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GIT-REV-LIST(1)			  Git Manual		       GIT-REV-LIST(1)

       git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order

       git rev-list [ --max-count=<number> ]
		    [ --skip=<number> ]
		    [ --max-age=<timestamp> ]
		    [ --min-age=<timestamp> ]
		    [ --sparse ]
		    [ --merges ]
		    [ --no-merges ]
		    [ --min-parents=<number> ]
		    [ --no-min-parents ]
		    [ --max-parents=<number> ]
		    [ --no-max-parents ]
		    [ --first-parent ]
		    [ --remove-empty ]
		    [ --full-history ]
		    [ --not ]
		    [ --all ]
		    [ --branches[=<pattern>] ]
		    [ --tags[=<pattern>] ]
		    [ --remotes[=<pattern>] ]
		    [ --glob=<glob-pattern> ]
		    [ --ignore-missing ]
		    [ --stdin ]
		    [ --quiet ]
		    [ --topo-order ]
		    [ --parents	]
		    [ --timestamp ]
		    [ --left-right ]
		    [ --left-only ]
		    [ --right-only ]
		    [ --cherry-mark ]
		    [ --cherry-pick ]
		    [ --encoding=<encoding> ]
		    [ --(author|committer|grep)=<pattern> ]
		    [ --regexp-ignore-case | -i	]
		    [ --extended-regexp	| -E ]
		    [ --fixed-strings |	-F ]
		    [ --date=<format>]
		    [ [	--objects | --objects-edge | --objects-edge-aggressive ]
		      [	--unpacked ] ]
		    [ --pretty | --header ]
		    [ --bisect ]
		    [ --bisect-vars ]
		    [ --bisect-all ]
		    [ --merge ]
		    [ --reverse	]
		    [ --walk-reflogs ]
		    [ --no-walk	] [ --do-walk ]
		    [ --count ]
		    [ --use-bitmap-index ]
		    <commit>...	[ -- <paths>...	]

       List commits that are reachable by following the	parent links from the
       given commit(s),	but exclude commits that are reachable from the	one(s)
       given with a ^ in front of them.	The output is given in reverse
       chronological order by default.

       You can think of	this as	a set operation. Commits given on the command
       line form a set of commits that are reachable from any of them, and
       then commits reachable from any of the ones given with ^	in front are
       subtracted from that set. The remaining commits are what	comes out in
       the command's output. Various other options and paths parameters	can be
       used to further limit the result.

       Thus, the following command:

		   $ git rev-list foo bar ^baz

       means "list all the commits which are reachable from foo	or bar,	but
       not from	baz".

       A special notation "_commit1_.._commit2_" can be	used as	a short-hand
       for "^'<commit1>' _commit2_". For example, either of the	following may
       be used interchangeably:

		   $ git rev-list origin..HEAD
		   $ git rev-list HEAD ^origin

       Another special notation	is "_commit1_..._commit2_" which is useful for
       merges. The resulting set of commits is the symmetric difference
       between the two operands. The following two commands are	equivalent:

		   $ git rev-list A B --not $(git merge-base --all A B)
		   $ git rev-list A...B

       rev-list	is a very essential Git	command, since it provides the ability
       to build	and traverse commit ancestry graphs. For this reason, it has a
       lot of different	options	that enables it	to be used by commands as
       different as git	bisect and git repack.

   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
       special notations explained in the description, additional commit
       limiting	may be applied.

       Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
       --since=<date1> limits to commits newer than <date1>, and using it with
       --grep=<pattern>	further	limits to commits whose	log message has	a line
       that matches <pattern>),	unless otherwise noted.

       Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting
       options,	such as	--reverse.

       -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
	   Limit the number of commits to output.

	   Skip	number commits before starting to show the commit output.

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
	   Show	commits	more recent than a specific date.

       --until=<date>, --before=<date>
	   Show	commits	older than a specific date.

       --max-age=<timestamp>, --min-age=<timestamp>
	   Limit the commits output to specified time range.

       --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
	   Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines
	   that	match the specified pattern (regular expression). With more
	   than	one --author=<pattern>,	commits	whose author matches any of
	   the given patterns are chosen (similarly for	multiple

	   Limit the commits output to ones with reflog	entries	that match the
	   specified pattern (regular expression). With	more than one
	   --grep-reflog, commits whose	reflog message matches any of the
	   given patterns are chosen. It is an error to	use this option	unless
	   --walk-reflogs is in	use.

