruned either automatically or manually
	   by git worktree prune. The file may contain a string	explaining why
	   the repository is locked.

       worktrees/<id>/config.worktree
	   Working directory specific configuration file.

GIT REPOSITORY FORMAT VERSIONS
       Every git repository is marked with a numeric version in	the
       core.repositoryformatversion key	of its config file. This version
       specifies the rules for operating on the	on-disk	repository data. An
       implementation of git which does	not understand a particular version
       advertised by an	on-disk	repository MUST	NOT operate on that
       repository; doing so risks not only producing wrong results, but
       actually	losing data.

       Because of this rule, version bumps should be kept to an	absolute
       minimum.	Instead, we generally prefer these strategies:

       o   bumping format version numbers of individual	data files (e.g.,
	   index, packfiles, etc). This	restricts the incompatibilities	only
	   to those files.

       o   introducing new data	that gracefully	degrades when used by older
	   clients (e.g., pack bitmap files are	ignored	by older clients,
	   which simply	do not take advantage of the optimization they
	   provide).

       A whole-repository format version bump should only be part of a change
       that cannot be independently versioned. For instance, if	one were to
       change the reachability rules for objects, or the rules for locking
       refs, that would	require	a bump of the repository format	version.

       Note that this applies only to accessing	the repository's disk contents
       directly. An older client which understands only	format 0 may still
       connect via git:// to a repository using	format 1, as long as the
       server process understands format 1.

       The preferred strategy for rolling out a	version	bump (whether whole
       repository or for a single file)	is to teach git	to read	the new
       format, and allow writing the new format	with a config switch or
       command line option (for	experimentation	or for those who do not	care
       about backwards compatibility with older	gits). Then after a long
       period to allow the reading capability to become	common,	we may switch
       to writing the new format by default.

       The currently defined format versions are:

   Version 0
       This is the format defined by the initial version of git, including but
       not limited to the format of the	repository directory, the repository
       configuration file, and the object and ref storage. Specifying the
       complete	behavior of git	is beyond the scope of this document.

   Version 1
       This format is identical	to version 0, with the following exceptions:

	1. When	reading	the core.repositoryformatversion variable, a git
	   implementation which	supports version 1 MUST	also read any
	   configuration keys found in the extensions section of the
	   configuration file.

	2. If a	version-1 repository specifies any extensions.*	 keys that the
	   running git has not implemented, the	operation MUST NOT proceed.
	   Similarly, if the value of any known	key is not understood by the
	   implementation, the operation MUST NOT proceed.

       Note that if no extensions are specified	in the config file, then
       core.repositoryformatversion SHOULD be set to 0 (setting	it to 1
       provides	no benefit, and	makes the repository incompatible with older
       implementations of git).

       This document will serve	as the master list for extensions. Any
       implementation wishing to define	a new extension	should make a note of
       it here,	in order to claim the name.

       The defined extensions are:

       noop
	   This	extension does not change git's	behavior at all. It is useful
	   only	for testing format-1 compatibility.

       preciousObjects
	   When	the config key extensions.preciousObjects is set to true,
	   objects in the repository MUST NOT be deleted (e.g.,	by git-prune
	   or git repack -d).

       partialclone
	   When	the config key extensions.partialclone is set, it indicates
	   that	the repo was created with a partial clone (or later performed
	   a partial fetch) and	that the remote	may have omitted sending
	   certain unwanted objects. Such a remote is called a "promisor
	   remote" and it promises that	all such omitted objects can be
	   fetched from	it in the future.

	   The value of	this key is the	name of	the promisor remote.

       worktreeConfig
	   If set, by default "git config" reads from both "config" and
	   "config.worktree" file from GIT_DIR in that order. In multiple
	   working directory mode, "config" file is shared while
	   "config.worktree" is	per-working directory (i.e., it's in
	   GIT_COMMON_DIR/worktrees/<id>/config.worktree)

SEE ALSO
       git-init(1), git-clone(1), git-fetch(1),	git-pack-refs(1), git-gc(1),
       git-checkout(1),	gitglossary(7),	The Git	User's Manual[1]

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite

NOTES
	1. The Git User's Manual
	   git-htmldocs/user-manual.html

Git 2.28.0			  07/26/2020		GITREPOSITORY-LAYOU(5)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | GIT REPOSITORY FORMAT VERSIONS | SEE ALSO | GIT | NOTES

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