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GENISOIMAGE(1)		    General Commands Manual		GENISOIMAGE(1)

NAME
       genisoimage  -  create ISO9660/Joliet/HFS filesystem with optional Rock
       Ridge attributes

SYNOPSIS
       genisoimage [options] [-o filename] pathspec [pathspec ...]

DESCRIPTION
       genisoimage is a	pre-mastering program to  generate  ISO9660/Joliet/HFS
       hybrid filesystems.

       genisoimage  is	capable	 of generating the System Use Sharing Protocol
       records (SUSP) specified	by the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol.	  This
       is  used	 to  further describe the files	in the ISO9660 filesystem to a
       Unix host, and provides information such	as  long  filenames,  UID/GID,
       POSIX  permissions,  symbolic  links,  and  block  and character	device
       files.

       If Joliet or HFS	hybrid command line options are	specified, genisoimage
       will  create  the  additional  filesystem metadata needed for Joliet or
       HFS.  Otherwise genisoimage will	generate a pure	ISO9660	filesystem.

       genisoimage can generate	a true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem.  The
       same  files are seen as HFS files when accessed from a Macintosh	and as
       ISO9660 files when accessed from	other machines.	HFS stands for Hierar-
       chical  File System and is the native filesystem	used on	Macintosh com-
       puters.

       As an alternative, genisoimage can generate  the	 Apple	Extensions  to
       ISO9660 for each	file. These extensions provide each file with CREATOR,
       TYPE and	certain	Finder flags when accessed from	a Macintosh.  See  the
       HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       genisoimage takes a snapshot of a given directory tree, and generates a
       binary image which will correspond to an	ISO9660	and/or HFS  filesystem
       when written to a block device.

       Each file written to the	ISO9660	filesystem must	have a filename	in the
       8.3 format (up to 8 characters, period, up to 3 characters, all	upper-
       case),  even if Rock Ridge is in	use.  This filename is used on systems
       that are	not able to make use of	the Rock Ridge extensions (such	as MS-
       DOS),  and  each	 filename in each directory must be different from the
       other filenames in the same directory.  genisoimage generally tries  to
       form  correct names by forcing the Unix filename	to uppercase and trun-
       cating as required, but often this yields unsatisfactory	 results  when
       the truncated names are not all unique.	genisoimage assigns weightings
       to each filename, and if	two names that	are  otherwise	the  same  are
       found, the name with the	lower priority is renamed to include a 3-digit
       number (guaranteed to be	unique).  For example, the two	files  foo.bar
       and foo.bar.~1~ could be	rendered as FOO.BAR;1 and FOO000.BAR;1.

       When  used with various HFS options, genisoimage	will attempt to	recog-
       nise files stored in a number of	Apple/Unix file	formats	and will  copy
       the data	and resource forks as well as any relevant Finder information.
       See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below	for more about formats
       genisoimage supports.

       Note  that  genisoimage	is not designed	to communicate with the	writer
       directly.  Most writers have proprietary	command	sets which  vary  from
       one  manufacturer  to another, and you need a specialized tool to actu-
       ally burn the disc.  wodim is one such tool.   The  latest  version  of
       wodim is	available from http://www.cdrkit.org/.

       pathspec	 is  the  path	of  the	 directory  tree to be copied into the
       ISO9660 filesystem.  Multiple paths can be specified,  and  genisoimage
       will  merge  the	files found in all of the specified path components to
       form the	filesystem image.

       If the option -graft-points has been specified, it is possible to graft
       the  paths  at points other than	the root directory, and	it is possible
       to graft	files or directories onto the cdrom image with names different
       than  what  they	have in	the source filesystem.	This is	easiest	to il-
       lustrate	with a couple of examples.  Let's start	by assuming that a lo-
       cal file	../old.lis exists, and you wish	to include it in the cdrom im-
       age.

	      foo/bar/=../old.lis

       will include old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/old.lis, while

	      foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

       will include old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx.	 The same sort
       of  syntax can be used with directories as well.	 genisoimage will cre-
       ate any directories required such that the graft	points	exist  on  the
       cdrom  image  --	 the  directories  do not need to appear in one	of the
       paths.  By default, any directories that	are created on	the  fly  like
       this  will  have	 permissions 0555 and appear to	be owned by the	person
       running genisoimage.  If	you wish other permissions or  owners  of  the
       intermediate  directories,  see	-uid,  -gid, -dir-mode,	-file-mode and
       -new-dir-mode.

       genisoimage will	also  run  on  Windows	machines  when	compiled  with
       Cygnus' cygwin (available from http://www.cygwin.com/).	Therefore most
       references in this man page to Unix can be replaced with	Win32.

OPTIONS
       Several options can be specified	as defaults in a  .genisoimagerc  con-
       figuration  file,  as  well  as on the command line.  If	a parameter is
       specified in both places, the setting from the command  line  is	 used.
       For  details  on	 the  format  and possible locations of	this file, see
       genisoimagerc(5).

       -abstract file
	      Specifies	the abstract filename.	There is space for 37  charac-
	      ters.  Equivalent	to ABST	in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -A application_id
	      Specifies	 a  text  string  that will be written into the	volume
	      header.  This should describe the	application that  will	be  on
	      the  disc.   There  is  space for	128 characters.	 Equivalent to
	      APPI in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -allow-limited-size
	      When processing files larger than	2GiB which  cannot  be	easily
	      represented in ISO9660, add them with a shrunk visible file size
	      to ISO9660 and with the correct visible file  size  to  the  UDF
	      system.  The result is an	inconsistent filesystem	and users need
	      to make sure that	they really use	UDF rather than	ISO9660	driver
	      to read a	such disk. Implies enabling -udf.

       -allow-leading-dots

       -ldots Allow  ISO9660  filenames	 to  begin  with a period.  Usually, a
	      leading dot is replaced with an underscore in order to  maintain
	      MS-DOS compatibility.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-lowercase
	      This options allows lowercase characters to  appear  in  ISO9660
	      filenames.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      some systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-multidot
	      This options allows more than one	dot to appear in ISO9660 file-
	      names.   A leading dot is	not affected by	this option, it	may be
	      allowed separately using -allow-leading-dots.
	      This violates the	ISO9660	standard, but it happens  to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -biblio file
	      Specifies	 the  bibliographic  filename.	 There is space	for 37
	      characters.  Equivalent to BIBL in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -cache-inodes

       -no-cache-inodes
	      Enable or	disable	caching	inode and device numbers to find  hard
	      links  to	 files.	 If genisoimage	finds a	hard link (a file with
	      multiple names), the file	will also be hard-linked on the	CD, so
	      the  file	 contents only appear once.  This helps	to save	space.
	      -cache-inodes is default on  Unix-like  operating	 systems,  but
	      -no-cache-inodes	is  default on some other systems such as Cyg-
	      win, because it is not safe to assume  that  inode  numbers  are
	      unique  on  those	systems.  (Some	versions of Cygwin create fake
	      inode numbers using a weak hashing algorithm, which may  produce
	      duplicates.)   If	 two  files have the same inode	number but are
	      not hard links to	the same file, genisoimage -cache-inodes  will
	      not  behave  correctly.	-no-cache-inodes is safe in all	situa-
	      tions, but in that case genisoimage cannot detect	hard links, so
	      the resulting CD image may be larger than	necessary.

       -alpha-boot alpha_boot_image
	      Specifies	 the  path  and	 filename of the boot image to be used
	      when making an Alpha/SRM bootable	CD. The	pathname must be rela-
	      tive to the source path specified	to genisoimage.

       -hppa-bootloader	hppa_bootloader_image
	      Specifies	 the  path  and	 filename of the boot image to be used
	      when making an HPPA bootable CD. The pathname must  be  relative
	      to  the source path specified to genisoimage.  Other options are
	      required,	at the very least a kernel filename and	a boot command
	      line.  See the HPPA NOTES	section	below for more information.

       -hppa-cmdline hppa_boot_command_line
	      Specifies	 the command line to be	passed to the HPPA boot	loader
	      when making a bootable CD. Separate the parameters  with	spaces
	      or  commas.  More	 options must be passed	to genisoimage,	at the
	      very least a kernel filename and the boot	loader filename.   See
	      the HPPA NOTES section below for more information.

       -hppa-kernel-32 hppa_kernel_32

       -hppa-kernel-64 hppa_kernel_64
	      Specifies	the path and filename of the 32-bit and/or 64-bit ker-
	      nel images to be used when making	an HPPA	bootable CD. The path-
	      names must be relative to	the source path	specified to genisoim-
	      age.  Other options are required,	at the	very  least  the  boot
	      loader  filename	and the	boot command line.  See	the HPPA NOTES
	      section below for	more information.

       -hppa-ramdisk hppa_ramdisk_image
	      Specifies	the path and filename of the ramdisk image to be  used
	      when  making  an HPPA bootable CD. The pathname must be relative
	      to the source path specified to genisoimage.  This parameter  is
	      optional.	  Other	options	are required, at the very least	a ker-
	      nel filename and the boot	command	line. See the HPPA NOTES  sec-
	      tion below for more information.

       -mips-boot mips_boot_image
	      Specifies	 the  path  and	 filename of the boot image to be used
	      when making an SGI/big-endian MIPS  bootable  CD.	 The  pathname
	      must  be	relative  to the source	path specified to genisoimage.
	      This option may be specified several times, to store  up	to  15
	      boot images.

       -mipsel-boot mipsel_boot_image
	      Specifies	 the  path  and	 filename of the boot image to be used
	      when making an DEC/little-endian MIPS bootable CD. The  pathname
	      must be relative to the source path specified to genisoimage.

       -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      Specifies	 a comma-separated list	of boot	images that are	needed
	      to make a	bootable CD for	SPARC systems.	Partition  0  is  used
	      for  the ISO9660 image, the first	image file is mapped to	parti-
	      tion 1.  The comma-separated list	may have up to 7  fields,  in-
	      cluding  empty  fields.	This  option  is  required  to	make a
	      bootable CD for Sun SPARC	systems.  If  -B  or  -sparc-boot  has
	      been  specified,	the  first  sector of the resulting image will
	      contain a	Sun disk label.	This disk label	specifies slice	0  for
	      the  ISO9660  image  and	slices 1 to 7 for the boot images that
	      have been	specified with this option. Byte offsets 512  to  8191
	      within each of the additional boot images	must contain a primary
	      boot that	works for the appropriate SPARC	architecture. The rest
	      of each of the images usually contains a UFS filesystem used for
	      the primary kernel boot stage.

	      The implemented boot method is the one found with	SunOS 4.x  and
	      SunOS  5.x.   However, it	does not depend	on SunOS internals but
	      only on properties of the	Open Boot prom,	so it should be	usable
	      for any OS for SPARC systems.  For more information also see the
	      NOTES section below.

	      If the special filename ...  is used, the	actual and all follow-
	      ing  boot	 partitions  are  mapped to the	previous partition. If
	      genisoimage is called with -G image -B ...  all boot  partitions
	      are mapped to the	partition that contains	the ISO9660 filesystem
	      image and	the generic boot image that is located in the first 16
	      sectors of the disc is used for all architectures.

