Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages

  
 
  

home | help
GIT-MERGE(1)			  Git Manual			  GIT-MERGE(1)

NAME
       git-merge - Join	two or more development	histories together

SYNOPSIS
       git merge [-n] [--stat] [--no-commit] [--squash]	[--[no-]edit]
	       [-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>] [-S[<keyid>]]
	       [--[no-]allow-unrelated-histories]
	       [--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [<commit>...]
       git merge --abort
       git merge --continue

DESCRIPTION
       Incorporates changes from the named commits (since the time their
       histories diverged from the current branch) into	the current branch.
       This command is used by git pull	to incorporate changes from another
       repository and can be used by hand to merge changes from	one branch
       into another.

       Assume the following history exists and the current branch is "master":

		     A---B---C topic
		    /
	       D---E---F---G master

       Then "git merge topic" will replay the changes made on the topic	branch
       since it	diverged from master (i.e., E) until its current commit	(C) on
       top of master, and record the result in a new commit along with the
       names of	the two	parent commits and a log message from the user
       describing the changes.

		     A---B---C topic
		    /	      \
	       D---E---F---G---H master

       The second syntax ("git merge --abort") can only	be run after the merge
       has resulted in conflicts. git merge --abort will abort the merge
       process and try to reconstruct the pre-merge state. However, if there
       were uncommitted	changes	when the merge started (and especially if
       those changes were further modified after the merge was started), git
       merge --abort will in some cases	be unable to reconstruct the original
       (pre-merge) changes. Therefore:

       Warning:	Running	git merge with non-trivial uncommitted changes is
       discouraged: while possible, it may leave you in	a state	that is	hard
       to back out of in the case of a conflict.

       The fourth syntax ("git merge --continue") can only be run after	the
       merge has resulted in conflicts.

OPTIONS
       --commit, --no-commit
	   Perform the merge and commit	the result. This option	can be used to
	   override --no-commit.

	   With	--no-commit perform the	merge but pretend the merge failed and
	   do not autocommit, to give the user a chance	to inspect and further
	   tweak the merge result before committing.

       --edit, -e, --no-edit
	   Invoke an editor before committing successful mechanical merge to
	   further edit	the auto-generated merge message, so that the user can
	   explain and justify the merge. The --no-edit	option can be used to
	   accept the auto-generated message (this is generally	discouraged).
	   The --edit (or -e) option is	still useful if	you are	giving a draft
	   message with	the -m option from the command line and	want to	edit
	   it in the editor.

	   Older scripts may depend on the historical behaviour	of not
	   allowing the	user to	edit the merge log message. They will see an
	   editor opened when they run git merge. To make it easier to adjust
	   such	scripts	to the updated behaviour, the environment variable
	   GIT_MERGE_AUTOEDIT can be set to no at the beginning	of them.

       --ff
	   When	the merge resolves as a	fast-forward, only update the branch
	   pointer, without creating a merge commit. This is the default
	   behavior.

       --no-ff
	   Create a merge commit even when the merge resolves as a
	   fast-forward. This is the default behaviour when merging an
	   annotated (and possibly signed) tag.

       --ff-only
	   Refuse to merge and exit with a non-zero status unless the current
	   HEAD	is already up-to-date or the merge can be resolved as a
	   fast-forward.

       --log[=<n>], --no-log
	   In addition to branch names,	populate the log message with one-line
	   descriptions	from at	most <n> actual	commits	that are being merged.
	   See also git-fmt-merge-msg(1).

	   With	--no-log do not	list one-line descriptions from	the actual
	   commits being merged.

       --stat, -n, --no-stat
	   Show	a diffstat at the end of the merge. The	diffstat is also
	   controlled by the configuration option merge.stat.

	   With	-n or --no-stat	do not show a diffstat at the end of the
	   merge.

       --squash, --no-squash
	   Produce the working tree and	index state as if a real merge
	   happened (except for	the merge information),	but do not actually
	   make	a commit, move the HEAD, or record $GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD (to
	   cause the next git commit command to	create a merge commit).	This
	   allows you to create	a single commit	on top of the current branch
	   whose effect	is the same as merging another branch (or more in case
	   of an octopus).

