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FTP(1)			    General Commands Manual			FTP(1)

NAME
       ftp - ARPANET file transfer program

SYNOPSIS
       ftp [-v]	[-d] [-i] [-n] [-g] [-k	realm] [-f] [-x] [-u] [-t] [host]

DESCRIPTION
       FTP  is the user	interface to the ARPANET standard File Transfer	Proto-
       col.  The program allows	a user to transfer files to and	from a	remote
       network site.

OPTIONS
       Options	may be specified at the	command	line, or to the	command	inter-
       preter.

       -v     Verbose option forces ftp	to show	all responses from the	remote
	      server, as well as report	on data	transfer statistics.

       -n     Restrains	 ftp  from attempting ``auto-login'' upon initial con-
	      nection.	If auto-login is enabled, ftp will  check  the	.netrc
	      (see  below)  file in the	user's home directory for an entry de-
	      scribing an account on the remote	machine.  If no	entry  exists,
	      ftp  will	 prompt	 for the remote	machine	login name (default is
	      the user identity	on the	local  machine),  and,	if  necessary,
	      prompt for a password and	an account with	which to login.

       -u     Restrains	 ftp from attempting ``auto-authentication'' upon ini-
	      tial connection.	If auto-authentication	is  enabled,  ftp  at-
	      tempts  to  authenticate	to  the	FTP server by sending the AUTH
	      command, using whichever authentication types are	 locally  sup-
	      ported.  Once an authentication type is accepted,	an authentica-
	      tion protocol will proceed by issuing ADAT commands.   This  op-
	      tion also	disables auto-login.

       -i     Turns off	interactive prompting during multiple file transfers.

       -d     Enables debugging.

       -g     Disables file name globbing.

       -k realm
	      When using Kerberos v4 authentication, gets tickets in realm.

       -f     Causes credentials to be forwarded to the	remote host.

       -x     Causes  the  client to attempt to	negotiate encryption (data and
	      command protection levels	``private'')  immediately  after  suc-
	      cessfully	authenticating.

       -t     Enables packet tracing.

COMMANDS
       The  client  host  with which ftp is to communicate may be specified on
       the command line.  If this is done, ftp will immediately	attempt	to es-
       tablish a connection to an FTP server on	that host; otherwise, ftp will
       enter its command interpreter and await	instructions  from  the	 user.
       When ftp	is awaiting commands from the user the prompt ``ftp>'' is pro-
       vided to	the user.  The following commands are recognized by ftp:

       ! [command] [args]]
	      Invoke an	interactive shell on the local machine.	 If there  are
	      arguments,  the  first  is  taken	to be a	command	to execute di-
	      rectly, with the rest of the arguments as	its arguments.

       $ macro-name [args]
	      Execute the macro	macro-name that	was defined  with  the	macdef
	      command.	Arguments are passed to	the macro unglobbed.

       account [passwd]
	      Supply  a	 supplemental password required	by a remote system for
	      access to	resources once a  login	 has  been  successfully  com-
	      pleted.	If  no argument	is included, the user will be prompted
	      for an account password in a non-echoing input mode.

       append local-file [remote-file]
	      Append a local file to a file on the remote machine.  If remote-
	      file  is left unspecified, the local file	name is	used in	naming
	      the remote file after being altered by any ntrans	or  nmap  set-
	      ting.  File transfer uses	the current settings for type, format,
	      mode, and	structure.

       ascii  Set the file transfer type to network ASCII .  This is  the  de-
	      fault type.

       bell   Arrange  that a bell be sounded after each file transfer command
	      is completed.

       binary Set the file transfer type to support binary file	transfer.

       bye    Terminate	the FTP	session	with the remote	server and  exit  ftp.
	      An end of	file will also terminate the session and exit.

       case   Toggle  remote  computer file name case mapping during mget com-
	      mands.  When case	is on (default is off),	remote	computer  file
	      names  with  all	letters	in upper case are written in the local
	      directory	with the letters mapped	to lower case.

       ccc    Turn off integrity protection on the command channel.  This com-
	      mand  must be sent integrity protected, and must be proceeded by
	      a	successful ADAT	command.  Since	turning	off integrity  protec-
	      tion  potentially	allows an attacker to insert commands onto the
	      command channel, some FTP	servers	may refuse to honor this  com-
	      mand.