	   Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the
	   specified pattern (regular expression). With	more than one
	   --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message matches any of the given
	   patterns are	chosen (but see	--all-match).

	   Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
	   instead of ones that	match at least one.

	   Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not match
	   the pattern specified with --grep=<pattern>.

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
	   Match the regular expression	limiting patterns without regard to
	   letter case.

	   Consider the	limiting patterns to be	basic regular expressions;
	   this	is the default.

       -E, --extended-regexp
	   Consider the	limiting patterns to be	extended regular expressions
	   instead of the default basic	regular	expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
	   Consider the	limiting patterns to be	fixed strings (don't interpret
	   pattern as a	regular	expression).

	   Consider the	limiting patterns to be	Perl-compatible	regular
	   expressions.	Requires libpcre to be compiled	in.

	   Stop	when a given path disappears from the tree.

	   Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as

	   Do not print	commits	with more than one parent. This	is exactly the
	   same	as --max-parents=1.

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents,
	   Show	only commits which have	at least (or at	most) that many	parent
	   commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is the same as --no-merges,
	   --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.  --max-parents=0 gives all
	   root	commits	and --min-parents=3 all	octopus	merges.

	   --no-min-parents and	--no-max-parents reset these limits (to	no
	   limit) again. Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any commit has
	   0 or	more parents) and --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no
	   upper limit).

	   Follow only the first parent	commit upon seeing a merge commit.
	   This	option can give	a better overview when viewing the evolution
	   of a	particular topic branch, because merges	into a topic branch
	   tend	to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to
	   time, and this option allows	you to ignore the individual commits
	   brought in to your history by such a	merge. Cannot be combined with

	   Reverses the	meaning	of the ^ prefix	(or lack thereof) for all
	   following revision specifiers, up to	the next --not.

	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/,	along with HEAD, are listed on
	   the command line as _commit_.

	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are	listed on the command
	   line	as _commit_. If	_pattern_ is given, limit branches to ones
	   matching given shell	glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or	[, /* at the
	   end is implied.

	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command
	   line	as _commit_. If	_pattern_ is given, limit tags to ones
	   matching given shell	glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or	[, /* at the
	   end is implied.

	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the
	   command line	as _commit_. If	_pattern_ is given, limit
	   remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob. If
	   pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /*	at the end is implied.

	   Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob _glob-pattern_ are
	   listed on the command line as _commit_. Leading refs/, is
	   automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks	?, *, or [, /*
	   at the end is implied.

	   Do not include refs matching	_glob-pattern_ that the	next --all,
	   --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob would otherwise consider.
	   Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns up to the
	   next	--all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob	option (other
	   options or arguments	do not clear accumulated patterns).

	   The patterns	given should not begin with refs/heads,	refs/tags, or
	   refs/remotes	when applied to	--branches, --tags, or --remotes,
	   respectively, and they must begin with refs/	when applied to	--glob
	   or --all. If	a trailing /* is intended, it must be given

	   Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on	the
	   command line	as <commit>.

	   Upon	seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if the
	   bad input was not given.

	   In addition to the _commit_ listed on the command line, read	them
	   from	the standard input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading
	   commits and start reading paths to limit the	result.

	   Don't print anything	to standard output. This form is primarily
	   meant to allow the caller to	test the exit status to	see if a range
	   of objects is fully connected (or not). It is faster	than
	   redirecting stdout to /dev/null as the output does not have to be

	   Like	--cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with =
	   rather than omitting	them, and inequivalent ones with +.

	   Omit	any commit that	introduces the same change as another commit
	   on the "other side" when the	set of commits are limited with
	   symmetric difference.

	   For example,	if you have two	branches, A and	B, a usual way to list
	   all commits on only one side	of them	is with	--left-right (see the
	   example below in the	description of the --left-right	option).
	   However, it shows the commits that were cherry-picked from the
	   other branch	(for example, "3rd on b" may be	cherry-picked from
	   branch A). With this	option,	such pairs of commits are excluded
	   from	the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
	   List	only commits on	the respective side of a symmetric difference,
	   i.e.	only those which would be marked < resp.  > by --left-right.

