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FXLOAD(8)		   Linux Programmer's Manual		     FXLOAD(8)

NAME
       fxload -	Firmware download to EZ-USB devices

SYNOPSIS
       fxload  [ -v ] [	-l ] [ -B backend] [ -D	devpath	] [ -I firmware	] [ -t
       type ] [	-c config ] [ -s loader	]
       fxload [	-D devpath ] [ -L link ] [ -m mode ]
       fxload [	-V ]

DESCRIPTION
       fxload is a program which downloads firmware to USB  devices  based  on
       AnchorChips  EZ-USB, Cypress EZ-USB FX, or Cypress EZ-USB FX2/FX2LP/FX3
       microcontrollers.  These	have 8-bit 8051	cores with special  extensions
       for  USB	 I/O.	The  FX2  supports  high  speed	USB 2.0	transfers (480
       Mbit/sec) as well as full speed USB 1.1 transfers (12 Mbit/sec),	 while
       the  earlier parts support only full speed transfers.  The FX3 supports
       super speed USB 3.0 transfers and has a 32-bit ARM  core.   These  con-
       trollers	 have several package options, and can be set up with external
       memory (on-chip memory is usually 8K or 16K; for	FX3, it	is 512K), EEP-
       ROMs, and ROMs when device costs	allow.

       This  uses "usbfs" (older name:	"usbdevfs") to access devices, and is-
       sues vendor specific control requests to	download and reset the	EZ-USB
       devices.	  Normally,  firmware  will then "renumerate" by disconnecting
       from USB	and then reconnecting as a new device.	It then	 appears  with
       new  device  descriptors	and functionality, as provided by the firmware
       which has been downloaded.

       To support some non-firmware applications, this can also	 set  up  sym-
       bolic  links  for  those	 usbfs names.  It can also change their	access
       modes.  Both of these can help simplify software	applications that need
       to  talk	to USB devices using user mode drivers,	don't want to run with
       privileges or to	examine	all of the existing  USB  devices,  and	 which
       don't need more kernel drivers.

       See  the	Linux-Hotplug web site for information about how to use	fxload
       to download device firmware when	hotplugging USB	devices, using driver-
       specific	scripts	stored in the /etc/hotplug/usb directory.

FUNCTION LETTERS
       At  least one of	the following options must be specified.  Note that as
       usual with UNIX and Linux commands, the order of	command	 option	 flags
       does not	matter.	 You may use these in any order.

       -I firmware
	      Downloads	 the  specified	 firmware  file.  For FX3 devices, the
	      format is	a Cypress-specific binary image.  For  other  devices,
	      the file has standard Intel hexfile format.  (Common naming con-
	      ventions include *.hex , *.ihx , and *.img).  Depending  on  the
	      device  and firmware in use, the -s option may also be necessary
	      to specify a second stage	loader.	 Firmware  is  normally	 down-
	      loaded  to  RAM  and  executed,  but there is also an option for
	      downloading into bootable	I2C EEPROMs.

       -L link
	      Creates the specified symbolic link to the  usbfs	 device	 path.
	      This  would  typically  be  used to create a name	in a directory
	      that would be searched by	an application.	 The symlink would  be
	      removed by some other component on device	unplug.

       -m mode
	      Changes  permissions  on	the  "usbfs" device node.  By default,
	      those nodes are  only  accessible	 by  privileged	 users,	 which
	      doesn't help when	the user mode device driver needs to run with-
	      out root privileges.  Note that usbfs mount  options  like  dev-
	      mode=0666	are also available.

       -V     Identifies  the version of fxload	being invoked, and exits with-
	      out performing other actions.

       Note that when downloading firmware that	renumerates, there's no	 point
       in changing the device permissions or creating a	symbolic link.

OPTIONS
       By  default, fxload assumes the device uses an EZ-USB or	EZ-USB FX.  It
       also assumes that the device in question	has been specified by USB ker-
       nel  hotplugging	 conventions, using the	DEVICE environment variable to
       name a "usbfs" file that	can be used to talk to the device.

       -c config
	      Indicates	the specified firmware should be downloaded to an  I2C
	      boot  EEPROM rather than to RAM.	The parameter is the EZ-USB FX
	      or FX2 configuration byte, and for AnchorChips devices the value
	      should  be  zero.	  This	requires  a  second stage loader (e.g.
	      vend_ax.hex) that	knows how to write to  I2C  EEPROMs  specified
	      using the	-s option, as well as a	device that's provided with an
	      EEPROM large enough to store the boot firmware.  After download-
	      ing  to  a  device's  EEPROM, you	should retest it starting from
	      power off.