       -G generic_boot_image
	      Specifies	 the path and filename of the generic boot image to be
	      used when	making a generic bootable CD.  The boot	image will  be
	      placed  on  the  first  16 sectors of the	CD, before the ISO9660
	      primary volume descriptor.  If this option is used together with
	      -sparc-boot, the Sun disk	label will overlay the first 512 bytes
	      of the generic boot image.

       -b eltorito_boot_image
	      Specifies	the path and filename of the boot  image  to  be  used
	      when  making  an El Torito bootable CD for x86 PCs. The pathname
	      must be relative to the source path  specified  to  genisoimage.
	      This  option  is required	to make	an El Torito bootable CD.  The
	      boot image must be exactly 1200 kB, 1440	kB  or	2880  kB,  and
	      genisoimage  will	use this size when creating the	output ISO9660
	      filesystem.  The PC BIOS will use	the image to emulate a	floppy
	      disk,  so	the first 512-byte sector should contain PC boot code.
	      This will	work, for example, if the boot image is	 a  LILO-based
	      boot floppy.

	      If  the  boot image is not an image of a floppy, you need	to add
	      either -hard-disk-boot or	-no-emul-boot.	If the	system	should
	      not boot off the emulated	disk, use -no-boot.

	      If -sort has not been specified, the boot	images are sorted with
	      low priority (+2)	to the beginning of the	medium.	 If you	 don't
	      like  this,  you need to specify a sort weight of	0 for the boot
	      images.

       -eltorito-alt-boot
	      Start with a new set of El Torito	boot parameters.  Up to	63  El
	      Torito boot entries may be stored	on a single CD.

       -hard-disk-boot
	      Specifies	 that the boot image used to create El Torito bootable
	      CDs is a hard disk image.	The image must	begin  with  a	master
	      boot record that contains	a single partition.

       -no-emul-boot
	      Specifies	 that the boot image used to create El Torito bootable
	      CDs is a "no emulation" image. The system	will load and  execute
	      this image without performing any	disk emulation.

       -no-boot
	      Specifies	 that the created El Torito CD should be marked	as not
	      bootable.	The system will	provide	an emulated drive for the  im-
	      age, but will boot off a standard	boot device.

       -boot-load-seg segment_address
	      Specifies	the load segment address of the	boot image for no-emu-
	      lation El	Torito CDs.

       -boot-load-size load_sectors
	      Specifies	the number of "virtual"	(512-byte) sectors to load  in
	      no-emulation mode.  The default is to load the entire boot file.
	      Some BIOSes may have problems if this is not a multiple of 4.

       -boot-info-table
	      Specifies	that a 56-byte table with information  of  the	CD-ROM
	      layout will be patched in	at offset 8 in the boot	file.  If this
	      option is	given,	the  boot  file	 is  modified  in  the	source
	      filesystem,  so  make a copy of this file	if it cannot be	easily
	      regenerated!  See	the EL TORITO BOOT INFO	TABLE  section	for  a
	      description of this table.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start
	      This  option  is	needed	to create a CD Extra or	the image of a
	      second session or	a  higher-level	 session  for  a  multisession
	      disc.   -C  takes	two numbers separated by a comma. The first is
	      the first	sector in the last session of the disc that should  be
	      appended to.  The	second number is the starting sector number of
	      the new session.	The correct numbers may	be retrieved by	 call-
	      ing  wodim  -msinfo  ...	 If -C is used in conjunction with -M,
	      genisoimage will create a	filesystem image that is  intended  to
	      be  a continuation of the	previous session.  If -C is used with-
	      out -M, genisoimage will create a	filesystem image that  is  in-
	      tended  to be used for a second session on a CD Extra. This is a
	      multisession CD that holds audio data in the first  session  and
	      an ISO9660 filesystem in the second session.

       -c boot_catalog
	      Specifies	 the  path  and	filename of the	boot catalog, which is
	      required for an El Torito	bootable CD. The pathname must be rel-
	      ative  to	 the  source path specified to genisoimage.  This file
	      will be inserted into the	output tree and	 not  created  in  the
	      source  filesystem,  so  be sure the specified filename does not
	      conflict with an existing	file, or it will be excluded.  Usually
	      a	name like boot.catalog is chosen.

	      If  -sort	 has  not been specified, the boot catalog sorted with
	      low priority (+1)	to the beginning of the	medium.	 If you	 don't
	      like  this,  you need to specify a sort weight of	0 for the boot
	      catalog.

       -check-oldnames
	      Check all	filenames imported from	the old	session	for compliance
	      with  the	 ISO9660 file naming rules.  Without this option, only
	      names longer than	31 characters are checked, as these files  are
	      a	serious	violation of the ISO9660 standard.

       -check-session file
	      Check  all  old  sessions	for compliance with actual genisoimage
	      ISO9660 file naming rules.  This is  a  high-level  option  that
	      combines	-M  file  -C  0,0  -check-oldnames.  For the parameter
	      file, see	the description	of -M.

       -copyright file
	      Specifies	copyright information, typically  a  filename  on  the
	      disc.   There is space for 37 characters.	 Equivalent to COPY in
	      the .genisoimagerc file.

       -d     Do not append a period to	files that do not have one.
	      This violates the	ISO9660	standard, but it happens  to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -D     Do not use deep directory	relocation, and	instead	just pack them
	      in the way we see	them.
	      If ISO9660:1999 has not been selected, this violates the ISO9660
	      standard,	but it happens to work on many systems.	 Use with cau-
	      tion.

       -dir-mode mode
	      Overrides	the mode of directories	used to	create	the  image  to
	      mode,  specified	as 4 digits of permission bits as in chmod(1).
	      This option automatically	enables	Rock Ridge extensions.

       -dvd-video
	      Generate a DVD-Video compliant UDF filesystem. This is  done  by
	      sorting the order	of the content of the appropriate files	and by
	      adding padding between the files if needed.  Note	that the sort-
	      ing  only	 works	if  the	 DVD-Video filenames include uppercase
	      characters only.

	      Note that	in order to get	a DVD-Video compliant  filesystem  im-
	      age,  you	 need to prepare a DVD-Video compliant directory tree.
	      This requires a directory	VIDEO_TS (all caps) in the root	direc-
	      tory  of	the  resulting	DVD, and usually another directory AU-
	      DIO_TS.  VIDEO_TS	needs to include all needed  files  (filenames
	      must be all caps)	for a compliant	DVD-Video filesystem.

       -f     Follow symbolic links when generating the	filesystem.  When this
	      option is	not in use, symbolic links will	be entered using  Rock
	      Ridge if enabled,	otherwise they will be ignored.

       -file-mode mode
	      Overrides	 the mode of regular files used	to create the image to
	      mode, specified as 4 digits of permission	bits as	 in  chmod(1).
	      This option automatically	enables	Rock Ridge extensions.

       -gid gid
	      Overrides	 the  group ID read from the source files to the value
	      of gid.  Specifying this option automatically enables Rock Ridge
	      extensions.

       -gui   Switch  the behaviour for	a GUI. This currently makes the	output
	      more verbose but may have	other effects in the future.

       -graft-points
	      Allow use	of graft points	for filenames. If this option is used,
	      all  filenames are checked for graft points. The filename	is di-
	      vided at the first unescaped equal sign. All occurrences of  `\'
	      and `=' characters must be escaped with `\' if -graft-points has
	      been specified.

       -hide glob
	      Hide any files matching glob, a shell wildcard pattern, from be-
	      ing seen in the ISO9660 or Rock Ridge directory.	glob may match
	      any part of the filename or path.	 If glob matches a  directory,
	      the  contents  of	 that  directory  will be hidden.  In order to
	      match a directory	name, make sure	the pathname does not  include
	      a	 trailing  `/'	character.  All	the hidden files will still be
	      written to the output CD image file.  See	also -hide-joliet, and
	      README.hide.  This option	may be used multiple times.

       -hide-list file
	      A	 file  containing a list of shell wildcards to be hidden.  See
	      -hide.

       -hidden glob
	      Add the hidden (existence) ISO9660 directory attribute for files
	      and  directories	matching glob, a shell wildcard	pattern.  This
	      attribute	will prevent the files from being shown	by some	MS-DOS
	      and  Windows  commands.  glob may	match any part of the filename
	      or path.	In order to match a  directory	name,  make  sure  the
	      pathname does not	include	a trailing `/' character.  This	option
	      may be used multiple times.

       -hidden-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of shell	wildcards to  get  the	hidden
	      attribute.  See -hidden.

       -hide-joliet glob
	      Hide  files and directories matching glob, a shell wildcard pat-
	      tern, from being seen in the Joliet directory.  glob  may	 match
	      any  part	of the filename	or path.  If glob matches a directory,
	      the contents of that directory will  be  hidden.	 In  order  to
	      match  a directory name, make sure the pathname does not include
	      a	trailing `/' character.	 All the hidden	files  will  still  be
	      written  to  the	output	CD image file.	This option is usually
	      used with	-hide.	See also README.hide.  This option may be used
	      multiple times.

       -hide-joliet-list file
	      A	 file  containing  a list of shell wildcards to	be hidden from
	      the Joliet tree.	See -hide-joliet.

       -hide-joliet-trans-tbl
	      Hide the TRANS.TBL files from the	Joliet tree.  These files usu-
	      ally  don't make sense in	the Joliet world as they list the real
	      name and the ISO9660 name	which may both be different  from  the
	      Joliet name.

       -hide-rr-moved
	      Rename  the  directory  RR_MOVED	to .rr_moved in	the Rock Ridge
	      tree.  It	seems to be impossible to completely hide the RR_MOVED
	      directory	 from the Rock Ridge tree.  This option	only makes the
	      visible tree less	confusing for people who don't know what  this
	      directory	 is for.  If you need to have no RR_MOVED directory at
	      all, you should use -D.  Note that if -D has been	specified, the
	      resulting	 filesystem  is	not ISO9660 level-1 compliant and will
	      not be readable on MS-DOS.  See also the NOTES section.

       -input-charset charset
	      Input charset that defines the characters	used  in  local	 file-
	      names.   To  get a list of valid charset names, call genisoimage
	      -input-charset help.  To get a 1:1 mapping, you may use  default
	      as  charset  name.  The default initial values are cp437 on DOS-
	      based systems and	iso8859-1 on all other systems.	 See the CHAR-
	      ACTER SETS section below for more	details.

       -output-charset charset
	      Output  charset that defines the characters that will be used in
	      Rock Ridge filenames.  Defaults to the input charset.  See CHAR-
	      ACTER SETS section below for more	details.

       -iso-level level
	      Set the ISO9660 conformance level. Valid numbers are 1 to	4.

	      With  level  1,  files may only consist of one section and file-
	      names are	restricted to 8.3 characters.

	      With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

	      With level 3, no restrictions (other than	ISO-9660:1988) do  ap-
	      ply.

	      With  all	 ISO9660  levels  from	1  to 3, all filenames are re-
	      stricted to uppercase  letters,  numbers	and  underscores  (_).
	      Filenames	 are  limited  to  31 characters, directory nesting is
	      limited to 8 levels, and pathnames are limited  to  255  charac-
	      ters.