	   For example,	--cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits
	   from	B which	are in A or are	patch-equivalent to a commit in	A. In
	   other words,	this lists the + commits from git cherry A B. More
	   precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact

	   A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful	to
	   limit the output to the commits on our side and mark	those that
	   have	been applied to	the other side of a forked history with	git
	   log --cherry	upstream...mybranch, similar to	git cherry upstream

       -g, --walk-reflogs
	   Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries
	   from	the most recent	one to older ones. When	this option is used
	   you cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit,
	   commit1..commit2, and commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

	   With	--pretty format	other than oneline (for	obvious	reasons), this
	   causes the output to	have two extra lines of	information taken from
	   the reflog. The reflog designator in	the output may be shown	as
	   ref@{Nth} (where Nth	is the reverse-chronological index in the
	   reflog) or as ref@{timestamp} (with the timestamp for that entry),
	   depending on	a few rules:

	    1. If the starting point is	specified as ref@{Nth},	show the index

	    2. If the starting point was specified as ref@{now}, show the
	       timestamp format.

	    3. If neither was used, but	--date was given on the	command	line,
	       show the	timestamp in the format	requested by --date.

	    4. Otherwise, show the index format.

	   Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this
	   information on the same line. This option cannot be combined	with
	   --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

	   After a failed merge, show refs that	touch files having a conflict
	   and don't exist on all heads	to merge.

	   Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are prefixed
	   with	-.

	   Try to speed	up the traversal using the pack	bitmap index (if one
	   is available). Note that when traversing with --objects, trees and
	   blobs will not have their associated	path printed.

	   Show	progress reports on stderr as objects are considered. The
	   <header> text will be printed with each progress update.

   History Simplification
       Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example
       the commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are	two parts of
       History Simplification, one part	is selecting the commits and the other
       is how to do it,	as there are various strategies	to simplify the

       The following options select the	commits	to be shown:

	   Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

	   Commits that	are referred by	some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

       The following options affect the	way the	simplification is performed:

       Default mode
	   Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final
	   state of the	tree. Simplest because it prunes some side branches if
	   the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches with the same

	   Same	as the default mode, but does not prune	some history.

	   Only	the selected commits are shown,	plus some to have a meaningful

	   All commits in the simplified history are shown.

	   Additional option to	--full-history to remove some needless merges
	   from	the resulting history, as there	are no selected	commits
	   contributing	to this	merge.

	   When	given a	range of commits to display (e.g.  commit1..commit2 or
	   commit2 ^commit1), only display commits that	exist directly on the
	   ancestry chain between the commit1 and commit2, i.e.	commits	that
	   are both descendants	of commit1, and	ancestors of commit2.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the	<paths>. We shall call commits that
       modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In	a diff filtered	for
       foo, they look different	and equal, respectively.)

       In the following, we will always	refer to the same example history to
       illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
       that you	are filtering for a file foo in	this commit graph:

		    /	  /   /	  /   /	  /
		   I	 B   C	 D   E	 Y
		    \	/   /	/   /	/
		     `-------------'   X

       The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to	be the first parent of
       each merge. The commits are:

       o   I is	the initial commit, in which foo exists	with contents "asdf",
	   and a file quux exists with contents	"quux".	Initial	commits	are
	   compared to an empty	tree, so I is !TREESAME.

       o   In A, foo contains just "foo".

       o   B contains the same change as A. Its	merge M	is trivial and hence
	   TREESAME to all parents.

       o   C does not change foo, but its merge	N changes it to	"foobar", so
	   it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       o   D sets foo to "baz".	Its merge O combines the strings from N	and D
	   to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       o   E changes quux to "xyzzy", and its merge P combines the strings to
	   "quux xyzzy".  P is TREESAME	to O, but not to E.

       o   X is	an independent root commit that	added a	new file side, and Y
	   modified it.	 Y is TREESAME to X. Its merge Q added side to P, and
	   Q is	TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

       rev-list	walks backwards	through	history, including or excluding
       commits based on	whether	--full-history and/or parent rewriting (via
       --parents or --children)	are used. The following	settings are

       Default mode
	   Commits are included	if they	are not	TREESAME to any	parent (though
	   this	can be changed,	see --sparse below). If	the commit was a
	   merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow only that parent.
	   (Even if there are several TREESAME parents,	follow only one	of
	   them.) Otherwise, follow all	parents.

