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GIT-CVSSERVER(1)		  Git Manual		      GIT-CVSSERVER(1)

       git-cvsserver - A CVS server emulator for Git


       export CVS_SERVER="git cvsserver"
       cvs -d :ext:user@server/path/repo.git co	<HEAD_name>

       pserver (/etc/inetd.conf):

       cvspserver stream tcp nowait nobody /usr/bin/git-cvsserver git-cvsserver	pserver


       git-cvsserver [<options>] [pserver|server] [<directory> ...]

       This application	is a CVS emulation layer for Git.

       It is highly functional.	However, not all methods are implemented, and
       for those methods that are implemented, not all switches	are

       Testing has been	done using both	the CLI	CVS client, and	the Eclipse
       CVS plugin. Most	functionality works fine with both of these clients.

       All these options obviously only	make sense if enforced by the server
       side. They have been implemented	to resemble the	git-daemon(1) options
       as closely as possible.

       --base-path <path>
	   Prepend path	to requested CVSROOT

	   Don't allow recursing into subdirectories

	   Don't check for gitcvs.enabled in config. You also have to specify
	   a list of allowed directories (see below) if	you want to use	this

       -V, --version
	   Print version information and exit

       -h, -H, --help
	   Print usage information and exit

	   You can specify a list of allowed directories. If no	directories
	   are given, all are allowed. This is an additional restriction,
	   gitcvs access still needs to	be enabled by the gitcvs.enabled
	   config option unless	--export-all was given,	too.

       CVS clients cannot tag, branch or perform Git merges.

       git-cvsserver maps Git branches to CVS modules. This is very different
       from what most CVS users	would expect since in CVS modules usually
       represent one or	more directories.

	1. If you are going to offer CVS access	via pserver, add a line	in
	   /etc/inetd.conf like

		  cvspserver stream tcp	nowait nobody git-cvsserver pserver

	   Note: Some inetd servers let	you specify the	name of	the executable
	   independently of the	value of argv[0] (i.e. the name	the program
	   assumes it was executed with). In this case the correct line	in
	   /etc/inetd.conf looks like

		  cvspserver stream tcp	nowait nobody /usr/bin/git-cvsserver git-cvsserver pserver

	   Only	anonymous access is provided by	pserver	by default. To commit
	   you will have to create pserver accounts, simply add	a
	   gitcvs.authdb setting in the	config file of the repositories	you
	   want	the cvsserver to allow writes to, for example:

		       authdb =	/etc/cvsserver/passwd

	   The format of these files is	username followed by the encrypted
	   password, for example:


	   You can use the htpasswd facility that comes	with Apache to make
	   these files,	but only with the -d option (or	-B if your system
	   suports it).

	   Preferably use the system specific utility that manages password
	   hash	creation in your platform (e.g.	mkpasswd in Linux, encrypt in
	   OpenBSD or pwhash in	NetBSD)	and paste it in	the right location.

	   Then	provide	your password via the pserver method, for example:

		  cvs -d:pserver:someuser:somepassword@server:/path/repo.git co	<HEAD_name>

	   No special setup is needed for SSH access, other than having	Git
	   tools in the	PATH. If you have clients that do not accept the
	   CVS_SERVER environment variable, you	can rename git-cvsserver to

	   Note: Newer CVS versions (>=	1.12.11) also support specifying
	   CVS_SERVER directly in CVSROOT like

		  cvs -d ":ext;CVS_SERVER=git cvsserver:user@server/path/repo.git" co <HEAD_name>

	   This	has the	advantage that it will be saved	in your	CVS/Root files
	   and you don't need to worry about always setting the	correct
	   environment variable. SSH users restricted to git-shell don't need
	   to override the default with	CVS_SERVER (and	shouldn't) as
	   git-shell understands cvs to	mean git-cvsserver and pretends	that
	   the other end runs the real cvs better.

	2. For each repo that you want accessible from CVS you need to edit
	   config in the repo and add the following section.

		       # optional for debugging

	   Note: you need to ensure each user that is going to invoke
	   git-cvsserver has write access to the log file and to the database
	   (see	Database Backend. If you want to offer write access over SSH,
	   the users of	course also need write access to the Git repository

	   You also need to ensure that	each repository	is "bare" (without a
	   Git index file) for cvs commit to work. See gitcvs-migration(7).

	   All configuration variables can also	be overridden for a specific
	   method of access. Valid method names	are "ext" (for SSH access) and
	   "pserver". The following example configuration would	disable
	   pserver access while	still allowing access over SSH.