	   With	--no-squash perform the	merge and commit the result. This
	   option can be used to override --squash.

       -s <strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>
	   Use the given merge strategy; can be	supplied more than once	to
	   specify them	in the order they should be tried. If there is no -s
	   option, a built-in list of strategies is used instead (git
	   merge-recursive when	merging	a single head, git merge-octopus
	   otherwise).

       -X <option>, --strategy-option=<option>
	   Pass	merge strategy specific	option through to the merge strategy.

       --verify-signatures, --no-verify-signatures
	   Verify that the tip commit of the side branch being merged is
	   signed with a valid key, i.e. a key that has	a valid	uid: in	the
	   default trust model,	this means the signing key has been signed by
	   a trusted key. If the tip commit of the side	branch is not signed
	   with	a valid	key, the merge is aborted.

       --summary, --no-summary
	   Synonyms to --stat and --no-stat; these are deprecated and will be
	   removed in the future.

       -q, --quiet
	   Operate quietly. Implies --no-progress.

       -v, --verbose
	   Be verbose.

       --progress, --no-progress
	   Turn	progress on/off	explicitly. If neither is specified, progress
	   is shown if standard	error is connected to a	terminal. Note that
	   not all merge strategies may	support	progress reporting.

       --allow-unrelated-histories
	   By default, git merge command refuses to merge histories that do
	   not share a common ancestor.	This option can	be used	to override
	   this	safety when merging histories of two projects that started
	   their lives independently. As that is a very	rare occasion, no
	   configuration variable to enable this by default exists and will
	   not be added.

       -S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]
	   GPG-sign the	resulting merge	commit.	The keyid argument is optional
	   and defaults	to the committer identity; if specified, it must be
	   stuck to the	option without a space.

       -m <msg>
	   Set the commit message to be	used for the merge commit (in case one
	   is created).

	   If --log is specified, a shortlog of	the commits being merged will
	   be appended to the specified	message.

	   The git fmt-merge-msg command can be	used to	give a good default
	   for automated git merge invocations.	The automated message can
	   include the branch description.

       --[no-]rerere-autoupdate
	   Allow the rerere mechanism to update	the index with the result of
	   auto-conflict resolution if possible.

       --abort
	   Abort the current conflict resolution process, and try to
	   reconstruct the pre-merge state.

	   If there were uncommitted worktree changes present when the merge
	   started, git	merge --abort will in some cases be unable to
	   reconstruct these changes. It is therefore recommended to always
	   commit or stash your	changes	before running git merge.

	   git merge --abort is	equivalent to git reset	--merge	when
	   MERGE_HEAD is present.

       --continue
	   After a git merge stops due to conflicts you	can conclude the merge
	   by running git merge	--continue (see	"HOW TO	RESOLVE	CONFLICTS"
	   section below).

       <commit>...
	   Commits, usually other branch heads,	to merge into our branch.
	   Specifying more than	one commit will	create a merge with more than
	   two parents (affectionately called an Octopus merge).

	   If no commit	is given from the command line,	merge the
	   remote-tracking branches that the current branch is configured to
	   use as its upstream.	See also the configuration section of this
	   manual page.

	   When	FETCH_HEAD (and	no other commit) is specified, the branches
	   recorded in the .git/FETCH_HEAD file	by the previous	invocation of
	   git fetch for merging are merged to the current branch.

PRE-MERGE CHECKS
       Before applying outside changes,	you should get your own	work in	good
       shape and committed locally, so it will not be clobbered	if there are
       conflicts. See also git-stash(1). git pull and git merge	will stop
       without doing anything when local uncommitted changes overlap with
       files that git pull/git merge may need to update.

       To avoid	recording unrelated changes in the merge commit, git pull and
       git merge will also abort if there are any changes registered in	the
       index relative to the HEAD commit. (One exception is when the changed
       index entries are in the	state that would result	from the merge
       already.)

       If all named commits are	already	ancestors of HEAD, git merge will exit
       early with the message "Already up-to-date."