       -s loader
	      This identifies the file holding a second	stage loader  (in  the
	      same  file  format as the	firmware itself), which	is loaded into
	      internal memory.	This loader understands	additional vendor con-
	      trol  requests,  beyond  the one built into all EZ-USB hardware,
	      which are	needed to write	external RAM or	 EEPROM.   As  a  last
	      step when	loading	firmware, fxload normally overwrites this sec-
	      ond stage	loader with parts of the firmware residing on-chip.

       -t type
	      Indicates	which type of microcontroller is used in  the  device;
	      type  may	 be one	of an21	(the original AnchorChips devices), fx
	      (Cypress'	updated	version, the EZ-USB FX), fx2 (the Cypress  EZ-
	      USB  FX2,	 supporting  high speed	transfers), fx2lp (the Cypress
	      EZ-USB FX2LP, with 16KB internal RAM), or	fx3 (the  Cypress  EZ-
	      USB  FX3,	 supporting  USB 3.0).	Except when writing to EEPROM,
	      all that normally	matters	when downloading firmware  is  whether
	      or not the device	uses an	FX2 or FX3.

       -v     Prints  some  diagnostics, such as download addresses and	sizes,
	      to standard error.  Repeat the flag (-vv,	-vvv) to get more  di-
	      agnostics.

       -l     print error and verbose messages to syslog.

       -D devpath
	      Specifies	the "usbfs" path name for the device in	question, such
	      as /proc/bus/usb/004/080.	 This takes precedence over any	DEVICE
	      environment  variable  that  may	be  set.  If libusb backend is
	      used, you	must provide a device IDs within a  string  of	format
	      'vid=<VID>,pid=<PID>'.   For  example, for Xilinx	JTAG USB cable
	      you may want to pass  "vid=0x03fd,pid=0x000d"  as	 an  argument.
	      Longer version of	syntax has been	provided to prevent confusion,
	      since in various systems vendor/product IDs are reported in dif-
	      ferent order.

       -B     specifies	 the  backend  used  to	 provide USB functionality for
	      fxload .	Possible  values  include  "linux"  and	 "libusb".  On
	      GNU/Linux	 systems,  "linux" is the default and refers to	Linux-
	      only ioctl() interface.  For "libusb", fxload must  be  compiled
	      with  LIBUSB_SUPPORT  compile option.  On	systems	different than
	      GNU/Linux, "libusb" is always implied.  See -D on	how to pass  a
	      device specification for particular backends.

NOTES
       This  program  implements one extension to the standard "hex file" for-
       mat.  Lines beginning with a "#"	character are ignored, and may be used
       to  hold	 copyright  statements and other information.  Other tools may
       not handle hexfiles using this extension.

       At this writing,	"usbfs"	is a kernel configuration option.  That	 means
       that  device drivers relying on user mode firmware downloading may need
       to depend on that kernel	configuration option.  A less  preferable  al-
       ternative  involves compiling the firmware into the kernel and managing
       downloads and renumeration there.  This is less preferable in part  be-
       cause much device firmware is provided with GPL-incompatible licensing,
       and in part because storing such	firmware firmware wastes  kernel  mem-
       ory.

       For  EZ-USB family devices, the hardware's first	stage loader (support-
       ing the 0xA0 vendor request) can't write	into external memory.  Config-
       urations	 that  put  firmware  into  external memory thus need a	second
       stage loader.  For typical "flat" memory	architectures, a  loader  sup-
       porting	the  0xA3  vendor  request  is used to write into that memory.
       Similarly, a second stage loader	that supports the 0xA2 vendor  request
       is  needed  when	 writing boot firmware into an I2C EEPROM.  These 0xA2
       and 0xA3	vendor commands	are conventions	defined	by  Cypress.   Devices
       that  use  bank	switching or similar mechanisms	to stretch the 64KByte
       address space may need different	approaches to loading firmware.

       Not all devices support EEPROM  updates.	  Some	EZ-USB	based  devices
       don't  have  an	I2C  EEPROM;  many such	EEPROMs	are too	small to store
       firmware; and some firmware can't be placed in bootable I2C EEPROMs.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       DEVICE normally names a "usbfs" file that will be used to talk  to  the
	      device.	This  is  provided  by the Linux kernel	as part	of USB
	      hotplugging.

FILES
       /usr/share/usb/a3load.hex
	      Second stage loader that works with AnchorChips EZ-USB,  Cypress
	      EZ-USB FX, and Cypress EZ-USB FX2.  Note that this only supports
	      the 0xA3 vendor command, to write	 external  memory.   A	loader
	      that  also  supports the 0xA2 command, to	write boot EEPROMs, is
	      included with Cypress developer kits.

SEE ALSO
       hotplug(8)

AUTHORS
       Linux Hotplugging Project http://linux-hotplug.sourceforge.net/

				  April	2012			     FXLOAD(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | FUNCTION LETTERS | OPTIONS | NOTES | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | FILES | SEE ALSO | AUTHORS

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