	      Level  4	officially  does  not exist but	genisoimage maps it to
	      ISO-9660:1999, which is ISO9660 version 2.

	      With level 4, an enhanced	volume descriptor with version	number
	      and  file	 structure version number set to 2 is emitted.	Direc-
	      tory nesting is not limited to 8 levels, there is	no need	for  a
	      file  to contain a dot and the dot has no	special	meaning, file-
	      names do not have	version	numbers, and filenames can  be	up  to
	      207 characters long, or 197 characters if	Rock Ridge is used.

	      When  creating  Version  2 images, genisoimage emits an enhanced
	      volume descriptor, similar but not identical to a	primary	volume
	      descriptor.  Be  careful	not  to	 use  broken  software to make
	      ISO9660 images bootable by assuming a second PVD copy and	patch-
	      ing this putative	PVD copy into an El Torito VD.

       -J     Generate Joliet directory	records	in addition to regular ISO9660
	      filenames.  This is primarily useful when	the discs  are	to  be
	      used  on	Windows	 machines.   Joliet filenames are specified in
	      Unicode and each path component can be up	to 64 Unicode  charac-
	      ters long.  Note that Joliet is not a standard --	only Microsoft
	      Windows and Linux	 systems  can  read  Joliet  extensions.   For
	      greater  portability,  consider using both Joliet	and Rock Ridge
	      extensions.

       -joliet-long
	      Allow Joliet filenames to	be up to 103 Unicode  characters,  in-
	      stead  of	64.  This breaks the Joliet specification, but appears
	      to work. Use with	caution.

       -jcharset charset
	      A	combination of -J -input-charset charset.  See	the  CHARACTER
	      SETS section below for more details.

       -l     Allow  full  31-character	filenames.  Normally the ISO9660 file-
	      name will	be in an 8.3 format which is compatible	 with  MS-DOS,
	      even  though  the	 ISO9660 standard allows filenames of up to 31
	      characters.  If you use this option, the disc may	 be  difficult
	      to  use on a MS-DOS system, but will work	on most	other systems.
	      Use with caution.

       -L     Outdated option; use -allow-leading-dots instead.

       -jigdo-jigdo jigdo_file
	      Produce a	jigdo .jigdo metadata file as well as  the  filesystem
	      image.  See the JIGDO NOTES section below	for more information.

       -jigdo-template template_file
	      Produce  a jigdo .template file as well as the filesystem	image.
	      See the JIGDO NOTES section below	for more information.

       -jigdo-min-file-size size
	      Specify the minimum size for a file to be	listed in  the	.jigdo
	      file.  Default (and minimum allowed) is 1KB. See the JIGDO NOTES
	      section below for	more information.

       -jigdo-force-md5	path
	      Specify a	file pattern where files must be contained in the  ex-
	      ternally-supplied	 MD5  list  as supplied	by -md5-list.  See the
	      JIGDO NOTES section below	for more information.

       -jigdo-exclude path
	      Specify a	file pattern where files will not  be  listed  in  the
	      .jigdo file. See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more informa-
	      tion.

       -jigdo-map path
	      Specify a	pattern	mapping	for the	jigdo file (e.g.  Debian=/mir-
	      ror/debian).   See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more	infor-
	      mation.

       -md5-list md5_file
	      Specify a	file containing	the MD5sums, sizes  and	 pathnames  of
	      the files	to be included in the .jigdo file. See the JIGDO NOTES
	      section below for	more information.

       -jigdo-template-compress	algorithm
	      Specify a	compression algorithm to use for template  date.  gzip
	      and  bzip2 are currently supported, and gzip is the default. See
	      the JIGDO	NOTES section below for	more information.

       -log-file log_file
	      Redirect	all  error,  warning  and  informational  messages  to
	      log_file instead of the standard error.

       -m glob
	      Exclude  files matching glob, a shell wildcard pattern, from be-
	      ing written to CD-ROM.  glob may match either the	filename  com-
	      ponent  or  the full pathname.  This option may be used multiple
	      times.  For example:

		   genisoimage -o rom -m '*.o' -m core -m foobar

	      would exclude all	files ending in	`.o', or called	core or	foobar
	      from the image.  Note that if you	had a directory	called foobar,
	      it too (and of course all	its descendants) would be excluded.

       -exclude-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of shell	wildcards to be	excluded.  See
	      -m.

       -max-iso9660-filenames
	      Allow  ISO9660  filenames	 to be up to 37	characters long.  This
	      option enables -N	as the extra name  space  is  taken  from  the
	      space reserved for file version numbers.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Although a	conforming application needs  to  pro-
	      vide  a  buffer  space  of at least 37 characters, discs created
	      with this	option may cause a buffer overflow in the reading  op-
	      erating system. Use with extreme care.

       -M path

       -M device

       -dev device
	      Specifies	 path  to existing ISO9660 image to be merged. The al-
	      ternate form takes a SCSI	device specifier that  uses  the  same
	      syntax  as the dev= parameter of wodim.  The output of genisoim-
	      age will be a new	session	which should get written to the	end of
	      the image	specified in -M.  Typically this requires multisession
	      capability for the CD recorder used to write  the	 image.	  This
	      option may only be used in conjunction with -C.

       -N     Omit version numbers from	ISO9660	filenames.
	      This  violates  the ISO9660 standard, but	no one really uses the
	      version numbers anyway.  Use with	caution.

       -new-dir-mode mode
	      Specify the mode,	a 4-digit number as used in chmod(1),  to  use
	      when  creating new directories in	the filesystem image.  The de-
	      fault is 0555.

       -nobak

       -no-bak
	      Exclude backup files files on the	ISO9660	filesystem;  that  is,
	      filenames	that contain the characters `~'	or `#' or end in .bak.
	      These are	typically backup files for Unix	text editors.

       -force-rr
	      Do not use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes  recognition  for
	      previous	sessions.   This  can work around problems with	images
	      created by, e.g.,	NERO Burning ROM.

       -no-rr Do not use the Rock Ridge	 attributes  from  previous  sessions.
	      This  may	 help to avoid problems	when genisoimage finds illegal
	      Rock Ridge signatures on an old session.

       -no-split-symlink-components
	      Don't split the symlink components, but begin a new Continuation
	      Area  (CE)  instead.  This  may  waste some space, but the SunOS
	      4.1.4 cdrom driver has a bug in  reading	split  symlink	compo-
	      nents.

	      It is questionable whether this option is	useful nowadays.

       -no-split-symlink-fields
	      Don't  split  the	 symlink  fields, but begin a new Continuation
	      Area (CE)	instead. This may waste	 some  space,  but  the	 SunOS
	      4.1.4 and	Solaris	2.5.1 cdrom driver have	a bug in reading split
	      symlink fields (a	`/' can	be dropped).

	      It is questionable whether this option is	useful nowadays.

       -o filename
	      Specify the output file for the the  ISO9660  filesystem	image.
	      This  can	be a disk file,	a tape drive, or it can	correspond di-
	      rectly to	the device name	of the optical disc  writer.   If  not
	      specified,  stdout  is used.  Note that the output can also be a
	      block device for a regular disk partition,  in  which  case  the
	      ISO9660 filesystem can be	mounted	normally to verify that	it was
	      generated	correctly.

       -pad   Pad the end of the whole image by	150 sectors  (300  kB).	  This
	      option  is  enabled by default.  If used in combination with -B,
	      padding is inserted between the ISO9660 partition	and  the  boot
	      partitions,  such	that the first boot partition starts on	a sec-
	      tor number that is a multiple of 16.

	      The padding is needed as many operating systems (e.g. Linux) im-
	      plement  read-ahead bugs in their	filesystem I/O.	These bugs re-
	      sult in read errors on files that	are located near the end of  a
	      track,  particularly  if	the  disc  is written in Track At Once
	      mode, or where a CD audio	track follows the data track.

       -no-pad
	      Do not pad the end by 150	sectors	(300 kB) and do	not  make  the
	      the boot partitions start	on a multiple of 16 sectors.

       -path-list file
	      A	 file  containing a list of pathspec directories and filenames
	      to be added to the ISO9660 filesystem. This  list	 of  pathspecs
	      are  processed after any that appear on the command line.	If the
	      argument is -, the list is read from the standard	input.

       -P     Outdated option; use -publisher instead.

       -publisher publisher_id
	      Specifies	a text string that will	be  written  into  the	volume
	      header.	This should describe the publisher of the CD-ROM, usu-
	      ally with	a mailing address and phone number.   There  is	 space
	      for  128	characters.   Equivalent to PUBL in the	.genisoimagerc
	      file.

       -p preparer_id
	      Specifies	a text string that will	be  written  into  the	volume
	      header.	This  should describe the preparer of the CD-ROM, usu-
	      ally with	a mailing address and phone number.   There  is	 space
	      for  128	characters.   Equivalent to PREP in the	.genisoimagerc
	      file.

       -print-size
	      Print estimated filesystem size in multiples of the sector  size
	      (2048  bytes)  and  exit.	This option is needed for Disk At Once
	      mode and with some CD-R drives when piping directly into	wodim,
	      cases where wodim	needs to know the size of the filesystem image
	      in advance.  Old versions	 of  mkisofs  wrote  this  information
	      (among  other  information)  to stderr.  As this turns out to be
	      hard to parse, the number	without	any other information  is  now
	      printed  on  stdout  too.	  If  you like to write	a simple shell
	      script, redirect stderr and catch	the number from	stdout.	  This
	      may be done with:

		   cdblocks=` genisoimage -print-size -quiet ... `
		   genisoimage ... | wodim ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

       -quiet This  makes  genisoimage	even less verbose.  No progress	output
	      will be provided.

       -R     Generate SUSP and	RR records using the Rock  Ridge  protocol  to
	      further describe the files on the	ISO9660	filesystem.

       -r     This is like the -R option, but file ownership and modes are set
	      to more useful values.  The uid and gid are set to zero, because
	      they  are	 usually  only	useful on the author's system, and not
	      useful to	the client.  All the file read bits are	set  true,  so
	      that  files and directories are globally readable	on the client.
	      If any execute bit is set	for a file, set	 all  of  the  execute
	      bits, so that executables	are globally executable	on the client.
	      If any search bit	is set for a directory,	set all	of the	search
	      bits, so that directories	are globally searchable	on the client.
	      All write	bits are  cleared,  because  the  filesystem  will  be
	      mounted  read-only in any	case.  If any of the special mode bits
	      are set, clear them, because file	locks  are  not	 useful	 on  a
	      read-only	 filesystem, and set-id	bits are not desirable for uid
	      0	or gid 0.  When	used on	Win32, the execute bit is set  on  all
	      files. This is a result of the lack of file permissions on Win32
	      and the Cygwin POSIX emulation  layer.   See  also  -uid,	 -gid,
	      -dir-mode, -file-mode and	-new-dir-mode.

