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GIT-SHORTLOG(1)			  Git Manual		       GIT-SHORTLOG(1)

       git-shortlog - Summarize	'git log' output

       git shortlog [<options>]	[<revision-range>] [[--] <path>...]
       git log --pretty=short |	git shortlog [<options>]

       Summarizes git log output in a format suitable for inclusion in release
       announcements. Each commit will be grouped by author and	title.

       Additionally, "[PATCH]" will be stripped	from the commit	description.

       If no revisions are passed on the command line and either standard
       input is	not a terminal or there	is no current branch, git shortlog
       will output a summary of	the log	read from standard input, without
       reference to the	current	repository.

       -n, --numbered
	   Sort	output according to the	number of commits per author instead
	   of author alphabetic	order.

       -s, --summary
	   Suppress commit description and provide a commit count summary

       -e, --email
	   Show	the email address of each author.

	   Instead of the commit subject, use some other information to
	   describe each commit.  _format_ can be any string accepted by the
	   --format option of git log, such as * [%h] %s. (See the "PRETTY
	   FORMATS" section of git-log(1).)

	       Each pretty-printed commit will be rewrapped before it is shown.

	   Group commits based on <type>. If no	--group	option is specified,
	   the default is author.  <type> is one of:

	   o   author, commits are grouped by author

	   o   committer, commits are grouped by committer (the	same as	-c)

	   o   trailer:<field>,	the <field> is interpreted as a
	       case-insensitive	commit message trailer (see git-interpret-
	       trailers(1)). For example, if your project uses Reviewed-by
	       trailers, you might want	to see who has been reviewing with git
	       shortlog	-ns --group=trailer:reviewed-by.

	       Note that commits that do not include the trailer will not be
	       counted.	Likewise, commits with multiple	trailers (e.g.,
	       multiple	signoffs) may be counted more than once	(but only once
	       per unique trailer value	in that	commit).

	       Shortlog	will attempt to	parse each trailer value as a name
	       <email> identity. If successful,	the mailmap is applied and the
	       email is	omitted	unless the --email option is specified.	If the
	       value cannot be parsed as an identity, it will be taken
	       literally and completely.

	   If --group is specified multiple times, commits are counted under
	   each	value (but again, only once per	unique value in	that commit).
	   For example,	git shortlog --group=author
	   --group=trailer:co-authored-by counts both authors and co-authors.

       -c, --committer
	   This	is an alias for	--group=committer.

	   Linewrap the	output by wrapping each	line at	width. The first line
	   of each entry is indented by	indent1	spaces,	and the	second and
	   subsequent lines are	indented by indent2 spaces.  width, indent1,
	   and indent2 default to 76, 6	and 9 respectively.

	   If width is 0 (zero)	then indent the	lines of the output without
	   wrapping them.

	   Show	only commits in	the specified revision range. When no
	   <revision-range> is specified, it defaults to HEAD (i.e. the	whole
	   history leading to the current commit).  origin..HEAD specifies all
	   the commits reachable from the current commit (i.e.	HEAD), but not
	   from	origin.	For a complete list of ways to spell <revision-range>,
	   see the "Specifying Ranges" section of gitrevisions(7).

       [--] <path>...
	   Consider only commits that are enough to explain how	the files that
	   match the specified paths came to be.

	   Paths may need to be	prefixed with -- to separate them from options
	   or the revision range, when confusion arises.

   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
       special notations explained in the description, additional commit
       limiting	may be applied.

       Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
       --since=<date1> limits to commits newer than <date1>, and using it with
       --grep=<pattern>	further	limits to commits whose	log message has	a line
       that matches <pattern>),	unless otherwise noted.

       Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting
       options,	such as	--reverse.

       -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
	   Limit the number of commits to output.

	   Skip	number commits before starting to show the commit output.

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
	   Show	commits	more recent than a specific date.

	   Show	all commits more recent	than a specific	date. This visits all
	   commits in the range, rather	than stopping at the first commit
	   which is older than a specific date.

       --until=<date>, --before=<date>
	   Show	commits	older than a specific date.

       --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
	   Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines
	   that	match the specified pattern (regular expression). With more
	   than	one --author=<pattern>,	commits	whose author matches any of
	   the given patterns are chosen (similarly for	multiple

	   Limit the commits output to ones with reflog	entries	that match the
	   specified pattern (regular expression). With	more than one
	   --grep-reflog, commits whose	reflog message matches any of the
	   given patterns are chosen. It is an error to	use this option	unless
	   --walk-reflogs is in	use.