		  [gitcvs "ext"]

	3. If you didn't specify the CVSROOT/CVS_SERVER	directly in the
	   checkout command, automatically saving it in	your CVS/Root files,
	   then	you need to set	them explicitly	in your	environment. CVSROOT
	   should be set as per	normal,	but the	directory should point at the
	   appropriate Git repo. As above, for SSH clients not restricted to
	   git-shell, CVS_SERVER should	be set to git-cvsserver.

		  export CVSROOT=:ext:user@server:/var/git/project.git
		  export CVS_SERVER="git cvsserver"

	4. For SSH clients that	will make commits, make	sure their server-side
	   .ssh/environment files (or .bashrc, etc., according to their
	   specific shell) export appropriate values for GIT_AUTHOR_NAME,
	   SSH clients whose login shell is bash, .bashrc may be a reasonable

	5. Clients should now be able to check out the project.	Use the	CVS
	   module name to indicate what	Git head you want to check out.	This
	   also	sets the name of your newly checked-out	directory, unless you
	   tell	it otherwise with -d <dir_name>. For example, this checks out
	   master branch to the	project-master directory:

		  cvs co -d project-master master

       git-cvsserver uses one database per Git head (i.e. CVS module) to store
       information about the repository	to maintain consistent CVS revision
       numbers.	The database needs to be updated (i.e. written to) after every

       If the commit is	done directly by using git (as opposed to using
       git-cvsserver) the update will need to happen on	the next repository
       access by git-cvsserver,	independent of access method and requested

       That means that even if you offer only read access (e.g.	by using the
       pserver method),	git-cvsserver should have write	access to the database
       to work reliably	(otherwise you need to make sure that the database is
       up to date any time git-cvsserver is executed).

       By default it uses SQLite databases in the Git directory, named
       gitcvs.<module_name>.sqlite. Note that the SQLite backend creates
       temporary files in the same directory as	the database file on write so
       it might	not be enough to grant the users using git-cvsserver write
       access to the database file without granting them write access to the
       directory, too.

       The database cannot be reliably regenerated in a	consistent form	after
       the branch it is	tracking has changed. Example: For merged branches,
       git-cvsserver only tracks one branch of development, and	after a	git
       merge an	incrementally updated database may track a different branch
       than a database regenerated from	scratch, causing inconsistent CVS
       revision	numbers. git-cvsserver has no way of knowing which branch it
       would have picked if it had been	run incrementally pre-merge. So	if you
       have to fully or	partially (from	old backup) regenerate the database,
       you should be suspicious	of pre-existing	CVS sandboxes.

       You can configure the database backend with the following configuration

   Configuring database	backend
       git-cvsserver uses the Perl DBI module. Please also read	its
       documentation if	changing these variables, especially about

	   Database name. The exact meaning depends on the selected database
	   driver, for SQLite this is a	filename. Supports variable
	   substitution	(see below). May not contain semicolons	(;). Default:

	   Used	DBI driver. You	can specify any	available driver for this
	   here, but it	might not work.	cvsserver is tested with DBD::SQLite,
	   reported to work with DBD::Pg, and reported not to work with
	   DBD::mysql. Please regard this as an	experimental feature. May not
	   contain colons (:). Default:	SQLite

	   Database user. Only useful if setting dbDriver, since SQLite	has no
	   concept of database users. Supports variable	substitution (see

	   Database password. Only useful if setting dbDriver, since SQLite
	   has no concept of database passwords.

	   Database table name prefix. Supports	variable substitution (see
	   below). Any non-alphabetic characters will be replaced with

       All variables can also be set per access	method,	see above.

       Variable	substitution
	   In dbDriver and dbUser you can use the following variables:

	       Git directory name

	       Git directory name, where all characters	except for
	       alphanumeric ones, ., and - are replaced	with _ (this should
	       make it easier to use the directory name	in a filename if

	       CVS module/Git head name

	       access method (one of "ext" or "pserver")

	       Name of the user	running	git-cvsserver. If no name can be
	       determined, the numeric uid is used.

       These variables obviate the need	for command-line options in some
       circumstances, allowing easier restricted usage through git-shell.

       GIT_CVSSERVER_BASE_PATH takes the place of the argument to --base-path.

       GIT_CVSSERVER_ROOT specifies a single-directory whitelist. The
       repository must still be	configured to allow access through
       git-cvsserver, as described above.

       When these environment variables	are set, the corresponding
       command-line arguments may not be used.