       cd remote-directory
	      Change the working directory on the remote machine to remote-di-
	      rectory.

       cdup   Change the remote	machine	working	directory to the parent	of the
	      current remote machine working directory.

       chmod mode file-name
	      Change  the permission modes of the file file-name on the	remote
	      system to	mode.

       clear  Set the protection level on data transfers to ``clear''.	If  no
	      ADAT  command  succeeded,	 then  this  is	the default protection
	      level.

       close  Terminate	the FTP	session	with the remote	server,	and return  to
	      the command interpreter.	Any defined macros are erased.

       cprotect	[protection-level]
	      Set  the	protection level on commands to	protection-level.  The
	      valid protection levels are ``clear'' for	unprotected  commands,
	      ``safe''	for  commands  integrity  protected  by	 cryptographic
	      checksum,	and ``private''	for commands confidentiality  and  in-
	      tegrity  protected by encryption.	 If an ADAT command succeeded,
	      then the default command protection level	is ``safe'', otherwise
	      the only possible	level is ``clear''.  If	no level is specified,
	      the current level	is printed.  cprotect clear is	equivalent  to
	      the ccc command.

       cr     Toggle  carriage	return	stripping  during  ascii type file re-
	      trieval.	Records	are denoted by a carriage return/linefeed  se-
	      quence  during ascii type	file transfer.	When cr	is on (the de-
	      fault), carriage returns are stripped from this sequence to con-
	      form with	the UNIX single	linefeed record	delimiter.  Records on
	      non-UNIX remote systems may contain single  linefeeds;  when  an
	      ascii  type  transfer  is	 made,	these linefeeds	may be distin-
	      guished from a record delimiter only when	cr is off.

       delete remote-file
	      Delete the file remote-file on the remote	machine.

       debug [debug-value]
	      Toggle debugging mode.  If an optional debug-value is  specified
	      it  is  used  to set the debugging level.	 When debugging	is on,
	      ftp prints each command sent to the remote machine, preceded  by
	      the string `-->'

       dir [remote-directory] [local-file]
	      Print  a listing of the directory	contents in the	directory, re-
	      mote-directory, and, optionally, placing the  output  in	local-
	      file.   If interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user
	      to verify	that the last argument is indeed the target local file
	      for  receiving  dir  output.   If	no directory is	specified, the
	      current working directory	on the remote machine is used.	If  no
	      local  file  is specified, or local-file is `-', output comes to
	      the terminal.

       disconnect
	      A	synonym	for close.

       form format
	      Set the file transfer form to format.   The  default  format  is
	      ``file''.

       get remote-file [local-file]
	      Retrieve the file	remote-file and	store it on the	local machine.
	      If the local file	name is	not specified, it is  given  the  same
	      name  it has on the remote machine, subject to alteration	by the
	      current case, ntrans, and	nmap settings.	The  current  settings
	      for  type, form, mode, and structure are used while transferring
	      the file.

       glob   Toggle filename expansion	for mdelete, mget, and mput.  If glob-
	      bing  is turned off with glob, the file name arguments are taken
	      literally	and not	expanded.  Globbing for	mput  is  done	as  in
	      csh(1).  For mdelete and mget, each remote file name is expanded
	      separately on the	remote machine and the lists are  not  merged.
	      Expansion	of a directory name is likely to be different from ex-
	      pansion of the name of an	ordinary file: the  exact  result  de-
	      pends on the foreign operating system and	ftp server, and	can be
	      previewed	by doing `mls remote-files -' Note: mget and mput  are
	      not  meant to transfer entire directory subtrees of files.  That
	      can be done by transferring a tar(1) archive of the subtree  (in
	      binary mode).

       hash   Toggle  hash-sign	 (``#'')  printing  for	each data block	trans-
	      ferred.  The size	of a data block	is 1024	bytes.

       help [command]
	      Print an informative message about the meaning of	 command.   If
	      no argument is given, ftp	prints a list of the known commands.

       idle [seconds]
	      Set  the	inactivity  timer on the remote	server to seconds sec-
	      onds.  If	seconds	is omitted, the	current	 inactivity  timer  is
	      printed.

       lcd [directory]
	      Change the working directory on the local	machine.  If no	direc-
	      tory is specified, the user's home directory is used.

