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FTPD(8)                 FreeBSD System Manager's Manual                FTPD(8)

NAME
     ftpd - Internet File Transfer Protocol server

SYNOPSIS
     ftpd [-468ADdEhMmOoRrSUvW] [-l [-l]] [-a address] [-P port] [-p file]
          [-T maxtimeout] [-t timeout] [-u umask]

DESCRIPTION
     The ftpd utility is the Internet File Transfer Protocol server process.
     The server uses the TCP protocol and listens at the port specified with
     the -P option or in the ``ftp'' service specification; see services(5).

     Available options:

     -4      When -D is specified, accept connections via AF_INET socket.

     -6      When -D is specified, accept connections via AF_INET6 socket.

     -8      Enable transparent UTF-8 mode.  RFC 2640 compliant clients will
             be told that the character encoding used by the server is UTF-8,
             which is the only effect of the option.

             This option does not enable any encoding conversion for server
             file names; it implies instead that the names of files on the
             server are encoded in UTF-8.  As for files uploaded via FTP, it
             is the duty of the RFC 2640 compliant client to convert their
             names from the client's local encoding to UTF-8.  FTP command
             names and own ftpd messages are always encoded in ASCII, which is
             a subset of UTF-8.  Hence no need for server-side conversion at
             all.

     -A      Allow only anonymous ftp access.

     -a      When -D is specified, accept connections only on the specified
             address.

     -D      With this option set, ftpd will detach and become a daemon,
             accepting connections on the FTP port and forking children
             processes to handle them.  This is lower overhead than starting
             ftpd from inetd(8) and is thus useful on busy servers to reduce
             load.

     -d      Debugging information is written to the syslog using LOG_FTP.

     -E      Disable the EPSV command.  This is useful for servers behind
             older firewalls.

     -h      Disable printing host-specific information, such as the server
             software version or hostname, in server messages.

     -l      Each successful and failed ftp(1) session is logged using syslog
             with a facility of LOG_FTP.  If this option is specified twice,
             the retrieve (get), store (put), append, delete, make directory,
             remove directory and rename operations and their filename
             arguments are also logged.  By default, syslogd(8) logs these to
             /var/log/xferlog.

     -M      Prevent anonymous users from creating directories.

     -m      Permit anonymous users to overwrite or modify existing files if
             allowed by file system permissions.  By default, anonymous users
             cannot modify existing files; in particular, files to upload will
             be created under a unique name.

     -O      Put server in write-only mode for anonymous users only.  RETR is
             disabled for anonymous users, preventing anonymous downloads.
             This has no effect if -o is also specified.

     -o      Put server in write-only mode.  RETR is disabled, preventing
             downloads.

     -P      When -D is specified, accept connections at port, specified as a
             numeric value or service name, instead of at the default ``ftp''
             port.

     -p      When -D is specified, write the daemon's process ID to file
             instead of the default pid file, /var/run/ftpd.pid.

     -R      With this option set, ftpd will revert to historical behavior
             with regard to security checks on user operations and
             restrictions on PORT requests.  Currently, ftpd will only honor
             PORT commands directed to unprivileged ports on the remote user's
             host (which violates the FTP protocol specification but closes
             some security holes).

     -r      Put server in read-only mode.  All commands which may modify the
             local file system are disabled.

     -S      With this option set, ftpd logs all anonymous file downloads to
             the file /var/log/ftpd when this file exists.

     -T      A client may also request a different timeout period; the maximum
             period allowed may be set to timeout seconds with the -T option.
             The default limit is 2 hours.

     -t      The inactivity timeout period is set to timeout seconds (the
             default is 15 minutes).

     -U      This option instructs ftpd to use data ports in the range of
             IP_PORTRANGE_DEFAULT instead of in the range of
             IP_PORTRANGE_HIGH.  Such a change may be useful for some specific
             firewall configurations; see ip(4) for more information.

             Note that option is a virtual no-op in FreeBSD 5.0 and above;
             both port ranges are identical by default.

     -u      The default file creation mode mask is set to umask, which is
             expected to be an octal numeric value.  Refer to umask(2) for
             details.  This option may be overridden by login.conf(5).

     -v      A synonym for -d.

     -W      Do not log FTP sessions to the user accounting database.

     The file /var/run/nologin can be used to disable ftp access.  If the file
     exists, ftpd displays it and exits.  If the file /etc/ftpwelcome exists,
     ftpd prints it before issuing the ``ready'' message.  If the file
     /etc/ftpmotd exists, ftpd prints it after a successful login.  Note the
     motd file used is the one relative to the login environment.  This means
     the one in ~ftp/etc in the anonymous user's case.

