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GITIGNORE(5)			  Git Manual			  GITIGNORE(5)

NAME
       gitignore - Specifies intentionally untracked files to ignore

SYNOPSIS
       $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/ignore, $GIT_DIR/info/exclude, .gitignore

DESCRIPTION
       A gitignore file	specifies intentionally	untracked files	that Git
       should ignore. Files already tracked by Git are not affected; see the
       NOTES below for details.

       Each line in a gitignore	file specifies a pattern. When deciding
       whether to ignore a path, Git normally checks gitignore patterns	from
       multiple	sources, with the following order of precedence, from highest
       to lowest (within one level of precedence, the last matching pattern
       decides the outcome):

       o   Patterns read from the command line for those commands that support
	   them.

       o   Patterns read from a	.gitignore file	in the same directory as the
	   path, or in any parent directory, with patterns in the higher level
	   files (up to	the toplevel of	the work tree) being overridden	by
	   those in lower level	files down to the directory containing the
	   file. These patterns	match relative to the location of the
	   .gitignore file. A project normally includes	such .gitignore	files
	   in its repository, containing patterns for files generated as part
	   of the project build.

       o   Patterns read from $GIT_DIR/info/exclude.

       o   Patterns read from the file specified by the	configuration variable
	   core.excludesFile.

       Which file to place a pattern in	depends	on how the pattern is meant to
       be used.

       o   Patterns which should be version-controlled and distributed to
	   other repositories via clone	(i.e., files that all developers will
	   want	to ignore) should go into a .gitignore file.

       o   Patterns which are specific to a particular repository but which do
	   not need to be shared with other related repositories (e.g.,
	   auxiliary files that	live inside the	repository but are specific to
	   one user's workflow)	should go into the $GIT_DIR/info/exclude file.

       o   Patterns which a user wants Git to ignore in	all situations (e.g.,
	   backup or temporary files generated by the user's editor of choice)
	   generally go	into a file specified by core.excludesFile in the
	   user's ~/.gitconfig.	Its default value is
	   $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/ignore.	If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is either not set
	   or empty, $HOME/.config/git/ignore is used instead.

       The underlying Git plumbing tools, such as git ls-files and git
       read-tree, read gitignore patterns specified by command-line options,
       or from files specified by command-line options.	Higher-level Git
       tools, such as git status and git add, use patterns from	the sources
       specified above.

PATTERN	FORMAT
       o   A blank line	matches	no files, so it	can serve as a separator for
	   readability.

       o   A line starting with	# serves as a comment. Put a backslash ("\")
	   in front of the first hash for patterns that	begin with a hash.

       o   Trailing spaces are ignored unless they are quoted with backslash
	   ("\").

       o   An optional prefix "!" which	negates	the pattern; any matching file
	   excluded by a previous pattern will become included again. It is
	   not possible	to re-include a	file if	a parent directory of that
	   file	is excluded. Git doesn't list excluded directories for
	   performance reasons,	so any patterns	on contained files have	no
	   effect, no matter where they	are defined. Put a backslash ("\") in
	   front of the	first "!" for patterns that begin with a literal "!",
	   for example,	"\!important!.txt".

       o   The slash / is used as the directory	separator. Separators may
	   occur at the	beginning, middle or end of the	.gitignore search
	   pattern.

       o   If there is a separator at the beginning or middle (or both)	of the
	   pattern, then the pattern is	relative to the	directory level	of the
	   particular .gitignore file itself. Otherwise	the pattern may	also
	   match at any	level below the	.gitignore level.

       o   If there is a separator at the end of the pattern then the pattern
	   will	only match directories,	otherwise the pattern can match	both
	   files and directories.

       o   For example,	a pattern doc/frotz/ matches doc/frotz directory, but
	   not a/doc/frotz directory; however frotz/ matches frotz and a/frotz
	   that	is a directory (all paths are relative from the	.gitignore
	   file).

       o   An asterisk "*" matches anything except a slash. The	character "?"
	   matches any one character except "/". The range notation, e.g.
	   [a-zA-Z], can be used to match one of the characters	in a range.
	   See fnmatch(3) and the FNM_PATHNAME flag for	a more detailed
	   description.