       ls [remote-directory] [local-file]
	      Print a listing of the contents of a directory on	the remote ma-
	      chine.   The  listing  includes any system-dependent information
	      that the server chooses to include; for example, most UNIX  sys-
	      tems  will  produce  output from the command `ls -l'.  (See also
	      nlist.)  If remote-directory is left  unspecified,  the  current
	      working  directory is used.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp
	      will prompt the user to verify that the last argument is	indeed
	      the target local file for	receiving ls output.  If no local file
	      is specified, or if local-file is	`-', the output	is sent	to the
	      terminal.

       macdefmacro-name
	      Define a macro.  Subsequent lines	are stored as the macro	macro-
	      name; a null line	(consecutive newline characters	in a  file  or
	      carriage returns from the	terminal) terminates macro input mode.
	      There is a limit of 16 macros and	4096 total characters  in  all
	      defined  macros.	Macros remain defined until a close command is
	      executed.	 The macro processor interprets	`$' and	`\' as special
	      characters.  A `$' followed by a number (or numbers) is replaced
	      by the corresponding argument on the  macro  invocation  command
	      line.   A	 `$'  followed	by an `i' signals that macro processor
	      that the executing macro is to be	looped.	  On  the  first  pass
	      `$i'  is	replaced by the	first argument on the macro invocation
	      command line, on the second pass it is replaced  by  the	second
	      argument,	 and  so  on.	A `\' followed by any character	is re-
	      placed by	that character.	 Use the `\' to	prevent	special	treat-
	      ment of the `$'.

       mdelete [remote-files]
	      Delete remote-files on the remote	machine.

       mdir remote-files local-file
	      Like dir,	except multiple	remote files may be specified.	If in-
	      teractive	prompting is on, ftp will prompt the  user  to	verify
	      that  the	 last argument is indeed the target local file for re-
	      ceiving mdir output.

       mget remote-files
	      Expand the remote-files on the remote machine and	do a  get  for
	      each file	name thus produced.  See glob for details on the file-
	      name expansion.  Resulting file names will then be processed ac-
	      cording  to  case,  ntrans, and nmap settings.  Files are	trans-
	      ferred into the local working directory, which  can  be  changed
	      with  `lcd directory'; new local directories can be created with
	      `! mkdir directory'.

       mkdir directory-name
	      Make a directory on the remote machine.

       mls remote-files	local-file
	      Like nlist, except multiple remote files may be  specified,  and
	      the  local-file  must be specified.  If interactive prompting is
	      on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last argument is
	      indeed the target	local file for receiving mls output.

       mode [mode-name]
	      Set  the	file  transfer mode to mode-name.  The default mode is
	      ``stream'' mode.

       modtime file-name
	      Show the last modification time of the file on  the  remote  ma-
	      chine.

       mput local-files
	      Expand  wild cards in the	list of	local files given as arguments
	      and do a put for each file in the	resulting list.	 See glob  for
	      details  of  filename expansion.	Resulting file names will then
	      be processed according to	ntrans and nmap	settings.

       newer file-name
	      Get the file only	if the modification time of the	remote file is
	      more  recent  that  the file on the current system.  If the file
	      does not exist on	the current system, the	remote file is consid-
	      ered newer.  Otherwise, this command is identical	to get.

       nlist [remote-directory]	[local-file]
	      Print  a list of the files in a directory	on the remote machine.
	      If remote-directory is left unspecified, the current working di-
	      rectory  is  used.   If  interactive  prompting  is on, ftp will
	      prompt the user to verify	that the last argument is  indeed  the
	      target  local file for receiving nlist output.  If no local file
	      is specified, or if local-file is	`-', the output	is sent	to the
	      terminal.