       -relaxed-filenames
	      Allows  ISO9660  filenames to include all	7-bit ASCII characters
	      except lowercase letters.
	      This violates the	ISO9660	standard, but it happens  to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -root dir
	      Moves  all  files	and directories	into dir in the	image. This is
	      essentially the same as using -graft-points and  adding  dir  in
	      front of every pathspec, but is easier to	use.  dir may actually
	      be several levels	deep. It is created with the same  permissions
	      as other graft points.

       -old-root dir
	      This  option  is necessary when writing a	multisession image and
	      the previous (or even older) session was written with -root dir.
	      Using  a directory name not found	in the previous	session	causes
	      genisoimage to  abort  with  an  error.	Without	 this  option,
	      genisoimage would	not be able to find unmodified files and would
	      be forced	to write their data into the image once	 more.	 -root
	      and  -old-root  are  meant to be used together to	do incremental
	      backups.	The initial session would e.g. use: genisoimage	 -root
	      backup_1	dirs.	The  next  incremental backup with genisoimage
	      -root backup_2 -old-root backup_1	dirs would take	another	 snap-
	      shot  of these directories. The first snapshot would be found in
	      backup_1,	the second one in backup_2, but	only modified  or  new
	      files need to be written into the	second session.	 Without these
	      options, new files would be added	and old	 ones  would  be  pre-
	      served.  But old ones would be overwritten if the	file was modi-
	      fied. Recovering the files by copying the	whole  directory  back
	      from  CD	would  also restore files that were deleted intention-
	      ally. Accessing several older versions of	a file	requires  sup-
	      port  by the operating system to choose which sessions are to be
	      mounted.

       -sort sort_file
	      Sort file	locations on the media.	Sorting	 is  controlled	 by  a
	      file that	contains pairs of filenames and	sorting	offset weight-
	      ing.  If the weighting is	 higher,  the  file  will  be  located
	      closer to	the beginning of the media, if the weighting is	lower,
	      the file will be located closer to the end of the	 media.	 There
	      must  be	only  one space	or tabs	character between the filename
	      and the weight and the weight must be the	last characters	 on  a
	      line. The	filename is taken to include all the characters	up to,
	      but not including	the last space or tab  character  on  a	 line.
	      This is to allow for space characters to be in, or at the	end of
	      a	filename.  This	option does not	sort the order	of  the	 file-
	      names  that  appear in the ISO9660 directory. It sorts the order
	      in which the file	data is	written	to the CD image, which is use-
	      ful  in  order  to  optimize  the	 data  layout  on  a  CD.  See
	      README.sort for more details.

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      See -B above.

       -sparc-label label
	      Set the Sun disk label name for the Sun disk label that is  cre-
	      ated with	-sparc-boot.

       -split-output
	      Split  the output	image into several files of approximately 1 GB
	      each.  This helps	to create DVD-sized ISO9660 images on  operat-
	      ing  systems without large file support.	wodim will concatenate
	      more than	one file into a	single track if	writing	to a DVD.   To
	      make  -split-output work,	-o filename must be specified. The re-
	      sulting output images will be named:  filename_00,  filename_01,
	      filename_02....

       -stream-media-size #
	      Select  streaming	operation and set the media size to # sectors.
	      This allows you to pipe the output of the	 tar(1)	 program  into
	      genisoimage and to create	an ISO9660 filesystem without the need
	      of an intermediate tar archive file.  If this  option  has  been
	      specified,  genisoimage reads from stdin and creates a file with
	      the name STREAM.IMG.  The	maximum	size of	the  file  (with  pad-
	      ding)  is	 200  sectors  less  than the specified	media size. If
	      -no-pad has been specified, the file size	 is  50	 sectors  less
	      than  the	 specified  media  size.   If  the  file  is  smaller,
	      genisoimage will write padding. This may take awhile.

	      The option -stream-media-size creates simple ISO9660 filesystems
	      only  and	 may  not  used	 together  with	multisession or	hybrid
	      filesystem options.

       -stream-file-name name
	      Reserved for future use.

       -sunx86-boot UFS_img,,,AUX1_img
	      Specifies	a comma-separated list of filesystem images  that  are
	      needed to	make a bootable	CD for Solaris x86 systems.

	      Note  that  partition  1	is used	for the	ISO9660	image and that
	      partition	2 is the whole disk, so	partition 1 and	2 may  not  be
	      used by external partition data.	The first image	file is	mapped
	      to partition 0.  There may be empty fields  in  the  comma-sepa-
	      rated  list,  and	 list  entries	for  partition 1 and 2 must be
	      empty.  The maximum number of supported  partitions  is  8  (al-
	      though  the  Solaris  x86	partition table	could support up to 16
	      partitions), so it is impossible to specify more than  6	parti-
	      tion  images.  This option is required to	make a bootable	CD for
	      Solaris x86 systems.

	      If -sunx86-boot has been specified, the first sector of the  re-
	      sulting  image will contain a PC fdisk label with	a Solaris type
	      0x82 fdisk partition that	starts at offset  512  and  spans  the
	      whole  CD.   In addition,	for the	Solaris	type 0x82 fdisk	parti-
	      tion, there is a SVr4 disk label at offset  1024	in  the	 first
	      sector  of  the  CD.   This disk label specifies slice 0 for the
	      first (usually UFS type) filesystem image	that is	used  to  boot
	      the  PC  and  slice  1 for the ISO9660 image.  Slice 2 spans the
	      whole CD slice 3 ... slice 7 may be used for additional filesys-
	      tem images that have been	specified with this option.

	      A	 Solaris  x86 boot CD uses a 1024 byte sized primary boot that
	      uses the	El-Torito  no-emulation	 boot  mode  and  a  secondary
	      generic boot that	is in CD sectors 1..15.	 For this reason, both
	      -b bootimage -no-emul-boot and -G	genboot	must be	specified.

       -sunx86-label label
	      Set the SVr4 disk	label name for the SVr4	 disk  label  that  is
	      created with -sunx86-boot.

       -sysid ID
	      Specifies	 the  system  ID.   There  is space for	32 characters.
	      Equivalent to SYSI in the	.genisoimagerc file.

       -T     Generate a file TRANS.TBL	in each	directory on the CD-ROM, which
	      can  be used on non-Rock Ridge-capable systems to	help establish
	      the correct filenames.  There is also information	present	in the
	      file  that  indicates  the major and minor numbers for block and
	      character	devices, and each symlink has the  name	 of  the  link
	      file given.

       -table-name table_name
	      Alternative  translation table filename (see above). Implies -T.
	      If you are creating a multisession image you must	use  the  same
	      name as in the previous session.

       -ucs-level level
	      Set  Unicode  conformance	 level	in the Joliet SVD. The default
	      level is 3.  It may be set to 1..3 using this option.

       -udf   Include UDF filesystem support in	the generated  filesystem  im-
	      age.  UDF	support	is currently in	alpha status and for this rea-
	      son, it is not possible to create	 UDF-only  images.   UDF  data
	      structures  are  currently  coupled to the Joliet	structures, so
	      there are	many pitfalls with the current	implementation.	 There
	      is  no  UID/GID  support,	 there is no POSIX permission support,
	      there is no support for symlinks.	  Note	that  UDF  wastes  the
	      space from sector	~20 to sector 256 at the beginning of the disc
	      in addition to the space needed for real UDF data	structures.

       -uid uid
	      Overrides	the uid	read from the source files  to	the  value  of
	      uid.   Specifying	 this  option automatically enables Rock Ridge
	      extensions.

       -use-fileversion
	      The option -use-fileversion allows genisoimage to	use file  ver-
	      sion  numbers  from the filesystem.  If the option is not	speci-
	      fied, genisoimage	creates	a version number of 1 for  all	files.
	      File  versions are strings in the	range ;1 to ;32767 This	option
	      is the default on	VMS.

       -U     Allows  "untranslated"  filenames,  completely   violating   the
	      ISO9660 standards	described above.  Enables the following	flags:
	      -d -l -N -allow-leading-dots -relaxed-filenames -allow-lowercase
	      -allow-multidot  -no-iso-translate.   Allows  more  than one `.'
	      character	in the filename,  as  well  as	mixed-case  filenames.
	      This is useful on	HP-UX, where the built-in cdfs filesystem does
	      not recognize any	extensions. Use	with extreme caution.

       -no-iso-translate
	      Do not translate the characters `#' and `~'  which  are  invalid
	      for  ISO9660  filenames.	Although invalid, these	characters are
	      often used by Microsoft systems.
	      This violates the	ISO9660	standard, but it happens  to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -V volid
	      Specifies	 the  volume  ID  (volume name or label) to be written
	      into the master  block.	There  is  space  for  32  characters.
	      Equivalent to VOLI in the	.genisoimagerc file.  The volume ID is
	      used as the mount	point by the Solaris volume manager and	 as  a
	      label assigned to	a disc on various other	platforms such as Win-
	      dows and Apple Mac OS.

       -volset ID
	      Specifies	the volume set ID.  There is space for 128 characters.
	      Equivalent to VOLS in the	.genisoimagerc file.

       -volset-size #
	      Sets  the	volume set size	to #.  The volume set size is the num-
	      ber of CDs that are in a CD volume set.  A volume	set is a  col-
	      lection  of  one	or  more  volumes,  on which a set of files is
	      recorded.

	      Volume Sets are not intended to be used to create	a set numbered
	      CDs that are part	of e.g.	a Operation System installation	set of
	      CDs.  Volume Sets	are rather used	to record a big	directory tree
	      that  would not fit on a single volume.  Each volume of a	Volume
	      Set contains a description of all	the directories	and files that
	      are  recorded on the volumes where the sequence numbers are less
	      than, or equal to, the assigned Volume Set Size of  the  current
	      volume.

	      genisoimage  currently  does  not	support	a -volset-size that is
	      larger than 1.

	      The option -volset-size must be specified	 before	 -volset-seqno
	      on each command line.

       -volset-seqno #
	      Sets  the	 volume	 set sequence number to	#.  The	volume set se-
	      quence number is the index number	of the current CD in a CD set.
	      The  option  -volset-size	must be	specified before -volset-seqno
	      on each command line.

       -v     Verbose execution. If given twice	on the command line, extra de-
	      bug information will be printed.

       -x glob
	      Identical	to -m glob.

       -z     Generate	special	 RRIP  records	for  transparently  compressed
	      files.  This is only of use and interest for hosts that  support
	      transparent  decompression,  such	as Linux 2.4.14	or later.  You
	      must specify -R or -r to enable Rock Ridge,  and	generate  com-
	      pressed	files	using  the  mkzftree  utility  before  running
	      genisoimage.  Note that transparent compression is a nonstandard
	      Rock  Ridge  extension.	The resulting disks are	only transpar-
	      ently readable if	used on	Linux.	On other operating systems you
	      will need	to call	mkzftree by hand to decompress the files.

HFS OPTIONS
       -hfs   Create  an  ISO9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should be used in
	      conjunction with the -map, -magic	and/or the various double dash
	      options given below.

       -apple Create  an  ISO9660 CD with Apple's extensions. Similar to -hfs,
	      except that the Apple Extensions to ISO9660 are added instead of
	      creating	an HFS hybrid volume.  Former genisoimage versions did
	      include Rock Ridge attributes by default if  -apple  was	speci-
	      fied.  This versions of genisoimage does not do this anymore. If
	      you like to have Rock Ridge attributes, you need to specify this
	      separately.