	   This	results	in:

			/     /	  /

	   Note	how the	rule to	only follow the	TREESAME parent, if one	is
	   available, removed B	from consideration entirely.  C	was considered
	   via N, but is TREESAME. Root	commits	are compared to	an empty tree,
	   so I	is !TREESAME.

	   Parent/child	relations are only visible with	--parents, but that
	   does	not affect the commits selected	in default mode, so we have
	   shown the parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
	   This	mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all
	   parents of a	merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of	them. Even if
	   more	than one side of the merge has commits that are	included, this
	   does	not imply that the merge itself	is! In the example, we get

		       I  A  B	N  D  O	 P  Q

	   M was excluded because it is	TREESAME to both parents.  E, C	and B
	   were	all walked, but	only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not

	   Note	that without parent rewriting, it is not really	possible to
	   talk	about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so
	   we show them	disconnected.

       --full-history with parent rewriting
	   Ordinary commits are	only included if they are !TREESAME (though
	   this	can be changed,	see --sparse below).

	   Merges are always included. However,	their parent list is
	   rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that are not
	   included themselves.	This results in

			/     /	  /   /	  /
		       I     B	 /   D	 /
			\   /	/   /	/

	   Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that	E was
	   pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P	was
	   rewritten to	contain	E's parent I. The same happened	for C and N,
	   and X, Y and	Q.

       In addition to the above	settings, you can change whether TREESAME
       affects inclusion:

	   Commits that	are walked are included	if they	are not	TREESAME to
	   any parent.

	   All commits that are	walked are included.

	   Note	that without --full-history, this still	simplifies merges: if
	   one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the
	   other sides of the merge are	never walked.

	   First, build	a history graph	in the same way	that --full-history
	   with	parent rewriting does (see above).

	   Then	simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in	the final
	   history according to	the following rules:

	   o   Set C' to C.

	   o   Replace each parent P of	C' with	its simplification P'. In the
	       process,	drop parents that are ancestors	of other parents or
	       that are	root commits TREESAME to an empty tree,	and remove
	       duplicates, but take care to never drop all parents that	we are
	       TREESAME	to.

	   o   If after	this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit
	       (has zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it
	       remains.	Otherwise, it is replaced with its only	parent.

	   The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing	to
	   --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns into:

			/     /	      /
		       I     B	     D
			\   /	    /

	   Note	the major differences in N, P, and Q over --full-history:

	   o   N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor	of the
	       other parent M. Still, N	remained because it is !TREESAME.

	   o   P's parent list similarly had I removed.	 P was then removed
	       completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

	   o   Q's parent list had Y simplified	to X.  X was then removed,
	       because it was a	TREESAME root.	Q was then removed completely,
	       because it had one parent and is	TREESAME.

       Finally,	there is a fifth simplification	mode available:

	   Limit the displayed commits to those	directly on the	ancestry chain
	   between the "from" and "to" commits in the given commit range. I.e.
	   only	display	commits	that are ancestor of the "to" commit and
	   descendants of the "from" commit.

	   As an example use case, consider the	following commit history:

			  /	\	\
			/		      \

	   A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of M,
	   but excludes	the ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful to
	   see what happened to	the history leading to M since D, in the sense
	   that	"what does M have that did not exist in	D". The	result in this
	   example would be all	the commits, except A and B (and D itself, of

	   When	we want	to find	out what commits in M are contaminated with
	   the bug introduced by D and need fixing, however, we	might want to
	   view	only the subset	of D..M	that are actually descendants of D,
	   i.e.	excluding C and	K. This	is exactly what	the --ancestry-path
	   option does.	Applied	to the D..M range, it results in:

				\	\

       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big
       picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits that	are
       not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME (in other
       words, kept after history simplification	rules described	above) if (1)
       they are	referenced by tags, or (2) they	change the contents of the
       paths given on the command line.	All other commits are marked as
       TREESAME	(subject to be simplified away).