       To get a	checkout with the Eclipse CVS client:

	1. Select "Create a new	project	-> From	CVS checkout"

	2. Create a new	location. See the notes	below for details on how to
	   choose the right protocol.

	3. Browse the modules available. It will give you a list of the	heads
	   in the repository. You will not be able to browse the tree from
	   there. Only the heads.

	4. Pick	HEAD when it asks what branch/tag to check out.	Untick the
	   "launch commit wizard" to avoid committing the .project file.

       Protocol	notes: If you are using	anonymous access via pserver, just
       select that. Those using	SSH access should choose the ext protocol, and
       configure ext access on the Preferences->Team->CVS->ExtConnection pane.
       Set CVS_SERVER to "git cvsserver". Note that password support is	not
       good when using ext, you	will definitely	want to	have SSH keys setup.

       Alternatively, you can just use the non-standard	extssh protocol	that
       Eclipse offer. In that case CVS_SERVER is ignored, and you will have to
       replace the cvs utility on the server with git-cvsserver	or manipulate
       your .bashrc so that calling cvs	effectively calls git-cvsserver.

       o   CVS 1.12.9 on Debian

       o   CVS 1.11.17 on MacOSX (from Fink package)

       o   Eclipse 3.0,	3.1.2 on MacOSX	(see Eclipse CVS Client	Notes)

       o   TortoiseCVS

       All the operations required for normal use are supported, including
       checkout, diff, status, update, log, add, remove, commit.

       Most CVS	command	arguments that read CVS	tags or	revision numbers
       (typically -r) work, and	also support any git refspec (tag, branch,
       commit ID, etc).	However, CVS revision numbers for non-default branches
       are not well emulated, and cvs log does not show	tags or	branches at
       all. (Non-main-branch CVS revision numbers superficially	resemble CVS
       revision	numbers, but they actually encode a git	commit ID directly,
       rather than represent the number	of revisions since the branch point.)

       Note that there are two ways to checkout	a particular branch. As
       described elsewhere on this page, the "module" parameter	of cvs
       checkout	is interpreted as a branch name, and it	becomes	the main
       branch. It remains the main branch for a	given sandbox even if you
       temporarily make	another	branch sticky with cvs update -r.
       Alternatively, the -r argument can indicate some	other branch to
       actually	checkout, even though the module is still the "main" branch.
       Tradeoffs (as currently implemented): Each new "module" creates a new
       database	on disk	with a history for the given module, and after the
       database	is created, operations against that main branch	are fast. Or
       alternatively, -r doesn't take any extra	disk space, but	may be
       significantly slower for	many operations, like cvs update.

       If you want to refer to a git refspec that has characters that are not
       allowed by CVS, you have	two options. First, it may just	work to	supply
       the git refspec directly	to the appropriate CVS -r argument; some CVS
       clients don't seem to do	much sanity checking of	the argument. Second,
       if that fails, you can use a special character escape mechanism that
       only uses characters that are valid in CVS tags.	A sequence of 4	or 5
       characters of the form (underscore ("_"), dash ("-"), one or two
       characters, and dash ("-")) can encode various characters based on the
       one or two letters: "s" for slash ("/"),	"p" for	period ("."), "u" for
       underscore ("_"), or two	hexadecimal digits for any byte	value at all
       (typically an ASCII number, or perhaps a	part of	a UTF-8	encoded

       Legacy monitoring operations are	not supported (edit, watch and
       related). Exports and tagging (tags and branches) are not supported at
       this stage.

   CRLF	Line Ending Conversions
       By default the server leaves the	-k mode	blank for all files, which
       causes the CVS client to	treat them as a	text files, subject to
       end-of-line conversion on some platforms.

       You can make the	server use the end-of-line conversion attributes to
       set the -k modes	for files by setting the gitcvs.usecrlfattr config
       variable. See gitattributes(5) for more information about end-of-line

       Alternatively, if gitcvs.usecrlfattr config is not enabled or the
       attributes do not allow automatic detection for a filename, then	the
       server uses the gitcvs.allBinary	config for the default setting.	If
       gitcvs.allBinary	is set,	then file not otherwise	specified will default
       to -kb mode. Otherwise the -k mode is left blank. But if
       gitcvs.allBinary	is set to "guess", then	the correct -k mode will be
       guessed based on	the contents of	the file.

       For best	consistency with cvs, it is probably best to override the
       defaults	by setting gitcvs.usecrlfattr to true, and gitcvs.allBinary to

       git-cvsserver depends on	DBD::SQLite.

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.35.1			  01/28/2022		      GIT-CVSSERVER(1)


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