       -map mapping_file
	      Use the mapping_file to set the CREATOR and TYPE information for
	      a	file based on the filename's extension.	A filename  is	mapped
	      only  if	it is not one of the know Apple/Unix file formats. See
	      the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.

       -magic magic_file
	      The CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a file's	 magic
	      number  (usually	the first few bytes of a file).	The magic_file
	      is only used if a	file is	not one	of the known  Apple/Unix  file
	      formats,	or  the	 filename  extension has not been mapped using
	      -map.  See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for	more details.

       -hfs-creator creator
	      Set the default CREATOR for all files. Must be exactly 4 charac-
	      ters. See	the HFS	CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-type type
	      Set  the	default	 TYPE for all files. Must be exactly 4 charac-
	      ters. See	the HFS	CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -probe Search the contents of files for all the known  Apple/Unix  file
	      formats.	 See  the HFS MACINTOSH	FILE FORMATS section below for
	      more about these formats.	 However, the only way	to  check  for
	      MacBinary	 and  AppleSingle  files  is to	open and read them, so
	      this option may increase processing time.	It is  better  to  use
	      one  or  more  double dash options given below if	the Apple/Unix
	      formats in use are known.

       -no-desktop
	      Do not create (empty) Desktop files. New HFS Desktop files  will
	      be created when the CD is	used on	a Macintosh (and stored	in the
	      System Folder).  By default, empty Desktop files	are  added  to
	      the HFS volume.

       -mac-name
	      Use  the	HFS  filename  as  the starting	point for the ISO9660,
	      Joliet and Rock Ridge filenames. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES
	      section below for	more information.

       -boot-hfs-file driver_file
	      Installs the driver_file that may	make the CD bootable on	a Mac-
	      intosh. See the HFS BOOT DRIVER section below. (Alpha).

       -part  Generate an HFS partition	table. By default, no partition	 table
	      is  generated,  but  some	older Macintosh	CD-ROM drivers need an
	      HFS partition table on the CD-ROM	to be able to recognize	a  hy-
	      brid CD-ROM.

       -auto AutoStart_file
	      Make  the	 HFS  CD  use  the  QuickTime 2.0 Autostart feature to
	      launch an	application or document. The given  filename  must  be
	      the  name	 of a document or application located at the top level
	      of the CD. The filename must be less than	 12  characters.  (Al-
	      pha).

       -cluster-size size
	      Set  the	size in	bytes of the cluster or	allocation units of PC
	      Exchange files. Implies --exchange.  See the HFS MACINTOSH  FILE
	      FORMATS section below.

       -hide-hfs glob
	      Hide  glob,  a shell wildcard pattern, from the HFS volume.  The
	      file or directory	will still exist in the	ISO9660	and/or	Joliet
	      directory.   glob	 may match any part of the filename.  Multiple
	      globs may	be excluded.  Example:

		   genisoimage -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs '*.o' -hide-hfs foobar

	      would exclude all	files ending in	`.o' or	called foobar from the
	      HFS  volume.  Note that if you had a directory called foobar, it
	      too (and of course all its descendants) would be excluded.   The
	      glob  can	also be	a path name relative to	the source directories
	      given on the command line. Example:

		   genisoimage -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

	      would exclude just the file or directory called  html  from  the
	      src  directory.	Any other file or directory called html	in the
	      tree will	not be excluded.  Should be  used  with	 -hide	and/or
	      -hide-joliet.  In	order to match a directory name, make sure the
	      pattern  does  not  include  a  trailing	`/'   character.   See
	      README.hide for more details.

       -hide-hfs-list file
	      Specify a	file containing	a list of wildcard patterns to be hid-
	      den as in	-hide-hfs.

       -hfs-volid hfs_volid
	      Volume name for the HFS partition. This is the name that is  as-
	      signed  to  the  disc on a Macintosh and replaces	the volid used
	      with -V.

       -icon-position
	      Use the icon position information, if it exists,	from  the  Ap-
	      ple/Unix	file.	The  icons will	appear in the same position as
	      they would on a Macintosh	desktop. Folder	location and  size  on
	      screen,  its scroll positions, folder View (view as Icons, Small
	      Icons, etc.) are also preserved.	(Alpha).

       -root-info file
	      Set the location,	size on	screen,	scroll positions, folder  View
	      etc.  for	 the root folder of an HFS volume. See README.rootinfo
	      for more information.  (Alpha)

       -prep-boot file
	      PReP boot	image file. Up to 4 are	allowed. See  README.prep_boot
	      for more information.  (Alpha)

       -chrp-boot
	      Add CHRP boot header.

       -input-hfs-charset charset
	      Input  charset that defines the characters used in HFS filenames
	      when used	with -mac-name.	 The default charset is	 cp10000  (Mac
	      Roman).  See the CHARACTER SETS and HFS MACINTOSH	FILENAMES sec-
	      tions below for more details.

       -output-hfs-charset charset
	      Output charset that defines the characters that will be used  in
	      the  HFS filenames. Defaults to the input	charset. See the CHAR-
	      ACTER SETS section below for more	details.

       -hfs-unlock
	      By default, genisoimage  will  create  an	 HFS  volume  that  is
	      locked.	This  option  leaves the volume	unlocked so that other
	      applications (e.g.  hfsutils) can	modify the volume. See the HFS
	      PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS section below for warnings about using this
	      option.

       -hfs-bless folder_name
	      "Bless" the given	directory (folder). This is usually the	System
	      Folder and is used in creating HFS bootable CDs. The name	of the
	      directory	must be	the whole path name as	genisoimage  sees  it.
	      E.g.,  if	the given pathspec is ./cddata and the required	folder
	      is called	System Folder, the whole path name is  "/cddata/System
	      Folder" (remember	to use quotes if the name contains spaces).

       -hfs-parms parameters
	      Override	certain	 parameters used to create the HFS filesystem.
	      Unlikely to be used  in  normal  circumstances.	See  the  lib-
	      hfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

       --cap  Look  for	 AUFS  CAP  Macintosh files. Search for	CAP Apple/Unix
	      file formats only. Searching for the other  possible  Apple/Unix
	      file  formats  is	disabled, unless other double dash options are
	      given.

       --netatalk
	      Look for NETATALK	Macintosh files

       --double
	      Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --ethershare
	      Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

       --ushare
	      Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

       --exchange
	      Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

       --sgi  Look for SGI Macintosh files

       --xinet
	      Look for XINET Macintosh files

       --macbin
	      Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

       --single
	      Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

       --dave Look for Thursby Software	Systems	DAVE Macintosh files

       --sfm  Look for Microsoft's Services for	Macintosh files	(NT only) (Al-
	      pha)

       --osx-double
	      Look for Mac OS X	AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --osx-hfs
	      Look for Mac OS X	HFS Macintosh files

CHARACTER SETS
       genisoimage  processes filenames	in a POSIX-compliant way as strings of
       8-bit characters.  To represent all codings for	all  languages,	 8-bit
       characters  are	not sufficient.	 Unicode or ISO-10646 define character
       codings that need at least 21 bits to represent	all  known  languages.
       They  may  be  represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coding.	UTF-32
       uses a plain 32-bit coding but seems to be uncommon.  UTF-16 is used by
       Microsoft  with	Win32 with the disadvantage that 16-bit	characters are
       not compliant with the POSIX filesystem interface.

       Modern Unix operating systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames.  Each
       32-bit  character is represented	by one or more 8-bit characters.  If a
       character is coded in ISO-8859-1	(used  in  Central  Europe  and	 North
       America)	is maps	1:1 to a UTF-32	or UTF-16 coded	Unicode	character.  If
       a character is coded in 7-Bit ASCII (used in USA	 and  other  countries
       with  limited  character	 set) is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8
       coded Unicode character.	 Character codes that cannot be	represented as
       a  single  byte	in UTF-8 (if the value is > 0x7F) use escape sequences
       that map	to more	than one 8-bit character.

       If all operating	systems	used UTF-8, genisoimage	would not need to  re-
       code  characters	 in  filenames.	  Unfortunately, Apple uses completely
       nonstandard codings and Microsoft uses a	Unicode	 coding	 that  is  not
       compatible with the POSIX filename interface.

       For  all	 non-UTF-8-coded  operating systems, the actual	character that
       each byte represents depends on the character set or codepage (the name
       used by Microsoft) used by the local operating system --	the characters
       in a character set will reflect the region or natural language  set  by
       the user.

       Usually	 character  codes  0x00-0x1f  are  control  characters,	 codes
       0x20-0x7f are  the  7-bit  ASCII	 characters  and  (on  PCs  and	 Macs)
       0x80-0xff are used for other characters.

       As  there  are  a  lot  more than 256 characters/symbols	in use,	only a
       small subset are	represented in a character  set.  Therefore  the  same
       character code may represent a different	character in different charac-
       ter sets. So a filename generated, say in central Europe, may not  dis-
       play  the  same	character when viewed on a machine in, say eastern Eu-
       rope.

       To make matters more complicated, different operating systems use  dif-
       ferent  character  sets	for  the  region or language. For example, the
       character code for `e' (small e with acute  accent)  may	 be  character
       code 0x82 on a PC, code 0x8e on a Macintosh, code 0xe9 on a Unix	system
       in western Europe, and code 0x000e9 in Unicode.

       As long as not all operating systems  and  applications	use  the  same
       character  set as the basis for filenames, it may be necessary to spec-
       ify which character set your filenames use in and which	character  set
       the filenames should appear on the CD.

       There are four options to specify the character sets you	want to	use:

       -input-charset
	      Defines  the  local character set	you are	using on your host ma-
	      chine.  Any character set	conversions that take place  will  use
	      this  character  set  as	the  starting point. The default input
	      character	sets are cp437 on MS-DOS-based systems	and  iso8859-1
	      on  all  other systems.  If -J is	given, the Unicode equivalents
	      of the input character set will be used in the Joliet directory.
	      -jcharset	is the same as -input-charset -J.

       -output-charset
	      Defines  the  character  set that	will be	used with for the Rock
	      Ridge names on the CD.  Defaults to the input character set.

       -input-hfs-charset
	      Defines the HFS character	set used  for  HFS  filenames  decoded
	      from  any	 of  the  various Apple/Unix file formats. Only	useful
	      when used	with -mac-name.	 See the HFS MACINTOSH	FILENAMES  for
	      more information.	Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

       -output-hfs-charset
	      Defines  the HFS character set used to create HFS	filenames from
	      the input	character set in use. In most cases this will be  from
	      the  character  set  given with -input-charset.  Defaults	to the
	      input HFS	character set.

       There are a number of character sets built in to	genisoimage.  To get a
       listing,	 use  -input-charset  help.   This  list  doesn't  include the
       charset derived from the	current	locale,	if genisoimage is  built  with
       iconv support.

       Additional  character sets can be read from file	for any	of the charac-
       ter set options by giving a filename as the argument  to	 the  options.
       The  given file will only be read if its	name does not match one	of the
       built-in	character sets.