   Bisection Helpers
	   Limit output	to the one commit object which is roughly halfway
	   between included and	excluded commits. Note that the	bad bisection
	   ref refs/bisect/bad is added	to the included	commits	(if it exists)
	   and the good	bisection refs refs/bisect/good-* are added to the
	   excluded commits (if	they exist). Thus, supposing there are no refs
	   in refs/bisect/, if

		       $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar	^baz

	   outputs midpoint, the output	of the two commands

		       $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
		       $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz

	   would be of roughly the same	length.	Finding	the change which
	   introduces a	regression is thus reduced to a	binary search:
	   repeatedly generate and test	new 'midpoint's	until the commit chain
	   is of length	one. Cannot be combined	with --first-parent.

	   This	calculates the same as --bisect, except	that refs in
	   refs/bisect/	are not	used, and except that this outputs text	ready
	   to be eval'ed by the	shell. These lines will	assign the name	of the
	   midpoint revision to	the variable bisect_rev, and the expected
	   number of commits to	be tested after	bisect_rev is tested to
	   bisect_nr, the expected number of commits to	be tested if
	   bisect_rev turns out	to be good to bisect_good, the expected	number
	   of commits to be tested if bisect_rev turns out to be bad to
	   bisect_bad, and the number of commits we are	bisecting right	now to

	   This	outputs	all the	commit objects between the included and
	   excluded commits, ordered by	their distance to the included and
	   excluded commits. Refs in refs/bisect/ are not used.	The farthest
	   from	them is	displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by

	   This	is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
	   test	when you want to avoid to test some of them for	some reason
	   (they may not compile for example).

	   This	option can be used along with --bisect-vars, in	this case,
	   after all the sorted	commit objects,	there will be the same text as
	   if --bisect-vars had	been used alone.

   Commit Ordering
       By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

	   Show	no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise
	   show	commits	in the commit timestamp	order.

	   Show	no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise
	   show	commits	in the author timestamp	order.

	   Show	no parents before all of its children are shown, and avoid
	   showing commits on multiple lines of	history	intermixed.

	   For example,	in a commit history like this:

		       \	      \

	   where the numbers denote the	order of commit	timestamps, git
	   rev-list and	friends	with --date-order show the commits in the
	   timestamp order: 8 7	6 5 4 3	2 1.

	   With	--topo-order, they would show 8	6 5 3 7	4 2 1 (or 8 7 4	2 6 5
	   3 1); some older commits are	shown before newer ones	in order to
	   avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track mixed

	   Output the commits chosen to	be shown (see Commit Limiting section
	   above) in reverse order. Cannot be combined with --walk-reflogs.

   Object Traversal
       These options are mostly	targeted for packing of	Git repositories.

	   Print the object IDs	of any object referenced by the	listed
	   commits.  --objects foo ^bar	thus means "send me all	object IDs
	   which I need	to download if I have the commit object	bar but	not

	   Similar to --objects, but also print	the IDs	of excluded commits
	   prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by git-pack-objects(1)
	   to build a "thin" pack, which records objects in deltified form
	   based on objects contained in these excluded	commits	to reduce
	   network traffic.

	   Similar to --objects-edge, but it tries harder to find excluded
	   commits at the cost of increased time. This is used instead of
	   --objects-edge to build "thin" packs	for shallow repositories.

	   Pretend as if all trees and blobs used by the index are listed on
	   the command line. Note that you probably want to use	--objects,

	   Only	useful with --objects; print the object	IDs that are not in

	   Only	show the given commits,	but do not traverse their ancestors.
	   This	has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
	   unsorted is given, the commits are shown in the order they were
	   given on the	command	line. Otherwise	(if sorted or no argument was
	   given), the commits are shown in reverse chronological order	by
	   commit time.	Cannot be combined with	--graph.

	   Overrides a previous	--no-walk.

   Commit Formatting
       Using these options, git-rev-list(1) will act similar to	the more
       specialized family of commit log	tools: git-log(1), git-show(1),	and

       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
	   Pretty-print	the contents of	the commit logs	in a given format,
	   where _format_ can be one of	oneline, short,	medium,	full, fuller,
	   email, raw, format:_string_ and tformat:_string_. When _format_ is
	   none	of the above, and has %placeholder in it, it acts as if
	   --pretty=tformat:_format_ were given.

	   See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for	some additional	details	for
	   each	format.	When =_format_ part is omitted,	it defaults to medium.

	   Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
	   configuration (see git-config(1)).