	   Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the
	   specified pattern (regular expression). With	more than one
	   --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message matches any of the given
	   patterns are	chosen (but see	--all-match).

	   When	--notes	is in effect, the message from the notes is matched as
	   if it were part of the log message.

	   Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
	   instead of ones that	match at least one.

	   Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not match
	   the pattern specified with --grep=<pattern>.

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
	   Match the regular expression	limiting patterns without regard to
	   letter case.

	   Consider the	limiting patterns to be	basic regular expressions;
	   this	is the default.

       -E, --extended-regexp
	   Consider the	limiting patterns to be	extended regular expressions
	   instead of the default basic	regular	expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
	   Consider the	limiting patterns to be	fixed strings (don't interpret
	   pattern as a	regular	expression).

       -P, --perl-regexp
	   Consider the	limiting patterns to be	Perl-compatible	regular

	   Support for these types of regular expressions is an	optional
	   compile-time	dependency. If Git wasn't compiled with	support	for
	   them	providing this option will cause it to die.

	   Stop	when a given path disappears from the tree.

	   Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as

	   Do not print	commits	with more than one parent. This	is exactly the
	   same	as --max-parents=1.

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents,
	   Show	only commits which have	at least (or at	most) that many	parent
	   commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is the same as --no-merges,
	   --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.  --max-parents=0 gives all
	   root	commits	and --min-parents=3 all	octopus	merges.

	   --no-min-parents and	--no-max-parents reset these limits (to	no
	   limit) again. Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any commit has
	   0 or	more parents) and --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no
	   upper limit).

	   When	finding	commits	to include, follow only	the first parent
	   commit upon seeing a	merge commit. This option can give a better
	   overview when viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
	   because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about adjusting
	   to updated upstream from time to time, and this option allows you
	   to ignore the individual commits brought in to your history by such
	   a merge.

	   When	finding	commits	to exclude (with a ^), follow only the first
	   parent commit upon seeing a merge commit. This can be used to find
	   the set of changes in a topic branch	from the point where it
	   diverged from the remote branch, given that arbitrary merges	can be
	   valid topic branch changes.

	   Reverses the	meaning	of the ^ prefix	(or lack thereof) for all
	   following revision specifiers, up to	the next --not.

	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/,	along with HEAD, are listed on
	   the command line as _commit_.

	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are	listed on the command
	   line	as _commit_. If	_pattern_ is given, limit branches to ones
	   matching given shell	glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or	[, /* at the
	   end is implied.

	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command
	   line	as _commit_. If	_pattern_ is given, limit tags to ones
	   matching given shell	glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or	[, /* at the
	   end is implied.

	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the
	   command line	as _commit_. If	_pattern_ is given, limit
	   remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob. If
	   pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /*	at the end is implied.

	   Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob _glob-pattern_ are
	   listed on the command line as _commit_. Leading refs/, is
	   automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks	?, *, or [, /*
	   at the end is implied.

	   Do not include refs matching	_glob-pattern_ that the	next --all,
	   --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob would otherwise consider.
	   Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns up to the
	   next	--all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob	option (other
	   options or arguments	do not clear accumulated patterns).

	   The patterns	given should not begin with refs/heads,	refs/tags, or
	   refs/remotes	when applied to	--branches, --tags, or --remotes,
	   respectively, and they must begin with refs/	when applied to	--glob
	   or --all. If	a trailing /* is intended, it must be given

	   Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on	the
	   command line	as <commit>.

	   Pretend as if all objects mentioned as ref tips of alternate
	   repositories	were listed on the command line. An alternate
	   repository is any repository	whose object directory is specified in
	   objects/info/alternates. The	set of included	objects	may be
	   modified by core.alternateRefsCommand, etc. See git-config(1).

	   By default, all working trees will be examined by the following
	   options when	there are more than one	(see git-worktree(1)): --all,
	   --reflog and	--indexed-objects. This	option forces them to examine
	   the current working tree only.

	   Upon	seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if the
	   bad input was not given.

	   Pretend as if the bad bisection ref refs/bisect/bad was listed and
	   as if it was	followed by --not and the good bisection refs
	   refs/bisect/good-* on the command line.

	   In addition to the _commit_ listed on the command line, read	them
	   from	the standard input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading
	   commits and start reading paths to limit the	result.

	   Like	--cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with =
	   rather than omitting	them, and inequivalent ones with +.