       The format of the character set files is	the same as the	mapping	 files
       available from http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS.  This format is:

	      Column #1	is the input byte code (in hex as 0xXX)
	      Column #2	is the Unicode (in hex as 0xXXXX)
	      The rest of the line is ignored.

       Any  blank line,	line without two (or more) columns in the above	format
       or comments lines (starting with	the # character) are  ignored  without
       any  warnings.  Any  missing  input code	is mapped to Unicode character
       0x0000.

       Note that, while	UTF-8 is supported, other Unicode  encodings  such  as
       UCS-2/UTF-16  and UCS-4/UTF-32 are not, as POSIX	operating systems can-
       not handle them natively.

       A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the keyword default
       as the argument to any of the character set options. This is the	behav-
       iour of old versions of mkisofs.

       The ISO9660 filenames generated from the	input filenames	are  not  con-
       verted  from  the  input	 character set.	The ISO9660 character set is a
       very limited subset of the ASCII	characters, so any conversion would be
       pointless.

       Any  character  that genisoimage	cannot convert will be replaced	with a
       `_' character.

HFS CREATOR/TYPE
       A Macintosh file	has two	properties associated  with  it	 which	define
       which  application created the file, the	CREATOR	and what data the file
       contains, the TYPE.  Both are (exactly) 4 letter	strings. Usually  this
       allows  a  Macintosh user to double-click on a file and launch the cor-
       rect application	etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a particular file can  be
       found by	using something	like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

       The  CREATOR  and  TYPE	information  is	 stored	in all the various Ap-
       ple/Unix	encoded	files.	For other files	it is  possible	 to  base  the
       CREATOR and TYPE	on the filename's extension using a mapping file (with
       -map) and/or using the magic number (usually a signature	in  the	 first
       few  bytes)  of a file (with -magic).  If both these options are	given,
       their order on the command line	is  significant.   If  -map  is	 given
       first,  a  filename  extension match is attempted before	a magic	number
       match. However, if -magic is given first, a magic number	match  is  at-
       tempted before a	filename extension match.

       If  a  mapping or magic file is not used, or no match is	found, the de-
       fault CREATOR and TYPE for all regular files can	be set	by  using  en-
       tries   in   the	 .genisoimagerc	 file  or  using  -hfs-creator	and/or
       -hfs-type, otherwise the	default	CREATOR	and TYPE are Unix and TEXT.

       The format of the mapping file is the same afpfile format  as  used  by
       aufs.   This file has five columns for the extension, file translation,
       CREATOR,	TYPE and Comment.  Lines starting with the `#'	character  are
       comment lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

       # Example filename mapping file
       #
       # EXTN	XLate	CREATOR	  TYPE	   Comment
       .tif	Raw	'8BIM'	  'TIFF'   "Photoshop TIFF image"
       .hqx	Ascii	'BnHq'	  'TEXT'   "BinHex file"
       .doc	Raw	'MSWD'	  'WDBN'   "Word file"
       .mov	Raw	'TVOD'	  'MooV'   "QuickTime Movie"
       *	Ascii	'ttxt'	  'TEXT'   "Text file"

       Where:

	      The  first column	EXTN defines the Unix filename extension to be
	      mapped. The default mapping  for	any  filename  extension  that
	      doesn't match is defined with the	`*' character.

	      The  Xlate  column  defines the type of text translation between
	      the Unix and Macintosh file it is	ignored	by genisoimage,	but is
	      kept  to	be compatible with aufs(1).  Although genisoimage does
	      not alter	the contents of	a file,	if a binary file has its  TYPE
	      set  as  TEXT, it	may be read incorrectly	on a Macintosh.	There-
	      fore a better choice for the default TYPE	may be ????.

	      The CREATOR and TYPE keywords must be 4 characters long and  en-
	      closed in	single quotes.

	      The  comment field is enclosed in	double quotes -- it is ignored
	      by genisoimage, but is kept to be	compatible with	aufs.

       The format of the magic file is almost identical	to the	magic(5)  file
       used by the file(1) command.

       This  file  has	four  tab-separated columns for	the byte offset, type,
       test and	message.  Lines	starting with the `#'  character  are  comment
       lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

       # Example magic file
       #
       # off   type	 test	    message
       0       string	 GIF8	    8BIM GIFf  GIF image
       0       beshort	 0xffd8	    8BIM JPEG  image data
       0       string	 SIT!	    SIT! SIT!  StuffIt Archive
       0       string	 \037\235   LZIV ZIVU  standard	Unix compress
       0       string	 \037\213   GNUz ZIVU  gzip compressed data
       0       string	 %!	    ASPS TEXT  Postscript
       0       string	 \004%!	    ASPS TEXT  PC Postscript with a ^D to start
       4       string	 moov	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
       4       string	 mdat	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

       The  format  of the file	is described in	magic(5).  The only difference
       here is that for	each entry in the magic	file, the message for the ini-
       tial offset must	be be 4	characters for the CREATOR followed by 4 char-
       acters for the TYPE -- white space is optional between them. Any	 other
       characters on this line are ignored.  Continuation lines	(starting with
       a `>') are also ignored,	i.e., only the initial offset lines are	used.

       Using -magic may	significantly increase processing time	as  each  file
       has to opened and read to find its magic	number.

       In  summary, for	all files, the default CREATOR is Unix and the default
       TYPE is TEXT.  These can	be changed by using entries in the  .genisoim-
       agerc file or by	using -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type.

       If the a	file is	in one of the known Apple/Unix formats (and the	format
       has been	selected), the CREATOR and TYPE	 are  taken  from  the	values
       stored in the Apple/Unix	file.

       Other files can have their CREATOR and TYPE set from their filename ex-
       tension (with -map), or their magic number (with	-magic).  If  the  de-
       fault  match is used in the mapping file, these values override the de-
       fault CREATOR and TYPE.

       A  full	CREATOR/TYPE  database	can   be   found   at	http://www.an-
       gelfire.com/il/szekely/.

HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS
       Macintosh  files	have two parts called the Data and Resource fork.  Ei-
       ther may	be empty. Unix (and many other OSs) can	only cope  with	 files
       having  one part	(or fork). To add to this, Macintosh files have	a num-
       ber of attributes associated with them -- probably the  most  important
       are the TYPE and	CREATOR.  Again, Unix has no concept of	these types of
       attributes.

       E.g., a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where	the image is stored in
       the  Data  fork and a desktop thumbnail stored in the Resource fork. It
       is usually the information in the data fork that	is useful across plat-
       forms.

       Therefore  to store a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem, a way	has to
       be found	to cope	with the two forks and the extra attributes (which are
       referred	 to  as	 the Finder info).  Unfortunately, it seems that every
       software	package	that stores Macintosh files on Unix has	chosen a  com-
       pletely different storage method.

       The Apple/Unix formats that genisoimage (partially) supports are:

       CAP AUFS	format
	      Data  fork  stored in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory .re-
	      source with same filename	as data	fork. Finder info in subdirec-
	      tory .finderinfo with same filename.

       AppleDouble/Netatalk
	      Data  fork stored	in a file. Resource fork stored	in a file with
	      same name	prefixed with `%'. Finder info also stored in same `%'
	      file.   Netatalk	 uses	the  same  format,  but	 the  resource
	      fork/Finder info stored in subdirectory .AppleDouble  with  same
	      filename as data fork.

       AppleSingle
	      Data  structures	similar	to above, except both forks and	Finder
	      info are stored in one file.

       Helios EtherShare
	      Data fork	stored in a file.  Resource fork and Finder  info  to-
	      gether in	subdirectory .rsrc with	same filename as data fork.

       IPT UShare
	      Like  the	 EtherShare  format,  but  the	Finder	info is	stored
	      slightly differently.

       MacBinary
	      Both forks and Finder info stored	in one file.

       Apple PC	Exchange
	      Used by Macintoshes to store Apple files	on  DOS	 (FAT)	disks.
	      Data  fork  stored  in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory re-
	      source.frk (or RESOURCE.FRK).  Finder info as one	record in file
	      finder.dat  (or  FINDER.DAT).  Separate finder.dat for each data
	      fork directory.

	      Note: genisoimage	needs to know the native FAT cluster  size  of
	      the  disk	that the PC Exchange files are on (or have been	copied
	      from). This size is given	by -cluster-size.  The cluster or  al-
	      location size can	be found by using the DOS utility chkdsk.

	      May  not	work  with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available
	      with MacOS 8.1).	DOS media containing PC	Exchange files	should
	      be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       SGI/XINET
	      Used by SGI machines when	they mount HFS disks. Data fork	stored
	      in a file.  Resource fork	in subdirectory	.HSResource with  same
	      filename.	 Finder	info as	one record in file .HSancillary.  Sep-
	      arate .HSancillary for each data fork directory.

       Thursby Software	Systems	DAVE
	      Allows Macintoshes to store Apple	files on  SMB  servers.	  Data
	      fork  stored  in	a  file.  Resource  fork  in  subdirectory re-
	      source.frk.  Uses	the AppleDouble	format to store	resource fork.

       Services	for Macintosh
	      Format of	files stored by	NT Servers on NTFS  filesystems.  Data
	      fork  is	stored	as  filename.	Resource fork stored as	a NTFS
	      stream called filename:AFP_Resource.  The	Finder info is	stored
	      as  a NTFS stream	called filename:Afp_AfpInfo.  NTFS streams are
	      normally invisible to the	user.

	      Warning: genisoimage only	partially supports the SFM format.  If
	      an  HFS file or folder stored on the NT server contains an ille-
	      gal NT character in its name, NT converts	 these	characters  to
	      Private Use Unicode characters.  The characters are: " * / < > ?
	      \	| and a	space or period	if it is the  last  character  of  the
	      filename,	 character codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control characters) and
	      Apple's apple logo.

	      Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are not readable
	      by  the  genisoimage NT executable. Therefore any	file or	direc-
	      tory name	containing these characters will be ignored -- includ-
	      ing the contents of any such directory.

       Mac OS X	AppleDouble
	      When HFS/HFS+ files are copied or	saved by Mac OS	X on to	a non-
	      HFS filesystem (e.g. UFS,	NFS etc.), the files are stored	in Ap-
	      pleDouble	 format.   Data	 fork  stored in a file. Resource fork
	      stored in	a file with same name prefixed with `._'. Finder  info
	      also stored in same `._' file.

       Mac OS X	HFS (Alpha)
	      Not  really an Apple/Unix	encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files on
	      a	Mac OS X system. Data fork stored in  a	 file.	Resource  fork
	      stored  in  a  pseudo  file  with	 the same name with the	suffix
	      /rsrc.  The Finder info is only available	via a Mac OS X library
	      call.

	      See also README.macosx.

	      Only works when used on Mac OS X.

	      If  a  file  is found with a zero	length resource	fork and empty
	      finderinfo, it is	assumed	not to have any	Apple/Unix encoding --
	      therefore	a TYPE and CREATOR can be set using other methods.

       genisoimage  will  attempt  to set the CREATOR, TYPE, date and possibly
       other flags from	the finder info. Additionally, if it exists, the  Mac-
       intosh  filename	 is  set from the finder info, otherwise the Macintosh
       name is based on	the Unix filename -- see the HFS  MACINTOSH  FILENAMES
       section below.