	   Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name,
	   show	only a partial prefix. Non default number of digits can	be
	   specified with "--abbrev=<n>" (which	also modifies diff output, if
	   it is displayed).

	   This	should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more	readable for
	   people using	80-column terminals.

	   Show	the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates
	   --abbrev-commit and those options which imply it such as
	   "--oneline".	It also	overrides the log.abbrevCommit variable.

	   This	is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used

	   The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in
	   their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the command
	   to re-code the commit log message in	the encoding preferred by the
	   user. For non plumbing commands this	defaults to UTF-8. Note	that
	   if an object	claims to be encoded in	X and we are outputting	in X,
	   we will output the object verbatim; this means that invalid
	   sequences in	the original commit may	be copied to the output.

       --expand-tabs=<n>, --expand-tabs, --no-expand-tabs
	   Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces	to
	   fill	to the next display column that	is multiple of _n_) in the log
	   message before showing it in	the output.  --expand-tabs is a
	   short-hand for --expand-tabs=8, and --no-expand-tabs	is a
	   short-hand for --expand-tabs=0, which disables tab expansion.

	   By default, tabs are	expanded in pretty formats that	indent the log
	   message by 4	spaces (i.e.  medium, which is the default, full, and

	   Check the validity of a signed commit object	by passing the
	   signature to	gpg --verify and show the output.

	   Synonym for --date=relative.

	   Only	takes effect for dates shown in	human-readable format, such as
	   when	using --pretty. config variable sets a default value
	   for the log command's --date	option.	By default, dates are shown in
	   the original	time zone (either committer's or author's). If -local
	   is appended to the format (e.g., iso-local),	the user's local time
	   zone	is used	instead.

	   --date=relative shows dates relative	to the current time, e.g. "2
	   hours ago". The -local option has no	effect for --date=relative.

	   --date=local	is an alias for	--date=default-local.

	   --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows	timestamps in a	ISO 8601-like
	   format. The differences to the strict ISO 8601 format are:

	   o   a space instead of the T	date/time delimiter

	   o   a space between time and	time zone

	   o   no colon	between	hours and minutes of the time zone

	   --date=iso-strict (or --date=iso8601-strict)	shows timestamps in
	   strict ISO 8601 format.

	   --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows	timestamps in RFC 2822 format,
	   often found in email	messages.

	   --date=short	shows only the date, but not the time, in YYYY-MM-DD

	   --date=raw shows the	date as	seconds	since the epoch	(1970-01-01
	   00:00:00 UTC), followed by a	space, and then	the timezone as	an
	   offset from UTC (a +	or - with four digits; the first two are
	   hours, and the second two are minutes). I.e., as if the timestamp
	   were	formatted with strftime("%s %z")). Note	that the -local	option
	   does	not affect the seconds-since-epoch value (which	is always
	   measured in UTC), but does switch the accompanying timezone value.

	   --date=unix shows the date as a Unix	epoch timestamp	(seconds since
	   1970). As with --raw, this is always	in UTC and therefore -local
	   has no effect.

	   --date=format:...  feeds the	format ...  to your system strftime.
	   Use --date=format:%c	to show	the date in your system	locale's
	   preferred format. See the strftime manual for a complete list of
	   format placeholders.	When using -local, the correct syntax is

	   --date=default is the default format, and is	similar	to
	   --date=rfc2822, with	a few exceptions:

	   o   there is	no comma after the day-of-week

	   o   the time	zone is	omitted	when the local time zone is used

	   Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each	record is
	   separated with a NUL	character.

	   Print also the parents of the commit	(in the	form "commit
	   parent...").	Also enables parent rewriting, see History
	   Simplification below.

	   Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit
	   child..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
	   Simplification below.

	   Print the raw commit	timestamp.

	   Mark	which side of a	symmetric difference a commit is reachable
	   from. Commits from the left side are	prefixed with <	and those from
	   the right with >. If	combined with --boundary, those	commits	are
	   prefixed with -.

	   For example,	if you have this topology:

			    y---b---b  branch B
			   / \ /
			  /   .
			 /   / \
			o---x---a---a  branch A

	   you would get an output like	this:

		       $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

		       >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
		       >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
		       <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
		       <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
		       -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
		       -xxxxxxx... 1st on a

	   Draw	a text-based graphical representation of the commit history on
	   the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines	to be
	   printed in between commits, in order	for the	graph history to be
	   drawn properly. Cannot be combined with --no-walk.