       nmap [inpattern outpattern]
	      Set  or  unset  the filename mapping mechanism.  If no arguments
	      are specified, the filename mapping mechanism is unset.  If  ar-
	      guments  are  specified, remote filenames	are mapped during mput
	      commands and put commands	issued without a specified remote tar-
	      get  filename.   If arguments are	specified, local filenames are
	      mapped during mget commands and get commands  issued  without  a
	      specified	 local	target	filename.  This	command	is useful when
	      connecting to non-UNIX remote computer with different file  nam-
	      ing  conventions	or practices.  The mapping follows the pattern
	      set by inpattern and outpattern.	[Inpattern] is a template  for
	      incoming	filenames  (which  may have already been processed ac-
	      cording to the ntrans and	case settings).	  Variable  templating
	      is accomplished by including the sequences `$1', `$2', ..., `$9'
	      in inpattern.  Use `\' to	prevent	this special treatment of  the
	      `$'  character.  All other characters are	treated	literally, and
	      are used to determine the	nmap [inpattern] variable values.  For
	      example,	given  inpattern  $1.$2	 and the remote	file name "my-
	      data.data", $1 would have	the value "mydata", and	$2 would  have
	      the  value  "data".   The	 outpattern  determines	 the resulting
	      mapped filename.	The sequences `$1', `$2', inpattern  template.
	      The  sequence  `$0'  is replace by the original filename.	 Addi-
	      tionally,	the sequence `[seq1, seq2]' is replaced	by  [seq1]  if
	      seq1  is	not  a	null string; otherwise it is replaced by seq2.
	      For example, the command

		   nmap	$1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]

	      would yield the output filename "myfile.data"  for  input	 file-
	      names "myfile.data" and "myfile.data.old", "myfile.file" for the
	      input filename "myfile", and "myfile.myfile" for the input file-
	      name ".myfile".  Spaces may be included in outpattern, as	in the
	      example: `nmap $1	sed "s/	*$//" >	$1'.  Use the `\' character to
	      prevent  special	treatment  of the `$','[',']', and `,' charac-
	      ters.

       ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
	      Set or unset the filename	character translation  mechanism.   If
	      no  arguments  are specified, the	filename character translation
	      mechanism	is unset.  If arguments	are specified,	characters  in
	      remote  filenames	 are  translated  during mput commands and put
	      commands issued without a	specified remote target	filename.   If
	      arguments	 are  specified,  characters  in  local	 filenames are
	      translated during	mget commands and get commands issued  without
	      a	 specified local target	filename.  This	command	is useful when
	      connecting to a non-UNIX remote  computer	 with  different  file
	      naming  conventions  or  practices.   Characters	in  a filename
	      matching a character in inchars are  replaced  with  the	corre-
	      sponding	character in outchars.	If the character's position in
	      inchars is longer	than the length	of outchars, the character  is
	      deleted from the file name.

       open host [port]	[-forward]
	      Establish	a connection to	the specified host FTP server.	An op-
	      tional port number may be	supplied, in which case, ftp will  at-
	      tempt  to	 contact  an FTP server	at that	port.  If the auto-au-
	      thenticate option	is on (default), ftp will attempt to authenti-
	      cate to the FTP server by	sending	the AUTH command, using	which-
	      ever authentication types	which are locally supported.  Once  an
	      authentication type is accepted, an authentication protocol will
	      proceed by issuing ADAT commands.	 If the	auto-login  option  is
	      on  (default),  ftp  will	 also attempt to automatically log the
	      user in to the FTP server	(see below).  If the  -forward	option
	      is  specified,  ftp  will	 forward a copy	of the user's Kerberos
	      tickets to the remote host.

       passive
	      Toggle passive data transfer mode	off.   In  passive  mode,  the
	      client  initiates	 the data connection by	connecting to the data
	      port.  Passive mode is often necessary for operation from	behind
	      firewalls	which do not permit incoming connections, but may need
	      to be disabled if	you connect to an FTP server  which  does  not
	      support passive operation.

       private
	      Set the protection level on data transfers to ``private''.  Data
	      transmissions are	confidentiality	and integrity protected	by en-
	      cryption.	  If no	ADAT command succeeded,	then the only possible
	      level is ``clear''.

       prompt Toggle interactive prompting.  Interactive prompting occurs dur-
	      ing multiple file	transfers to allow the user to selectively re-
	      trieve or	store files.  If prompting is turned off  (default  is
	      on),  any	 mget or mput will transfer all	files, and any mdelete
	      will delete all files.

       protect [protection-level]
	      Set the protection level on data transfers to  protection-level.
	      The  valid  protection levels are	``clear'' for unprotected data
	      transmissions, ``safe'' for data	transmissions  integrity  pro-
	      tected  by  cryptographic	 checksum,  and	 ``private''  for data
	      transmissions confidentiality and	integrity protected by encryp-
	      tion.   If  no  ADAT  command  succeeded,	then the only possible
	      level is ``clear''.  If no level is specified, the current level
	      is printed.  The default protection level	is ``clear''.