FAST-FORWARD MERGE
       Often the current branch	head is	an ancestor of the named commit. This
       is the most common case especially when invoked from git	pull: you are
       tracking	an upstream repository,	you have committed no local changes,
       and now you want	to update to a newer upstream revision.	In this	case,
       a new commit is not needed to store the combined	history; instead, the
       HEAD (along with	the index) is updated to point at the named commit,
       without creating	an extra merge commit.

       This behavior can be suppressed with the	--no-ff	option.

TRUE MERGE
       Except in a fast-forward	merge (see above), the branches	to be merged
       must be tied together by	a merge	commit that has	both of	them as	its
       parents.

       A merged	version	reconciling the	changes	from all branches to be	merged
       is committed, and your HEAD, index, and working tree are	updated	to it.
       It is possible to have modifications in the working tree	as long	as
       they do not overlap; the	update will preserve them.

       When it is not obvious how to reconcile the changes, the	following
       happens:

	1. The HEAD pointer stays the same.

	2. The MERGE_HEAD ref is set to	point to the other branch head.

	3. Paths that merged cleanly are updated both in the index file	and in
	   your	working	tree.

	4. For conflicting paths, the index file records up to three versions:
	   stage 1 stores the version from the common ancestor,	stage 2	from
	   HEAD, and stage 3 from MERGE_HEAD (you can inspect the stages with
	   git ls-files	-u). The working tree files contain the	result of the
	   "merge" program; i.e. 3-way merge results with familiar conflict
	   markers <<<===>>>.

	5. No other changes are	made. In particular, the local modifications
	   you had before you started merge will stay the same and the index
	   entries for them stay as they were, i.e. matching HEAD.

       If you tried a merge which resulted in complex conflicts	and want to
       start over, you can recover with	git merge --abort.

MERGING	TAG
       When merging an annotated (and possibly signed) tag, Git	always creates
       a merge commit even if a	fast-forward merge is possible,	and the	commit
       message template	is prepared with the tag message. Additionally,	if the
       tag is signed, the signature check is reported as a comment in the
       message template. See also git-tag(1).

       When you	want to	just integrate with the	work leading to	the commit
       that happens to be tagged, e.g. synchronizing with an upstream release
       point, you may not want to make an unnecessary merge commit.

       In such a case, you can "unwrap"	the tag	yourself before	feeding	it to
       git merge, or pass --ff-only when you do	not have any work on your own.
       e.g.

	   git fetch origin
	   git merge v1.2.3^0
	   git merge --ff-only v1.2.3

HOW CONFLICTS ARE PRESENTED
       During a	merge, the working tree	files are updated to reflect the
       result of the merge. Among the changes made to the common ancestor's
       version,	non-overlapping	ones (that is, you changed an area of the file
       while the other side left that area intact, or vice versa) are
       incorporated in the final result	verbatim. When both sides made changes
       to the same area, however, Git cannot randomly pick one side over the
       other, and asks you to resolve it by leaving what both sides did	to
       that area.

       By default, Git uses the	same style as the one used by the "merge"
       program from the	RCS suite to present such a conflicted hunk, like
       this:

	   Here	are lines that are either unchanged from the common
	   ancestor, or	cleanly	resolved because only one side changed.
	   <<<<<<< yours:sample.txt
	   Conflict resolution is hard;
	   let's go shopping.
	   =======
	   Git makes conflict resolution easy.
	   >>>>>>> theirs:sample.txt
	   And here is another line that is cleanly resolved or	unmodified.

       The area	where a	pair of	conflicting changes happened is	marked with
       markers <<<<<<<,	=======, and >>>>>>>. The part before the ======= is
       typically your side, and	the part afterwards is typically their side.

       The default format does not show	what the original said in the
       conflicting area. You cannot tell how many lines	are deleted and
       replaced	with Barbie's remark on	your side. The only thing you can tell
       is that your side wants to say it is hard and you'd prefer to go
       shopping, while the other side wants to claim it	is easy.