     The ftp server currently supports the following ftp requests.  The case
     of the requests is ignored.  Requests marked [RW] are disabled if -r is
     specified.

           Request    Description
           ABOR       abort previous command
           ACCT       specify account (ignored)
           ALLO       allocate storage (vacuously)
           APPE       append to a file [RW]
           CDUP       change to parent of current working directory
           CWD        change working directory
           DELE       delete a file [RW]
           EPRT       specify data connection port, multiprotocol
           EPSV       prepare for server-to-server transfer, multiprotocol
           FEAT       give information on extended features of server
           HELP       give help information
           LIST       give list files in a directory (``ls -lgA'')
           LPRT       specify data connection port, multiprotocol
           LPSV       prepare for server-to-server transfer, multiprotocol
           MDTM       show last modification time of file
           MKD        make a directory [RW]
           MODE       specify data transfer mode
           NLST       give name list of files in directory
           NOOP       do nothing
           PASS       specify password
           PASV       prepare for server-to-server transfer
           PORT       specify data connection port
           PWD        print the current working directory
           QUIT       terminate session
           REST       restart incomplete transfer
           RETR       retrieve a file
           RMD        remove a directory [RW]
           RNFR       specify rename-from file name [RW]
           RNTO       specify rename-to file name [RW]
           SITE       non-standard commands (see next section)
           SIZE       return size of file
           STAT       return status of server
           STOR       store a file [RW]
           STOU       store a file with a unique name [RW]
           STRU       specify data transfer structure
           SYST       show operating system type of server system
           TYPE       specify data transfer type
           USER       specify user name
           XCUP       change to parent of current working directory
                      (deprecated)
           XCWD       change working directory (deprecated)
           XMKD       make a directory (deprecated) [RW]
           XPWD       print the current working directory (deprecated)
           XRMD       remove a directory (deprecated) [RW]

     The following non-standard or UNIX specific commands are supported by the
     SITE request.

           Request    Description
           UMASK      change umask, e.g. ``SITE UMASK 002''
           IDLE       set idle-timer, e.g. ``SITE IDLE 60''
           CHMOD      change mode of a file [RW], e.g. ``SITE CHMOD 755
                      filename''
           MD5        report the files MD5 checksum, e.g. ``SITE MD5
                      filename''
           HELP       give help information

     Note: SITE requests are disabled in case of anonymous logins.

     The remaining ftp requests specified in Internet RFC 959 are recognized,
     but not implemented.  MDTM and SIZE are not specified in RFC 959, but
     will appear in the next updated FTP RFC.  To avoid possible denial-of-
     service attacks, SIZE requests against files larger than 10240 bytes will
     be denied if the current transfer type is ASCII.

     The ftp server will abort an active file transfer only when the ABOR
     command is preceded by a Telnet "Interrupt Process" (IP) signal and a
     Telnet "Synch" signal in the command Telnet stream, as described in
     Internet RFC 959.  If a STAT command is received during a data transfer,
     preceded by a Telnet IP and Synch, transfer status will be returned.

     The ftpd utility interprets file names according to the ``globbing''
     conventions used by csh(1).  This allows users to utilize the
     metacharacters ``*?[]{}~''.

     The ftpd utility authenticates users according to six rules.

           1.   The login name must be in the password data base and not have
                a null password.  In this case a password must be provided by
                the client before any file operations may be performed.  If
                the user has an OPIE key, the response from a successful USER
                command will include an OPIE challenge.  The client may choose
                to respond with a PASS command giving either a standard
                password or an OPIE one-time password.  The server will
                automatically determine which type of password it has been
                given and attempt to authenticate accordingly.  See opie(4)
                for more information on OPIE authentication.

           2.   The login name must not appear in the file /etc/ftpusers.

           3.   The login name must not be a member of a group specified in
                the file /etc/ftpusers.  Entries in this file interpreted as
                group names are prefixed by an "at" `@' sign.

           4.   The user must have a standard shell returned by
                getusershell(3).

           5.   If the user name appears in the file /etc/ftpchroot, or the
                user is a member of a group with a group entry in this file,
                i.e., one prefixed with `@', the session's root will be
                changed to the directory specified in this file or to the
                user's login directory by chroot(2) as for an ``anonymous'' or
                ``ftp'' account (see next item).  See ftpchroot(5) for a
                detailed description of the format of this file.  This
                facility may also be triggered by enabling the boolean "ftp-
                chroot" capability in login.conf(5).  However, the user must
                still supply a password.  This feature is intended as a
                compromise between a fully anonymous account and a fully
                privileged account.  The account should also be set up as for
                an anonymous account.