       When using -apple, the TYPE and CREATOR are stored in the optional Sys-
       tem Use or SUSP field in	the ISO9660 Directory Record --	 in  much  the
       same  way  as the Rock Ridge attributes are. In fact to make life easy,
       the Apple extensions are	added at the beginning of  the	existing  Rock
       Ridge  attributes  (i.e.,  to get the Apple extensions you get the Rock
       Ridge extensions	as well).

       The Apple extensions require the	resource  fork	to  be	stored	as  an
       ISO9660	associated  file.  This	is just	like any normal	file stored in
       the ISO9660 filesystem except that the associated file flag is  set  in
       the  Directory  Record (bit 2). This file has the same name as the data
       fork (the file seen by non-Apple	machines). Associated files  are  nor-
       mally ignored by	other OSs

       When  using  -hfs,  the	TYPE  and  CREATOR plus	other finder info, are
       stored in a separate HFS	directory, not visible on the ISO9660  volume.
       The  HFS	directory references the same data and resource	fork files de-
       scribed above.

       In most cases, it is better to use -hfs instead of -apple, as the  lat-
       ter  imposes  the limited ISO9660 characters allowed in filenames. How-
       ever, the Apple extensions do give the advantage	 that  the  files  are
       packed  on the disk more	efficiently and	it may be possible to fit more
       files on	a CD.

HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES
       Where possible, the HFS filename	that is	stored with an Apple/Unix file
       is used for the HFS part	of the CD. However, not	all the	Apple/Unix en-
       codings store the HFS filename with the finderinfo. In these cases, the
       Unix filename is	used --	with escaped special characters. Special char-
       acters include `/' and characters with codes over 127.

       AUFS escapes these characters by	using `:' followed  by	the  character
       code  as	two hex	digits.	Netatalk and EtherShare	have a similar scheme,
       but uses	`%' instead of a `:'.

       If genisoimage cannot find an HFS filename, it uses the Unix name, with
       any %xx or :xx characters (xx are two hex digits) converted to a	single
       character code.	If xx are not hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]),	they are  left
       alone  -- although any remaining	`:' is converted to `%', as `:'	is the
       HFS directory separator.	Care must be taken, as an ordinary  Unix  file
       with %xx	or :xx will also be converted. e.g.

       This:2fFile   converted to This/File

       This:File     converted to This%File

       This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

       Although	 HFS  filenames	appear to support uppercase and	lowercase let-
       ters, the filesystem is case-insensitive, i.e., the filenames  aBc  and
       AbC  are	 the same. If a	file is	found in a directory with the same HFS
       name, genisoimage will attempt to make a	 unique	 name  by  adding  `_'
       characters to one of the	filenames.

       If  an HFS filename exists for a	file, genisoimage can use this name as
       the starting point for the ISO9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge filenames us-
       ing  -mac-name.	 Normal	 Unix files without an HFS name	will still use
       their Unix name.	 e.g.

       If a MacBinary (or PC Exchange) file is stored as someimage.gif.bin  on
       the Unix	filesystem, but	contains a HFS file called someimage.gif, this
       is the name that	would appear on	the HFS	part of	the  CD.  However,  as
       genisoimage  uses  the  Unix  name  as the starting point for the other
       names, the ISO9660 name generated will probably be SOMEIMAG.BIN and the
       Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.bin.  This option will use the
       HFS filename as the starting point and the ISO9660 name	will  probably
       be SOMEIMAG.GIF and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.

       -mac-name will not currently work with -T -- the	Unix name will be used
       in the TRANS.TBL	file, not the Macintosh	name.

       The character set used to convert any HFS  filename  to	a  Joliet/Rock
       Ridge filename defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).	The character set used
       can be specified	using -input-hfs-charset.  Other built-in HFS  charac-
       ter  sets  are:	cp10006	 (MacGreek),  cp10007  (MacCyrillic),  cp10029
       (MacLatin2), cp10079 (MacIcelandandic) and cp10081 (MacTurkish).

       Note: the character codes used by HFS filenames taken from the  various
       Apple/Unix  formats  will not be	converted as they are assumed to be in
       the correct Apple character set.	Only the Joliet/Rock Ridge  names  de-
       rived from the HFS filenames will be converted.

       The  existing  genisoimage  code	will filter out	any illegal characters
       for the ISO9660 and Joliet filenames, but as genisoimage	expects	to  be
       dealing directly	with Unix names, it leaves the Rock Ridge names	as is.
       But as `/' is a legal HFS filename character, -mac-name converts	`/' to
       a `_' in	Rock Ridge filenames.

       If  the	Apple extensions are used, only	the ISO9660 filenames will ap-
       pear on the Macintosh. However, as the Macintosh	 ISO9660  drivers  can
       use Level 2 filenames, you can use options like -allow-multidot without
       problems	on a Macintosh -- still	take care over the names, for  example
       this.file.name  will  be	converted to THIS.FILE i.e. only have one `.',
       also filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH but abcdefghi  will  be
       seen as ABCDEFGHI.  i.e.	with a `.' at the end -- don't know if this is
       a Macintosh problem or a	genisoimage/mkhybrid  problem.	All  filenames
       will  be	in uppercase when viewed on a Macintosh. Of course, DOS/Win3.X
       machines	will not be able to see	Level 2	filenames...

HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS
       To give a HFS CD	a custom icon, make sure the root (top	level)	folder
       includes	a standard Macintosh volume icon file. To give a volume	a cus-
       tom icon	on a Macintosh,	an icon	has to be  pasted  over	 the  volume's
       icon  in	 the  "Get  Info" box of the volume. This creates an invisible
       file called Icon\r (`\r'	is the carriage	return character) in the  root
       folder.

       A custom	folder icon is very similar -- an invisible file called	Icon\r
       exists in the folder itself.

       Probably	the easiest way	to create a custom icon	that  genisoimage  can
       use  is to format a blank HFS floppy disk on a Mac and paste an icon to
       its "Get	Info" box. If using Linux with the HFS module installed, mount
       the floppy:

	      mount -t hfs /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

       The  floppy  will  be mounted as	a CAP filesystem by default.  Then run
       genisoimage using something like:

	      genisoimage --cap	-o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

       If you are not using Linux, you can use hfsutils	to copy	the icon  file
       from  the floppy.  However, care	has to be taken, as the	icon file con-
       tains a control character.  For example:

	      hmount /dev/fd0
	      hdir -a
	      hcopy -m Icon^V^M	icon_dir/icon

       Where `^V^M' is control-V followed by control-M.	Then  run  genisoimage
       by using	something like:

	      genisoimage --macbin -o output source_dir	icon_dir

       The procedure for creating/using	custom folder icons is very similar --
       paste an	icon to	folder's "Get Info" box	 and  transfer	the  resulting
       Icon\r file to the relevant directory in	the genisoimage	source tree.

       You may want to hide the	icon files from	the ISO9660 and	Joliet trees.

       To  give	a custom icon to a Joliet CD, follow the instructions found at
       http://www.cdrfaq.org/faq03.html#S3-21-1.

HFS BOOT DRIVER
       It may be possible to make the hybrid CD	bootable on a Macintosh.

       A bootable HFS CD requires an Apple CD-ROM (or  compatible)  driver,  a
       bootable	HFS partition and the necessary	System,	Finder,	etc. files.

       A driver	can be obtained	from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM using
       the  apple_driver  utility.  This  file	 can   then   be   used	  with
       -boot-hfs-file.

       The  HFS	 partition  (i.e.  the hybrid disk in our case)	must contain a
       suitable	System Folder, again from another CD-ROM or disk.

       For a partition to be bootable, it must have its	boot  block  set.  The
       boot  block  is	in  the	 first	two  blocks of a partition. For	a non-
       bootable	partition the boot block is full of zeros.  Normally,  when  a
       System  file is copied to partition on a	Macintosh disk,	the boot block
       is filled with a	number of required settings -- unfortunately  I	 don't
       know the	full spec for the boot block, so I'm guessing that the follow-
       ing will	work.

       Therefore, the utility apple_driver also	extracts the boot  block  from
       the  first  HFS partition it finds on the given CD-ROM and this is used
       for the HFS partition created by	genisoimage.

       Please note: By using a driver from an Apple CD and copying Apple soft-
       ware  to	 your CD, you become liable to obey Apple Computer, Inc. Soft-
       ware License Agreements.

EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE
       When -boot-info-table is	given, genisoimage will	modify the  boot  file
       specified by -b by inserting a 56-byte boot information table at	offset
       8 in the	file.  This modification is done in the	source filesystem,  so
       make  sure  you	use a copy if this file	is not easily recreated!  This
       file contains pointers which may	not be easily or reliably obtained  at
       boot time.

       The  format  of	this  table is as follows; all integers	are in section
       7.3.1 ("little endian") format.

	 Offset	   Name		  Size	    Meaning
	  8	   bi_pvd	  4 bytes   LBA	of primary volume descriptor
	 12	   bi_file	  4 bytes   LBA	of boot	file
	 16	   bi_length	  4 bytes   Boot file length in	bytes
	 20	   bi_csum	  4 bytes   32-bit checksum
	 24	   bi_reserved	  40 bytes  Reserved

	      The 32-bit checksum is the sum of	all the	32-bit	words  in  the
	      boot  file  starting  at	byte  offset 64.  All linear block ad-
	      dresses (LBAs) are given in CD sectors (normally 2048 bytes).

HPPA NOTES
       To make a bootable CD for HPPA, at the very least a  boot  loader  file
       (-hppa-bootloader),  a  kernel image file (32-bit, 64-bit, or both, de-
       pending on hardware) and	a boot command line  (-hppa-cmdline)  must  be
       specified.  Some	 systems can boot either a 32- or a 64-bit kernel, and
       the firmware will choose	 one  if  both	are  present.	Optionally,  a
       ramdisk can be used for the root	filesystem using -hppa-cmdline.

JIGDO NOTES
       Jigdo  is a tool	to help	in the distribution of large files like	CD and
       DVD images; see http://atterer.org/jigdo/ for more details.  Debian CDs
       and  DVD	 ISO  images are published on the web in jigdo format to allow
       end users to download them more efficiently.

       To create jigdo	and  template  files  alongside	 the  ISO  image  from
       genisoimage,  you  must first generate a	list of	the files that will be
       used, in	the following format:

	 MD5sum	  File size  Path
	 32 chars 12 chars   to	end of line

       The MD5sum must be written in standard hexadecimal notation,  the  file
       size  must  list	 the size of the file in bytes,	and the	path must list
       the absolute path to the	file. For example:

       00006dcd58ff0756c36d2efae21be376		14736  /mirror/debian/file1
       000635c69b254a1be8badcec3a8d05c1	       211822  /mirror/debian/file2
       00083436a3899a09633fc1026ef1e66e		22762  /mirror/debian/file3

       Once you	have this file,	call genisoimage with all of your normal  com-
       mand-line  parameters.  Specify	the output filenames for the jigdo and
       template	files using -jigdo-jigdo and -jigdo-template, and pass in  the
       location	of your	MD5 list with -md5-list.