       An alternative style can	be used	by setting the "merge.conflictStyle"
       configuration variable to "diff3". In "diff3" style, the	above conflict
       may look	like this:

	   Here	are lines that are either unchanged from the common
	   ancestor, or	cleanly	resolved because only one side changed.
	   <<<<<<< yours:sample.txt
	   Conflict resolution is hard;
	   let's go shopping.
	   |||||||
	   Conflict resolution is hard.
	   =======
	   Git makes conflict resolution easy.
	   >>>>>>> theirs:sample.txt
	   And here is another line that is cleanly resolved or	unmodified.

       In addition to the <<<<<<<, =======, and	>>>>>>>	markers, it uses
       another ||||||| marker that is followed by the original text. You can
       tell that the original just stated a fact, and your side	simply gave in
       to that statement and gave up, while the	other side tried to have a
       more positive attitude. You can sometimes come up with a	better
       resolution by viewing the original.

HOW TO RESOLVE CONFLICTS
       After seeing a conflict,	you can	do two things:

       o   Decide not to merge.	The only clean-ups you need are	to reset the
	   index file to the HEAD commit to reverse 2. and to clean up working
	   tree	changes	made by	2. and 3.; git merge --abort can be used for
	   this.

       o   Resolve the conflicts. Git will mark	the conflicts in the working
	   tree. Edit the files	into shape and git add them to the index. Use
	   git commit to seal the deal.

       You can work through the	conflict with a	number of tools:

       o   Use a mergetool.  git mergetool to launch a graphical mergetool
	   which will work you through the merge.

       o   Look	at the diffs.  git diff	will show a three-way diff,
	   highlighting	changes	from both the HEAD and MERGE_HEAD versions.

       o   Look	at the diffs from each branch.	git log	--merge	-p <path> will
	   show	diffs first for	the HEAD version and then the MERGE_HEAD
	   version.

       o   Look	at the originals.  git show :1:filename	shows the common
	   ancestor, git show :2:filename shows	the HEAD version, and git show
	   :3:filename shows the MERGE_HEAD version.

EXAMPLES
       o   Merge branches fixes	and enhancements on top	of the current branch,
	   making an octopus merge:

	       $ git merge fixes enhancements

       o   Merge branch	obsolete into the current branch, using	ours merge
	   strategy:

	       $ git merge -s ours obsolete

       o   Merge branch	maint into the current branch, but do not make a new
	   commit automatically:

	       $ git merge --no-commit maint

	   This	can be used when you want to include further changes to	the
	   merge, or want to write your	own merge commit message.

	   You should refrain from abusing this	option to sneak	substantial
	   changes into	a merge	commit.	Small fixups like bumping
	   release/version name	would be acceptable.

MERGE STRATEGIES
       The merge mechanism (git	merge and git pull commands) allows the
       backend merge strategies	to be chosen with -s option. Some strategies
       can also	take their own options,	which can be passed by giving
       -X<option> arguments to git merge and/or	git pull.

       resolve
	   This	can only resolve two heads (i.e. the current branch and
	   another branch you pulled from) using a 3-way merge algorithm. It
	   tries to carefully detect criss-cross merge ambiguities and is
	   considered generally	safe and fast.

       recursive
	   This	can only resolve two heads using a 3-way merge algorithm. When
	   there is more than one common ancestor that can be used for 3-way
	   merge, it creates a merged tree of the common ancestors and uses
	   that	as the reference tree for the 3-way merge. This	has been
	   reported to result in fewer merge conflicts without causing
	   mismerges by	tests done on actual merge commits taken from Linux
	   2.6 kernel development history. Additionally	this can detect	and
	   handle merges involving renames. This is the	default	merge strategy
	   when	pulling	or merging one branch.

	   The recursive strategy can take the following options:

	   ours
	       This option forces conflicting hunks to be auto-resolved
	       cleanly by favoring our version.	Changes	from the other tree
	       that do not conflict with our side are reflected	to the merge
	       result. For a binary file, the entire contents are taken	from
	       our side.