	   Omit	any commit that	introduces the same change as another commit
	   on the "other side" when the	set of commits are limited with
	   symmetric difference.

	   For example,	if you have two	branches, A and	B, a usual way to list
	   all commits on only one side	of them	is with	--left-right (see the
	   example below in the	description of the --left-right	option).
	   However, it shows the commits that were cherry-picked from the
	   other branch	(for example, "3rd on b" may be	cherry-picked from
	   branch A). With this	option,	such pairs of commits are excluded
	   from	the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
	   List	only commits on	the respective side of a symmetric difference,
	   i.e.	only those which would be marked < resp.  > by --left-right.

	   For example,	--cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits
	   from	B which	are in A or are	patch-equivalent to a commit in	A. In
	   other words,	this lists the + commits from git cherry A B. More
	   precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact

	   A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful	to
	   limit the output to the commits on our side and mark	those that
	   have	been applied to	the other side of a forked history with	git
	   log --cherry	upstream...mybranch, similar to	git cherry upstream

       -g, --walk-reflogs
	   Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries
	   from	the most recent	one to older ones. When	this option is used
	   you cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit,
	   commit1..commit2, and commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

	   With	--pretty format	other than oneline and reference (for obvious
	   reasons), this causes the output to have two	extra lines of
	   information taken from the reflog. The reflog designator in the
	   output may be shown as ref@{Nth} (where Nth is the
	   reverse-chronological index in the reflog) or as ref@{timestamp}
	   (with the timestamp for that	entry),	depending on a few rules:

	    1. If the starting point is	specified as ref@{Nth},	show the index

	    2. If the starting point was specified as ref@{now}, show the
	       timestamp format.

	    3. If neither was used, but	--date was given on the	command	line,
	       show the	timestamp in the format	requested by --date.

	    4. Otherwise, show the index format.

	   Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this
	   information on the same line. This option cannot be combined	with
	   --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

	   Under --pretty=reference, this information will not be shown	at

	   After a failed merge, show refs that	touch files having a conflict
	   and don't exist on all heads	to merge.

	   Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are prefixed
	   with	-.

   History Simplification
       Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example
       the commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are	two parts of
       History Simplification, one part	is selecting the commits and the other
       is how to do it,	as there are various strategies	to simplify the

       The following options select the	commits	to be shown:

	   Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

	   Commits that	are referred by	some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

       The following options affect the	way the	simplification is performed:

       Default mode
	   Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final
	   state of the	tree. Simplest because it prunes some side branches if
	   the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches with the same

	   Include all commits from the	default	mode, but also any merge
	   commits that	are not	TREESAME to the	first parent but are TREESAME
	   to a	later parent. This mode	is helpful for showing the merge
	   commits that	"first introduced" a change to a branch.

	   Same	as the default mode, but does not prune	some history.

	   Only	the selected commits are shown,	plus some to have a meaningful

	   All commits in the simplified history are shown.

	   Additional option to	--full-history to remove some needless merges
	   from	the resulting history, as there	are no selected	commits
	   contributing	to this	merge.

	   When	given a	range of commits to display (e.g.  commit1..commit2 or
	   commit2 ^commit1), only display commits that	exist directly on the
	   ancestry chain between the commit1 and commit2, i.e.	commits	that
	   are both descendants	of commit1, and	ancestors of commit2.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the	<paths>. We shall call commits that
       modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In	a diff filtered	for
       foo, they look different	and equal, respectively.)

       In the following, we will always	refer to the same example history to
       illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
       that you	are filtering for a file foo in	this commit graph:

		    /	  /   /	  /   /	  /
		   I	 B   C	 D   E	 Y
		    \	/   /	/   /	/
		     `-------------'   X

       The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to	be the first parent of
       each merge. The commits are:

       o   I is	the initial commit, in which foo exists	with contents "asdf",
	   and a file quux exists with contents	"quux".	Initial	commits	are
	   compared to an empty	tree, so I is !TREESAME.

       o   In A, foo contains just "foo".

       o   B contains the same change as A. Its	merge M	is trivial and hence
	   TREESAME to all parents.

       o   C does not change foo, but its merge	N changes it to	"foobar", so
	   it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       o   D sets foo to "baz".	Its merge O combines the strings from N	and D
	   to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       o   E changes quux to "xyzzy", and its merge P combines the strings to
	   "quux xyzzy".  P is TREESAME	to O, but not to E.

       o   X is	an independent root commit that	added a	new file side, and Y
	   modified it.	 Y is TREESAME to X. Its merge Q added side to P, and
	   Q is	TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

       rev-list	walks backwards	through	history, including or excluding
       commits based on	whether	--full-history and/or parent rewriting (via
       --parents or --children)	are used. The following	settings are

       Default mode
	   Commits are included	if they	are not	TREESAME to any	parent (though
	   this	can be changed,	see --sparse below). If	the commit was a
	   merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow only that parent.
	   (Even if there are several TREESAME parents,	follow only one	of
	   them.) Otherwise, follow all	parents.