           6.   If the user name is ``anonymous'' or ``ftp'', an anonymous ftp
                account must be present in the password file (user ``ftp'').
                In this case the user is allowed to log in by specifying any
                password (by convention an email address for the user should
                be used as the password).  When the -S option is set, all
                transfers are logged as well.

     In the last case, ftpd takes special measures to restrict the client's
     access privileges.  The server performs a chroot(2) to the home directory
     of the ``ftp'' user.  As a special case if the ``ftp'' user's home
     directory pathname contains the /./ separator, ftpd uses its left-hand
     side as the name of the directory to do chroot(2) to, and its right-hand
     side to change the current directory to afterwards.  A typical example
     for this case would be /usr/local/ftp/./pub.  In order that system
     security is not breached, it is recommended that the ``ftp'' subtree be
     constructed with care, following these rules:

           ~ftp      Make the home directory owned by ``root'' and unwritable
                     by anyone.

           ~ftp/etc  Make this directory owned by ``root'' and unwritable by
                     anyone (mode 555).  The files pwd.db (see passwd(5)) and
                     group(5) must be present for the ls(1) command to be able
                     to produce owner names rather than numbers.  The password
                     field in passwd(5) is not used, and should not contain
                     real passwords.  The file ftpmotd, if present, will be
                     printed after a successful login.  These files should be
                     mode 444.

           ~ftp/pub  This directory and the subdirectories beneath it should
                     be owned by the users and groups responsible for placing
                     files in them, and be writable only by them (mode 755 or
                     775).  They should not be owned or writable by ``ftp'' or
                     its group, otherwise guest users can fill the drive with
                     unwanted files.

     If the system has multiple IP addresses, ftpd supports the idea of
     virtual hosts, which provides the ability to define multiple anonymous
     ftp areas, each one allocated to a different internet address.  The file
     /etc/ftphosts contains information pertaining to each of the virtual
     hosts.  Each host is defined on its own line which contains a number of
     fields separated by whitespace:

           hostname  Contains the hostname or IP address of the virtual host.

           user      Contains a user record in the system password file.  As
                     with normal anonymous ftp, this user's access uid, gid
                     and group memberships determine file access to the
                     anonymous ftp area.  The anonymous ftp area (to which any
                     user is chrooted on login) is determined by the home
                     directory defined for the account.  User id and group for
                     any ftp account may be the same as for the standard ftp
                     user.

           statfile  File to which all file transfers are logged, which
                     defaults to /var/log/ftpd.

           welcome   This file is the welcome message displayed before the
                     server ready prompt.  It defaults to /etc/ftpwelcome.

           motd      This file is displayed after the user logs in.  It
                     defaults to /etc/ftpmotd.

     Lines beginning with a '#' are ignored and can be used to include
     comments.

     Defining a virtual host for the primary IP address or hostname changes
     the default for ftp logins to that address.  The 'user', 'statfile',
     'welcome' and 'motd' fields may be left blank, or a single hyphen '-'
     used to indicate that the default value is to be used.

     As with any anonymous login configuration, due care must be given to
     setup and maintenance to guard against security related problems.

     The ftpd utility has internal support for handling remote requests to
     list files, and will not execute /bin/ls in either a chrooted or non-
     chrooted environment.  The ~/bin/ls executable need not be placed into
     the chrooted tree, nor need the ~/bin directory exist.

FILES
     /etc/ftpusers          List of unwelcome/restricted users.
     /etc/ftpchroot         List of normal users who should be chroot'd.
     /etc/ftphosts          Virtual hosting configuration file.
     /etc/ftpwelcome        Welcome notice.
     /etc/ftpmotd           Welcome notice after login.
     /var/run/ftpd.pid      Default pid file for daemon mode.
     /var/run/nologin       Displayed and access refused.
     /var/log/ftpd          Log file for anonymous transfers.
     /var/log/xferlog       Default place for session logs.

SEE ALSO
     ftp(1), umask(2), getusershell(3), opie(4), ftpchroot(5), login.conf(5),
     inetd(8), syslogd(8)

HISTORY
     The ftpd utility appeared in 4.2BSD.  IPv6 support was added in WIDE
     Hydrangea IPv6 stack kit.

BUGS
     The server must run as the super-user to create sockets with privileged
     port numbers.  It maintains an effective user id of the logged in user,
     reverting to the super-user only when binding addresses to sockets.  The
     possible security holes have been extensively scrutinized, but are
     possibly incomplete.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE        January 21, 2010        FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | FILES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | BUGS

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