       proxy ftp-command
	      Execute  an ftp command on a secondary control connection.  This
	      command allows simultaneous connection to	two remote ftp servers
	      for transferring files between the two servers.  The first proxy
	      command should be	an open	, to establish the  secondary  control
	      connection.   Enter  the command "proxy ?" to see	other ftp com-
	      mands executable on the  secondary  connection.	The  following
	      commands	behave	differently  when prefaced by proxy: open will
	      not define new macros during the auto-login process, close  will
	      not  erase  existing  macro  definitions,	 get and mget transfer
	      files from the host on the primary  control  connection  to  the
	      host on the secondary control connection,	and put, mput, and ap-
	      pend transfer files from the host	on the secondary control  con-
	      nection  to  the	host on	the primary control connection.	 Third
	      party file transfers depend upon support	of  the	 ftp  protocol
	      PASV command by the server on the	secondary control connection.

       put local-file [remote-file]
	      Store  a	local  file  on	the remote machine.  If	remote-file is
	      left unspecified,	the local file name is used  after  processing
	      according	 to  any  ntrans or nmap settings in naming the	remote
	      file.  File transfer uses	the current settings for type, format,
	      mode, and	structure.

       pwd    Print  the  name	of the current working directory on the	remote
	      machine.

       quit   A	synonym	for bye.

       quote arg1 [arg2] [...]
	      The arguments specified are sent,	verbatim, to  the  remote  FTP
	      server.

       recv remote-file	[local-file]
	      A	synonym	for get.

       reget remote-file [local-file]
	      Reget  acts  like	 get,  except that if local-file exists	and is
	      smaller than remote-file,	local-file is presumed to  be  a  par-
	      tially  transferred copy of remote-file and the transfer is con-
	      tinued from the apparent point of	failure.  This command is use-
	      ful  when	 transferring  very large files	over networks that are
	      prone to dropping	connections.

       remotehelp [command-name]
	      Request help from	the remote FTP server.	If a  command-name  is
	      specified	it is supplied to the server as	well.

       remotestatus [file-name]
	      With  no arguments, show status of remote	machine.  If file-name
	      is specified, show status	of file-name on	remote machine.

       rename [from] [to]
	      Rename the file from on the remote machine, to the file to.

       reset  Clear reply queue.  This command	re-synchronizes	 command/reply
	      sequencing with the remote ftp server.  Resynchronization	may be
	      necessary	following a violation of the ftp protocol by  the  re-
	      mote server.

       restart marker
	      Restart  the  immediately	 following get or put at the indicated
	      marker.  On UNIX systems,	marker is usually a byte  offset  into
	      the file.

       rmdir directory-name
	      Delete a directory on the	remote machine.

       runique
	      Toggle  storing  of  files on the	local system with unique file-
	      names.  If a file	already	exists with a name equal to the	target
	      local  filename for a get	or mget	command, a ".1"	is appended to
	      the name.	 If the	resulting name matches another existing	 file,
	      a	 ".2"  is appended to the original name.  If this process con-
	      tinues up	to ".99", an error message is printed, and the	trans-
	      fer  does	not take place.	 The generated unique filename will be
	      reported.	 Note that runique will	not affect local files	gener-
	      ated  from  a  shell  command (see below).  The default value is
	      off.

       safe   Set the protection level on data transfers  to  ``safe''.	  Data
	      transmissions are	integrity-protected by cryptographic checksum.
	      If no ADAT command succeeded, then the only  possible  level  is
	      ``clear''.

       send local-file [remote-file]
	      A	synonym	for put.

       sendport
	      Toggle  the  use of PORT commands.  By default, ftp will attempt
	      to use a PORT command when establishing a	 connection  for  each
	      data transfer.  The use of PORT commands can prevent delays when
	      performing multiple file transfers.  If the PORT command	fails,
	      ftp  will	 use the default data port.  When the use of PORT com-
	      mands is disabled, no attempt will be made to use	PORT  commands
	      for  each	 data transfer.	 This is useful	for certain FTP	imple-
	      mentations which do ignore PORT commands but, incorrectly, indi-
	      cate they've been	accepted.

       site arg1 [arg2]	[...]
	      The  arguments  specified	 are sent, verbatim, to	the remote FTP
	      server as	a SITE command.

       size file-name
	      Return size of file-name on remote machine.

       status Show the current status of ftp.

       struct struct-name
	      Set the file transfer  structure	to  struct-name.   By  default
	      ``stream'' structure is used.