	       This should not be confused with	the ours merge strategy, which
	       does not	even look at what the other tree contains at all. It
	       discards	everything the other tree did, declaring our history
	       contains	all that happened in it.

	   theirs
	       This is the opposite of ours.

	   patience
	       With this option, merge-recursive spends	a little extra time to
	       avoid mismerges that sometimes occur due	to unimportant
	       matching	lines (e.g., braces from distinct functions). Use this
	       when the	branches to be merged have diverged wildly. See	also
	       git-diff(1)--patience.

	   diff-algorithm=[patience|minimal|histogram|myers]
	       Tells merge-recursive to	use a different	diff algorithm,	which
	       can help	avoid mismerges	that occur due to unimportant matching
	       lines (such as braces from distinct functions). See also	git-
	       diff(1)--diff-algorithm.

	   ignore-space-change,	ignore-all-space, ignore-space-at-eol
	       Treats lines with the indicated type of whitespace change as
	       unchanged for the sake of a three-way merge. Whitespace changes
	       mixed with other	changes	to a line are not ignored. See also
	       git-diff(1)-b, -w, and --ignore-space-at-eol.

	       o   If their version only introduces whitespace changes to a
		   line, our version is	used;

	       o   If our version introduces whitespace	changes	but their
		   version includes a substantial change, their	version	is
		   used;

	       o   Otherwise, the merge	proceeds in the	usual way.

	   renormalize
	       This runs a virtual check-out and check-in of all three stages
	       of a file when resolving	a three-way merge. This	option is
	       meant to	be used	when merging branches with different clean
	       filters or end-of-line normalization rules. See "Merging
	       branches	with differing checkin/checkout	attributes" in
	       gitattributes(5)	for details.

	   no-renormalize
	       Disables	the renormalize	option.	This overrides the
	       merge.renormalize configuration variable.

	   no-renames
	       Turn off	rename detection. See also git-diff(1)--no-renames.

	   find-renames[=<n>]
	       Turn on rename detection, optionally setting the	similarity
	       threshold. This is the default. See also	git-
	       diff(1)--find-renames.

	   rename-threshold=<n>
	       Deprecated synonym for find-renames=<n>.

	   subtree[=<path>]
	       This option is a	more advanced form of subtree strategy,	where
	       the strategy makes a guess on how two trees must	be shifted to
	       match with each other when merging. Instead, the	specified path
	       is prefixed (or stripped	from the beginning) to make the	shape
	       of two trees to match.

       octopus
	   This	resolves cases with more than two heads, but refuses to	do a
	   complex merge that needs manual resolution. It is primarily meant
	   to be used for bundling topic branch	heads together.	This is	the
	   default merge strategy when pulling or merging more than one
	   branch.

       ours
	   This	resolves any number of heads, but the resulting	tree of	the
	   merge is always that	of the current branch head, effectively
	   ignoring all	changes	from all other branches. It is meant to	be
	   used	to supersede old development history of	side branches. Note
	   that	this is	different from the -Xours option to the	recursive
	   merge strategy.

       subtree
	   This	is a modified recursive	strategy. When merging trees A and B,
	   if B	corresponds to a subtree of A, B is first adjusted to match
	   the tree structure of A, instead of reading the trees at the	same
	   level. This adjustment is also done to the common ancestor tree.

       With the	strategies that	use 3-way merge	(including the default,
       recursive), if a	change is made on both branches, but later reverted on
       one of the branches, that change	will be	present	in the merged result;
       some people find	this behavior confusing. It occurs because only	the
       heads and the merge base	are considered when performing a merge,	not
       the individual commits. The merge algorithm therefore considers the
       reverted	change as no change at all, and	substitutes the	changed
       version instead.

CONFIGURATION
       merge.conflictStyle
	   Specify the style in	which conflicted hunks are written out to
	   working tree	files upon merge. The default is "merge", which	shows
	   a <<<<<<< conflict marker, changes made by one side,	a =======
	   marker, changes made	by the other side, and then a >>>>>>> marker.
	   An alternate	style, "diff3",	adds a ||||||| marker and the original
	   text	before the ======= marker.

       merge.defaultToUpstream
	   If merge is called without any commit argument, merge the upstream
	   branches configured for the current branch by using their last
	   observed values stored in their remote-tracking branches. The
	   values of the branch.<current branch>.merge that name the branches
	   at the remote named by branch.<current branch>.remote are
	   consulted, and then they are	mapped via remote.<remote>.fetch to
	   their corresponding remote-tracking branches, and the tips of these
	   tracking branches are merged.