	   This	enables	parent rewriting, see History Simplification below.

	   This	implies	the --topo-order option	by default, but	the
	   --date-order	option may also	be specified.

	   When	--graph	is not used, all history branches are flattened	which
	   can make it hard to see that	the two	consecutive commits do not
	   belong to a linear branch. This option puts a barrier in between
	   them	in that	case. If <barrier> is specified, it is the string that
	   will	be shown instead of the	default	one.

	   Print a number stating how many commits would have been listed, and
	   suppress all	other output. When used	together with --left-right,
	   instead print the counts for	left and right commits,	separated by a
	   tab.	When used together with	--cherry-mark, omit patch equivalent
	   commits from	these counts and print the count for equivalent
	   commits separated by	a tab.

       If the commit is	a merge, and if	the pretty-format is not oneline,
       email or	raw, an	additional line	is inserted before the Author: line.
       This line begins	with "Merge: " and the sha1s of	ancestral commits are
       printed,	separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not
       necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have
       limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested
       in changes related to a certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional
       formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option	to either another
       format name, or a format: string, as described below (see git-
       config(1)). Here	are the	details	of the built-in	formats:

       o   oneline

	       <sha1> <title line>

	   This	is designed to be as compact as	possible.

       o   short

	       commit <sha1>
	       Author: <author>

	       <title line>

       o   medium

	       commit <sha1>
	       Author: <author>
	       Date:   <author date>

	       <title line>

	       <full commit message>

       o   full

	       commit <sha1>
	       Author: <author>
	       Commit: <committer>

	       <title line>

	       <full commit message>

       o   fuller

	       commit <sha1>
	       Author:	   <author>
	       AuthorDate: <author date>
	       Commit:	   <committer>
	       CommitDate: <committer date>

	       <title line>

	       <full commit message>

       o   email

	       From <sha1> <date>
	       From: <author>
	       Date: <author date>
	       Subject:	[PATCH]	<title line>

	       <full commit message>

       o   raw

	   The raw format shows	the entire commit exactly as stored in the
	   commit object. Notably, the SHA-1s are displayed in full,
	   regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents
	   information show the	true parent commits, without taking grafts or
	   history simplification into account.	Note that this format affects
	   the way commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown
	   e.g.	with git log --raw. To get full	object names in	a raw diff
	   format, use --no-abbrev.

       o   format:_string_

	   The format:_string_ format allows you to specify which information
	   you want to show. It	works a	little bit like	printf format, with
	   the notable exception that you get a	newline	with %n	instead	of \n.

	   E.g,	format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was __%s__%n"
	   would show something	like this:

	       The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
	       The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

	   The placeholders are:

	   o   %H: commit hash

	   o   %h: abbreviated commit hash

	   o   %T: tree	hash

	   o   %t: abbreviated tree hash

	   o   %P: parent hashes

	   o   %p: abbreviated parent hashes

	   o   %an: author name

	   o   %aN: author name	(respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

	   o   %ae: author email

	   o   %aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

	   o   %ad: author date	(format	respects --date= option)

	   o   %aD: author date, RFC2822 style

	   o   %ar: author date, relative

	   o   %at: author date, UNIX timestamp

	   o   %ai: author date, ISO 8601-like format

	   o   %aI: author date, strict	ISO 8601 format

	   o   %cn: committer name

	   o   %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
	       or git-blame(1))

	   o   %ce: committer email

	   o   %cE: committer email (respecting	.mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
	       or git-blame(1))

	   o   %cd: committer date (format respects --date= option)

	   o   %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

	   o   %cr: committer date, relative

	   o   %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

	   o   %ci: committer date, ISO	8601-like format

	   o   %cI: committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

	   o   %d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

	   o   %D: ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

	   o   %e: encoding

	   o   %s: subject

	   o   %f: sanitized subject line, suitable for	a filename

	   o   %b: body

	   o   %B: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

	   o   %GG: raw	verification message from GPG for a signed commit

	   o   %G?: show "G" for a good	(valid)	signature, "B" for a bad
	       signature, "U" for a good signature with	unknown	validity, "X"
	       for a good signature that has expired, "Y" for a	good signature
	       made by an expired key, "R" for a good signature	made by	a
	       revoked key, "E"	if the signature cannot	be checked (e.g.
	       missing key) and	"N" for	no signature