	   This	results	in:

			/     /	  /

	   Note	how the	rule to	only follow the	TREESAME parent, if one	is
	   available, removed B	from consideration entirely.  C	was considered
	   via N, but is TREESAME. Root	commits	are compared to	an empty tree,
	   so I	is !TREESAME.

	   Parent/child	relations are only visible with	--parents, but that
	   does	not affect the commits selected	in default mode, so we have
	   shown the parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
	   This	mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all
	   parents of a	merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of	them. Even if
	   more	than one side of the merge has commits that are	included, this
	   does	not imply that the merge itself	is! In the example, we get

		       I  A  B	N  D  O	 P  Q

	   M was excluded because it is	TREESAME to both parents.  E, C	and B
	   were	all walked, but	only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not

	   Note	that without parent rewriting, it is not really	possible to
	   talk	about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so
	   we show them	disconnected.

       --full-history with parent rewriting
	   Ordinary commits are	only included if they are !TREESAME (though
	   this	can be changed,	see --sparse below).

	   Merges are always included. However,	their parent list is
	   rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that are not
	   included themselves.	This results in

			/     /	  /   /	  /
		       I     B	 /   D	 /
			\   /	/   /	/

	   Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that	E was
	   pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P	was
	   rewritten to	contain	E's parent I. The same happened	for C and N,
	   and X, Y and	Q.

       In addition to the above	settings, you can change whether TREESAME
       affects inclusion:

	   Commits that	are walked are included	if they	are not	TREESAME to
	   any parent.

	   All commits that are	walked are included.

	   Note	that without --full-history, this still	simplifies merges: if
	   one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the
	   other sides of the merge are	never walked.

	   First, build	a history graph	in the same way	that --full-history
	   with	parent rewriting does (see above).

	   Then	simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in	the final
	   history according to	the following rules:

	   o   Set C' to C.

	   o   Replace each parent P of	C' with	its simplification P'. In the
	       process,	drop parents that are ancestors	of other parents or
	       that are	root commits TREESAME to an empty tree,	and remove
	       duplicates, but take care to never drop all parents that	we are
	       TREESAME	to.

	   o   If after	this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit
	       (has zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it
	       remains.	Otherwise, it is replaced with its only	parent.

	   The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing	to
	   --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns into:

			/     /	      /
		       I     B	     D
			\   /	    /

	   Note	the major differences in N, P, and Q over --full-history:

	   o   N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor	of the
	       other parent M. Still, N	remained because it is !TREESAME.

	   o   P's parent list similarly had I removed.	 P was then removed
	       completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

	   o   Q's parent list had Y simplified	to X.  X was then removed,
	       because it was a	TREESAME root.	Q was then removed completely,
	       because it had one parent and is	TREESAME.

       There is	another	simplification mode available:

	   Limit the displayed commits to those	directly on the	ancestry chain
	   between the "from" and "to" commits in the given commit range. I.e.
	   only	display	commits	that are ancestor of the "to" commit and
	   descendants of the "from" commit.

	   As an example use case, consider the	following commit history:

			  /	\	\
			/		      \

	   A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of M,
	   but excludes	the ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful to
	   see what happened to	the history leading to M since D, in the sense
	   that	"what does M have that did not exist in	D". The	result in this
	   example would be all	the commits, except A and B (and D itself, of

	   When	we want	to find	out what commits in M are contaminated with
	   the bug introduced by D and need fixing, however, we	might want to
	   view	only the subset	of D..M	that are actually descendants of D,
	   i.e.	excluding C and	K. This	is exactly what	the --ancestry-path
	   option does.	Applied	to the D..M range, it results in:

				\	\

       Before discussing another option, --show-pulls, we need to create a new
       example history.