       If there	are files that you do NOT want to be added into	the jigdo file
       (e.g.  if  they	are  likely  to	 change	 often),  specify  them	 using
       -jigdo-exclude.	If  you	 want  to verify some of the files as they are
       written into the	image, specify them  using  -jigdo-force-md5.  If  any
       files  don't match, genisoimage will then abort.	 Both of these options
       take regular expressions	as input. It is	possible to restrict  the  set
       of  files  that	will  be  used	further	 based	on  size  --  use  the
       -jigdo-min-file-size option.

       Finally,	the jigdo code needs to	know how to map	the files it is	 given
       onto  a	mirror-style  configuration.  Specify  how  to map paths using
       -jigdo-map.  Using Debian=/mirror/debian	will cause all paths  starting
       with  /mirror/debian  to	be mapped to Debian:_file_ in the output jigdo
       file.

EXAMPLES
       To create a vanilla ISO9660 filesystem image in the file	cd.iso,	 where
       the directory cd_dir will become	the root directory of the CD, call:

	      %	genisoimage -o cd.iso cd_dir

       To  create  a  CD  with	Rock  Ridge extensions of the source directory
       cd_dir:

	      %	genisoimage -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock	 Ridge	extensions  of	the  source  directory
       cd_dir  where all files have at least read permission and all files are
       owned by	root, call:

	      %	genisoimage -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

       To write	a tar archive directly to a CD that will later contain a  sim-
       ple ISO9660 filesystem with the tar archive call:

	      %	tar cf - . | genisoimage -stream-media-size 333000 | \
		   wodim dev=b,t,l -dao	tsize=333000s -

       To  create a HFS	hybrid CD with the Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions of
       the source directory cd_dir:

	      %	genisoimage -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

       To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory  cd_dir  that  con-
       tains Netatalk Apple/Unix files:

	      %	genisoimage -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

       To  create a HFS	hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving all
       files CREATOR and TYPES based on	just their filename extensions	listed
       in the file "mapping".:

	      %	genisoimage -o cd.iso -map mapping cd_dir

       To  create  a  CD with the Apple	Extensions to ISO9660, from the	source
       directories cd_dir and another_dir.  Files in all the known  Apple/Unix
       format are decoded and any other	files are given	CREATOR	and TYPE based
       on their	magic number given in the file magic:

	      %	genisoimage -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
		      cd_dir another_dir

       The following example puts different files on the CD that all have  the
       name  README,  but  have	different contents when	seen as	a ISO9660/Rock
       Ridge, Joliet or	HFS CD.

       Current directory contains:

	      %	ls -F
	      README.hfs     README.joliet  README.Unix	   cd_dir/

       The following command puts the contents of the directory	cd_dir on  the
       CD  along with the three	README files --	but only one will be seen from
       each of the three filesystems:

	      %	genisoimage -o cd.iso -hfs -J -r -graft-points \
		      -hide README.hfs -hide README.joliet \
		      -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.Unix \
		      -hide-hfs	README.joliet -hide-hfs	README.Unix \
		      README=README.hfs	README=README.joliet \
		      README=README.Unix cd_dir

       i.e. the	file README.hfs	will be	seen as	README on the HFS CD  and  the
       other  two  README  files  will be hidden. Similarly for	the Joliet and
       ISO9660/Rock Ridge CD.

       There are probably all sorts of strange results possible	with  combina-
       tions of	the hide options ...

NOTES
       genisoimage  may	 safely	 be installed suid root. This may be needed to
       allow genisoimage to read the previous session when creating  a	multi-
       session image.

       If  genisoimage	is  creating  a	 filesystem  image with	Rock Ridge at-
       tributes	and the	directory nesting level	of the source  directory  tree
       is too much for ISO9660,	genisoimage will do deep directory relocation.
       This results in a directory called RR_MOVED in the  root	 directory  of
       the CD. You cannot avoid	this directory.

       Many  boot  code	 options for different platforms are mutualy exclusive
       because the boot	blocks cannot coexist, ie. different  platforms	 share
       the  same  data locations in the	image. See http://lists.debian.org/de-
       bian-cd/2006/12/msg00109.html for details.

BUGS
       Any files that have hard	links to files not in the tree being copied to
       the ISO9660 filesystem will have	an incorrect file reference count.

       Does not	check for SUSP record(s) in `.'	entry of the root directory to
       verify the existence of	Rock  Ridge  enhancements.   This  problem  is
       present	when  reading  old  sessions while adding data in multisession
       mode.

       Does not	properly read relocated	directories in multisession mode  when
       adding  data.   Any relocated deep directory is lost if the new session
       does not	include	the deep directory.

       Does not	re-use RR_MOVED	when doing multisession	from TRANS.TBL.

       Does not	create whole_name entry	for RR_MOVED in	multisession mode.

       There may be other bugs.	 Please, report	them to	the maintainers.

HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS
       I have had to make several assumptions on how  I	 expect	 the  modified
       libhfs  routines	to work, however there may be situations that either I
       haven't thought of, or come across when these assumptions fail.	There-
       fore I can't guarantee that genisoimage will work as expected (although
       I haven't had a major problem yet). Most	of the HFS features work fine,
       but some	are not	fully tested. These are	marked as Alpha	above.

       Although	 HFS  filenames	appear to support uppercase and	lowercase let-
       ters, the filesystem is case-insensitive, i.e., the filenames  aBc  and
       AbC  are	 the same. If a	file is	found in a directory with the same HFS
       name, genisoimage will attempt to make a	 unique	 name  by  adding  `_'
       characters to one of the	filenames.

       HFS  file/directory  names that share the first 31 characters have `_N'
       (a decimal number) substituted for the last few characters to  generate
       unique names.

       Care must be taken when "grafting" Apple/Unix files or directories (see
       above for the method and	syntax involved). It is	not possible to	use  a
       new name	for an Apple/Unix encoded file/directory. e.g. If a Apple/Unix
       encoded file called oldname is to added to the CD, you cannot  use  the
       command line:

	      genisoimage  -o  output.raw  -hfs	 -graft-points newname=oldname
	      cd_dir

       genisoimage will	be unable to decode oldname.  However, you  can	 graft
       Apple/Unix  encoded  files or directories as long as you	do not attempt
       to give them new	names as above.

       When creating an	HFS volume with	the multisession options, -M  and  -C,
       only  files  in	the  last  session  will  be  in  the HFS volume. i.e.
       genisoimage cannot add existing files from previous sessions to the HFS
       volume.

       However,	 if  each session is created with -part, each session will ap-
       pear as separate	volumes	when mounted on	a Mac. In  this	 case,	it  is
       worth using -V or -hfs-volid to give each session a unique volume name,
       otherwise each "volume" will appear on the Desktop with the same	name.

       Symbolic	links (as with all other non-regular files) are	not  added  to
       the HFS directory.

       Hybrid  volumes	may be larger than pure	ISO9660	volumes	containing the
       same data. In some cases	(e.g. DVD sized	volumes) the difference	can be
       significant. As an HFS volume gets bigger, so does the allocation block
       size (the smallest amount of space a file can occupy).  For a 650MB CD,
       the allocation block is 10kB, for a 4.7GB DVD it	will be	about 70kB.

       The maximum number of files in an HFS volume is about 65500 -- although
       the real	limit will be somewhat less than this.

       The resulting hybrid volume can be accessed on a	Unix machine by	 using
       the hfsutils routines. However, no changes can be made to the volume as
       it is set as locked.  The option	-hfs-unlock will create	an output  im-
       age  that  is unlocked -- however no changes should be made to the con-
       tents of	the volume (unless you really know what	you are	doing) as it's
       not a "real" HFS	volume.

       -mac-name will not currently work with -T -- the	Unix name will be used
       in the TRANS.TBL	file, not the Macintosh	name.

       Although	genisoimage does not alter the contents	of a file, if a	binary
       file  has  its TYPE set as TEXT,	it may be read incorrectly on a	Macin-
       tosh. Therefore a better	choice for the default TYPE may	be ????.

       -mac-boot-file may not work at all...

       May not work with PC Exchange v2.2  or  higher  files  (available  with
       MacOS  8.1).   DOS media	containing PC Exchange files should be mounted
       as type msdos (not vfat)	when using Linux.

       The SFM format is only partially	supported -- see  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE
       FORMATS section above.

       It   is	 not   possible	 to  use  -sparc-boot  or  -generic-boot  with
       -boot-hfs-file or -prep-boot.

       genisoimage should be able to create HFS	hybrid images  over  4Gb,  al-
       though this has not been	fully tested.

SEE ALSO
       genisoimagerc(5), wodim(1), mkzftree(8),	magic(5).

AUTHORS
       genisoimage  is derived from mkisofs from the cdrtools 2.01.01a08 pack-
       age from	May 2006 (with few updates extracted from cdrtools  2.01.01a24
       from March 2007)	from .IR http://cdrecord.berlios.de/ , but is now part
       of the cdrkit suite, maintained by Joerg	Jaspert, Eduard	 Bloch,	 Steve
       McIntyre,  Peter	 Samuelson, Christian Fromme, Ben Hutchings, and other
       contributors.   The  maintainers	 can  be  contacted   at   debburn-de-
       vel@lists.alioth.debian.org,  or	 see  the  cdrkit  project web site at
       http://www.cdrkit.org/.

       Eric Youngdale wrote the	first versions (1993-1998) of  mkisofs.	  Jorg
       Schilling  wrote	 the SCSI transport library and	its interface, and has
       maintained mkisofs since	1999.  James  Pearson  wrote  the  HFS	hybrid
       code, using libhfs by Robert Leslie.  Pearson, Schilling, Jungshik Shin
       and Jaakko Heinonen contributed to the character	set  conversion	 code.
       The cdrkit maintainers have maintained genisoimage since	2006.

       Copyright 1993-1998 by Yggdrasil	Computing, Inc.
       Copyright 1996-1997 by Robert Leslie
       Copyright 1997-2001 by James Pearson
       Copyright 1999-2006 by Jorg Schilling
       Copyright 2007 by Jorg Schilling	(originating few updates)
       Copyright 2002-2003 by Jungshik Shin
       Copyright 2003 by Jaakko	Heinonen
       Copyright 2006 by the Cdrkit maintainers

       If  you	want  to  take part in the development of genisoimage, you may
       join the	cdrkit developer mailing list by following the instructions on
       http://alioth.debian.org/mail/?group_id=31006.	The  email  address of
       the list	is debburn-devel@lists.alioth.debian.org.  This	 is  also  the
       address	for user support questions.  Note that cdrkit and cdrtools are
       not affiliated.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group	in the	US  and	 other
       countries.

				  13 Dec 2006			GENISOIMAGE(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | HFS OPTIONS | CHARACTER SETS | HFS CREATOR/TYPE | HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS | HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES | HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS | HFS BOOT DRIVER | EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE | HPPA NOTES | JIGDO NOTES | EXAMPLES | NOTES | BUGS | HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS | SEE ALSO | AUTHORS | ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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