	   o   %GS: show the name of the signer	for a signed commit

	   o   %GK: show the key used to sign a	signed commit

	   o   %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1} or refs/stash@{2
	       minutes ago}; the format	follows	the rules described for	the -g
	       option. The portion before the @	is the refname as given	on the
	       command line (so	git log	-g refs/heads/master would yield

	   o   %gd: shortened reflog selector; same as %gD, but	the refname
	       portion is shortened for	human readability (so
	       refs/heads/master becomes just master).

	   o   %gn: reflog identity name

	   o   %gN: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
	       shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

	   o   %ge: reflog identity email

	   o   %gE: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap,	see git-
	       shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

	   o   %gs: reflog subject

	   o   %Cred: switch color to red

	   o   %Cgreen:	switch color to	green

	   o   %Cblue: switch color to blue

	   o   %Creset:	reset color

	   o   %C(...):	color specification, as	described under	Values in the
	       "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of git-config(1); adding auto, at
	       the beginning will emit color only when colors are enabled for
	       log output (by color.diff, color.ui, or --color,	and respecting
	       the auto	settings of the	former if we are going to a terminal).
	       auto alone (i.e.	 %C(auto)) will	turn on	auto coloring on the
	       next placeholders until the color is switched again.

	   o   %m: left	(<), right (>) or boundary (-) mark

	   o   %n: newline

	   o   %%: a raw %

	   o   %x00: print a byte from a hex code

	   o   %w([_w_[,_i1_[,_i2_]]]):	switch line wrapping, like the -w
	       option of git-shortlog(1).

	   o   %_(_N_[,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc]): make the next placeholder	take
	       at least	N columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary.
	       Optionally truncate at the beginning (ltrunc), the middle
	       (mtrunc)	or the end (trunc) if the output is longer than	N
	       columns.	Note that truncating only works	correctly with N >= 2.

	   o   %_|(_N_): make the next placeholder take	at least until Nth
	       columns,	padding	spaces on the right if necessary

	   o   %_(_N_),	%_|(_N_): similar to %_(_N_), %_|(_N_) respectively,
	       but padding spaces on the left

	   o   %__(_N_), %__|(_N_): similar to %_(_N_),	%_|(_N_) respectively,
	       except that if the next placeholder takes more spaces than
	       given and there are spaces on its left, use those spaces

	   o   %__(_N_), %__|(_N_): similar to % _(_N_), %_|(_N_)
	       respectively, but padding both sides (i.e. the text is

	   o   %(trailers): display the	trailers of the	body as	interpreted by

	   Some	placeholders may depend	on other options given to the revision
	   traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog options will insert
	   an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by
	   git log -g).	The %d and %D placeholders will	use the	"short"
	   decoration format if	--decorate was not already provided on the
	   command line.

       If you add a + (plus sign) after	% of a placeholder, a line-feed	is
       inserted	immediately before the expansion if and	only if	the
       placeholder expands to a	non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a	placeholder, all consecutive
       line-feeds immediately preceding	the expansion are deleted if and only
       if the placeholder expands to an	empty string.

       If you add a ` `	(space)	after %	of a placeholder, a space is inserted
       immediately before the expansion	if and only if the placeholder expands
       to a non-empty string.

       o   tformat:

	   The tformat:	format works exactly like format:, except that it
	   provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics.
	   In other words, each	commit has the message terminator character
	   (usually a newline) appended, rather	than a separator placed
	   between entries. This means that the	final entry of a single-line
	   format will be properly terminated with a new line, just as the
	   "oneline" format does. For example:

	       $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef	\
		 | perl	-pe '$_	.= " --	NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
	       7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

	       $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h	4da45bef \
		 | perl	-pe '$_	.= " --	NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'

	   In addition,	any unrecognized string	that has a % in	it is
	   interpreted as if it	has tformat: in	front of it. For example,
	   these two are equivalent:

	       $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h	4da45bef
	       $ git log -2 --pretty=%h	4da45bef

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.13.2			  06/24/2017		       GIT-REV-LIST(1)


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