       A common	problem	users face when	looking	at simplified history is that
       a commit	they know changed a file somehow does not appear in the	file's
       simplified history. Let's demonstrate a new example and show how
       options such as --full-history and --simplify-merges works in that

		    /	  / \  \  \/   /   /
		   I	 B   \	R-'`-Z'	  /
		    \	/     \/	 /
		     \ /      /\	/
		      `---X--'	`---Y--'

       For this	example, suppose I created file.txt which was modified by A,
       B, and X	in different ways. The single-parent commits C,	Z, and Y do
       not change file.txt. The	merge commit M was created by resolving	the
       merge conflict to include both changes from A and B and hence is	not
       TREESAME	to either. The merge commit R, however,	was created by
       ignoring	the contents of	file.txt at M and taking only the contents of
       file.txt	at X. Hence, R is TREESAME to X	but not	M. Finally, the
       natural merge resolution	to create N is to take the contents of
       file.txt	at R, so N is TREESAME to R but	not C. The merge commits O and
       P are TREESAME to their first parents, but not to their second parents,
       Z and Y respectively.

       When using the default mode, N and R both have a	TREESAME parent, so
       those edges are walked and the others are ignored. The resulting
       history graph is:


       When using --full-history, Git walks every edge.	This will discover the
       commits A and B and the merge M,	but also will reveal the merge commits
       O and P.	With parent rewriting, the resulting graph is:

		    /	  / \  \  \/   /   /
		   I	 B   \	R-'`--'	  /
		    \	/     \/	 /
		     \ /      /\	/
		      `---X--'	`------'

       Here, the merge commits O and P contribute extra	noise, as they did not
       actually	contribute a change to file.txt. They only merged a topic that
       was based on an older version of	file.txt. This is a common issue in
       repositories using a workflow where many	contributors work in parallel
       and merge their topic branches along a single trunk: manu unrelated
       merges appear in	the --full-history results.

       When using the --simplify-merges	option,	the commits O and P disappear
       from the	results. This is because the rewritten second parents of O and
       P are reachable from their first	parents. Those edges are removed and
       then the	commits	look like single-parent	commits	that are TREESAME to
       their parent. This also happens to the commit N,	resulting in a history
       view as follows:

		    /	  /    \
		   I	 B	R
		    \	/      /
		     \ /      /

       In this view, we	see all	of the important single-parent changes from A,
       B, and X. We also see the carefully-resolved merge M and	the
       not-so-carefully-resolved merge R. This is usually enough information
       to determine why	the commits A and B "disappeared" from history in the
       default view. However, there are	a few issues with this approach.

       The first issue is performance. Unlike any previous option, the
       --simplify-merges option	requires walking the entire commit history
       before returning	a single result. This can make the option difficult to
       use for very large repositories.

       The second issue	is one of auditing. When many contributors are working
       on the same repository, it is important which merge commits introduced
       a change	into an	important branch. The problematic merge	R above	is not
       likely to be the	merge commit that was used to merge into an important
       branch. Instead,	the merge N was	used to	merge R	and X into the
       important branch. This commit may have information about	why the	change
       X came to override the changes from A and B in its commit message.

	   In addition to the commits shown in the default history, show each
	   merge commit	that is	not TREESAME to	its first parent but is
	   TREESAME to a later parent.

	   When	a merge	commit is included by --show-pulls, the	merge is
	   treated as if it "pulled" the change	from another branch. When
	   using --show-pulls on this example (and no other options) the
	   resulting graph is:


	   Here, the merge commits R and N are included	because	they pulled
	   the commits X and R into the	base branch, respectively. These
	   merges are the reason the commits A and B do	not appear in the
	   default history.

	   When	--show-pulls is	paired with --simplify-merges, the graph
	   includes all	of the necessary information:

			 .-A---M--.   N
			/     /	   \ /
		       I     B	    R
			\   /	   /
			 \ /	  /

	   Notice that since M is reachable from R, the	edge from N to M was
	   simplified away. However, N still appears in	the history as an
	   important commit because it "pulled"	the change R into the main

       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big
       picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits that	are
       not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME (in other
       words, kept after history simplification	rules described	above) if (1)
       they are	referenced by tags, or (2) they	change the contents of the
       paths given on the command line.	All other commits are marked as
       TREESAME	(subject to be simplified away).

       See gitmailmap(5).

       Note that if git	shortlog is run	outside	of a repository	(to process
       log contents on standard	input),	it will	look for a .mailmap file in
       the current directory.

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.37.1			  07/11/2022		       GIT-SHORTLOG(1)


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