       merge.ff
	   By default, Git does	not create an extra merge commit when merging
	   a commit that is a descendant of the	current	commit.	Instead, the
	   tip of the current branch is	fast-forwarded.	When set to false,
	   this	variable tells Git to create an	extra merge commit in such a
	   case	(equivalent to giving the --no-ff option from the command
	   line). When set to only, only such fast-forward merges are allowed
	   (equivalent to giving the --ff-only option from the command line).

       merge.branchdesc
	   In addition to branch names,	populate the log message with the
	   branch description text associated with them. Defaults to false.

       merge.log
	   In addition to branch names,	populate the log message with at most
	   the specified number	of one-line descriptions from the actual
	   commits that	are being merged. Defaults to false, and true is a
	   synonym for 20.

       merge.renameLimit
	   The number of files to consider when	performing rename detection
	   during a merge; if not specified, defaults to the value of
	   diff.renameLimit.

       merge.renormalize
	   Tell	Git that canonical representation of files in the repository
	   has changed over time (e.g. earlier commits record text files with
	   CRLF	line endings, but recent ones use LF line endings). In such a
	   repository, Git can convert the data	recorded in commits to a
	   canonical form before performing a merge to reduce unnecessary
	   conflicts. For more information, see	section	"Merging branches with
	   differing checkin/checkout attributes" in gitattributes(5).

       merge.stat
	   Whether to print the	diffstat between ORIG_HEAD and the merge
	   result at the end of	the merge. True	by default.

       merge.tool
	   Controls which merge	tool is	used by	git-mergetool(1). The list
	   below shows the valid built-in values. Any other value is treated
	   as a	custom merge tool and requires that a corresponding
	   mergetool.<tool>.cmd	variable is defined.

	   o   araxis

	   o   bc

	   o   bc3

	   o   codecompare

	   o   deltawalker

	   o   diffmerge

	   o   diffuse

	   o   ecmerge

	   o   emerge

	   o   examdiff

	   o   gvimdiff

	   o   gvimdiff2

	   o   gvimdiff3

	   o   kdiff3

	   o   meld

	   o   opendiff

	   o   p4merge

	   o   tkdiff

	   o   tortoisemerge

	   o   vimdiff

	   o   vimdiff2

	   o   vimdiff3

	   o   winmerge

	   o   xxdiff

       merge.verbosity
	   Controls the	amount of output shown by the recursive	merge
	   strategy. Level 0 outputs nothing except a final error message if
	   conflicts were detected. Level 1 outputs only conflicts, 2 outputs
	   conflicts and file changes. Level 5 and above outputs debugging
	   information.	The default is level 2.	Can be overridden by the
	   GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY environment variable.

       merge.<driver>.name
	   Defines a human-readable name for a custom low-level	merge driver.
	   See gitattributes(5)	for details.

       merge.<driver>.driver
	   Defines the command that implements a custom	low-level merge
	   driver. See gitattributes(5)	for details.

       merge.<driver>.recursive
	   Names a low-level merge driver to be	used when performing an
	   internal merge between common ancestors. See	gitattributes(5) for
	   details.

       branch.<name>.mergeOptions
	   Sets	default	options	for merging into branch	<name>.	The syntax and
	   supported options are the same as those of git merge, but option
	   values containing whitespace	characters are currently not
	   supported.

SEE ALSO
       git-fmt-merge-msg(1), git-pull(1), gitattributes(5), git-reset(1), git-
       diff(1),	git-ls-files(1), git-add(1), git-rm(1),	git-mergetool(1)

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.13.2			  06/24/2017			  GIT-MERGE(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | PRE-MERGE CHECKS | FAST-FORWARD MERGE | TRUE MERGE | MERGING TAG | HOW CONFLICTS ARE PRESENTED | HOW TO RESOLVE CONFLICTS | EXAMPLES | MERGE STRATEGIES | CONFIGURATION | SEE ALSO | GIT

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=git-merge&sektion=1&manpath=FreeBSD+12.0-RELEASE+and+Ports>

home | help