       Two consecutive asterisks ("**")	in patterns matched against full
       pathname	may have special meaning:

       o   A leading "**" followed by a	slash means match in all directories.
	   For example,	"**/foo" matches file or directory "foo" anywhere, the
	   same	as pattern "foo". "**/foo/bar" matches file or directory "bar"
	   anywhere that is directly under directory "foo".

       o   A trailing "/**" matches everything inside. For example, "abc/**"
	   matches all files inside directory "abc", relative to the location
	   of the .gitignore file, with	infinite depth.

       o   A slash followed by two consecutive asterisks then a	slash matches
	   zero	or more	directories. For example, "a/**/b" matches "a/b",
	   "a/x/b", "a/x/y/b" and so on.

       o   Other consecutive asterisks are considered regular asterisks	and
	   will	match according	to the previous	rules.

CONFIGURATION
       The optional configuration variable core.excludesFile indicates a path
       to a file containing patterns of	file names to exclude, similar to
       $GIT_DIR/info/exclude. Patterns in the exclude file are used in
       addition	to those in $GIT_DIR/info/exclude.

NOTES
       The purpose of gitignore	files is to ensure that	certain	files not
       tracked by Git remain untracked.

       To stop tracking	a file that is currently tracked, use git rm --cached.

       Git does	not follow symbolic links when accessing a .gitignore file in
       the working tree. This keeps behavior consistent	when the file is
       accessed	from the index or a tree versus	from the filesystem.

EXAMPLES
       o   The pattern hello.*	matches	any file or folder whose name begins
	   with	hello..	If one wants to	restrict this only to the directory
	   and not in its subdirectories, one can prepend the pattern with a
	   slash, i.e.	/hello.*; the pattern now matches hello.txt, hello.c
	   but not a/hello.java.

       o   The pattern foo/ will match a directory foo and paths underneath
	   it, but will	not match a regular file or a symbolic link foo	(this
	   is consistent with the way how pathspec works in general in Git)

       o   The pattern doc/frotz and /doc/frotz	have the same effect in	any
	   .gitignore file. In other words, a leading slash is not relevant if
	   there is already a middle slash in the pattern.

       o   The pattern "foo/*",	matches	"foo/test.json"	(a regular file),
	   "foo/bar" (a	directory), but	it does	not match "foo/bar/hello.c" (a
	   regular file), as the asterisk in the pattern does not match
	   "bar/hello.c" which has a slash in it.

	       $ git status
	       [...]
	       # Untracked files:
	       [...]
	       #       Documentation/foo.html
	       #       Documentation/gitignore.html
	       #       file.o
	       #       lib.a
	       #       src/internal.o
	       [...]
	       $ cat .git/info/exclude
	       # ignore	objects	and archives, anywhere in the tree.
	       *.[oa]
	       $ cat Documentation/.gitignore
	       # ignore	generated html files,
	       *.html
	       # except	foo.html which is maintained by	hand
	       !foo.html
	       $ git status
	       [...]
	       # Untracked files:
	       [...]
	       #       Documentation/foo.html
	       [...]

       Another example:

	       $ cat .gitignore
	       vmlinux*
	       $ ls arch/foo/kernel/vm*
	       arch/foo/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
	       $ echo '!/vmlinux*' >arch/foo/kernel/.gitignore

       The second .gitignore prevents Git from ignoring
       arch/foo/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S.

       Example to exclude everything except a specific directory foo/bar (note
       the /* -	without	the slash, the wildcard	would also exclude everything
       within foo/bar):

	       $ cat .gitignore
	       # exclude everything except directory foo/bar
	       /*
	       !/foo
	       /foo/*
	       !/foo/bar

SEE ALSO
       git-rm(1), gitrepository-layout(5), git-check-ignore(1)

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.32.0			  06/06/2021			  GITIGNORE(5)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | PATTERN FORMAT | CONFIGURATION | NOTES | EXAMPLES | SEE ALSO | GIT

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