       sunique
	      Toggle  storing  of  files  on  remote machine under unique file
	      names.  Remote ftp server	must support ftp protocol STOU command
	      for successful completion.  The remote server will report	unique
	      name.  Default value is off.

       system Show the type of operating system	running	on the remote machine.

       tenex  Set the file transfer type to that needed	to talk	to  TENEX  ma-
	      chines.

       trace  Toggle packet tracing.

       type [type-name]
	      Set  the	file transfer type to type-name.  If no	type is	speci-
	      fied, the	current	type is	printed.  The default type is  network
	      ASCII.

       umask [newmask]
	      Set  the default umask on	the remote server to newmask.  If new-
	      mask is omitted, the current umask is printed.

       user user-name [password] [account]
	      Identify yourself	to the remote FTP server.  If the password  is
	      not  specified  and  the server requires it, ftp will prompt the
	      user for it (after disabling local echo).	 If an	account	 field
	      is  not specified, and the FTP server requires it, the user will
	      be prompted for it.  If an account field is  specified,  an  ac-
	      count command will be relayed to the remote server after the lo-
	      gin sequence is completed	if the remote server did  not  require
	      it  for  logging	in.  Unless ftp	is invoked with	``auto-login''
	      disabled,	this process is	done automatically on initial  connec-
	      tion to the FTP server.

       verbose
	      Toggle  verbose  mode.   In verbose mode,	all responses from the
	      FTP server are displayed to the user.  In	addition,  if  verbose
	      is  on, when a file transfer completes, statistics regarding the
	      efficiency of the	transfer are reported.	By default, verbose is
	      on.

	? [command]
	      A	synonym	for help.

       Command	arguments  which have embedded spaces may be quoted with quote
       `"' marks.

ABORTING A FILE	TRANSFER
       To abort	a file transfer, use the terminal interrupt key	(usually Ctrl-
       C).  Sending transfers will be immediately halted.  Receiving transfers
       will be halted by sending a FTP protocol	ABOR  command  to  the	remote
       server,	and  discarding	any further data received.  The	speed at which
       this is accomplished depends upon the remote server's support for  ABOR
       processing.  If the remote server does not support the ABOR command, an
       `ftp>' prompt will not appear until the	remote	server	has  completed
       sending the requested file.

       The  terminal  interrupt	key sequence will be ignored when ftp has com-
       pleted any local	processing and is awaiting a  reply  from  the	remote
       server.	 A long	delay in this mode may result from the ABOR processing
       described above,	or from	unexpected behavior by the remote server,  in-
       cluding	violations of the ftp protocol.	 If the	delay results from un-
       expected	remote server behavior,	the local ftp program must  be	killed
       by hand.

FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS
       Files specified as arguments to ftp commands are	processed according to
       the following rules.

       1.     If the file name `-' is specified, stdin (for reading) or	stdout
	      (for writing) is used.

       2.     If the first character of	the file name is `|', the remainder of
	      the argument is interpreted as a shell command.  Ftp then	 forks
	      a	 shell,	 using	popen(3) with the argument supplied, and reads
	      from (writes to) stdout (stdin).	If the shell command  includes
	      spaces,  the  argument  must  be quoted; e.g.  ``" ls -lt"''.  A
	      particularly useful example of this mechanism is:	``dir more''.

       3.     Failing the above	checks,	if ``globbing''	is enabled, local file
	      names  are  expanded according to	the rules used in csh(1); c.f.
	      the glob command.	 If the	ftp command  expects  a	 single	 local
	      file  (.e.g.   put),  only  the  first filename generated	by the
	      ``globbing'' operation is	used.

       4.     For mget commands	and get	commands with unspecified  local  file
	      names,  the  local filename is the remote	filename, which	may be
	      altered by a case, ntrans, or nmap setting.  The resulting file-
	      name may then be altered if runique is on.

       5.     For  mput	commands and put commands with unspecified remote file
	      names, the remote	filename is the	local filename,	which  may  be
	      altered by a ntrans or nmap setting.  The	resulting filename may
	      then be altered by the remote server if sunique is on.

FILE TRANSFER PARAMETERS
       The FTP specification specifies many parameters which may affect	a file
       transfer.   The	type  may  be  one  of	``ascii'', ``image'' (binary),
       ``ebcdic'', and ``local byte size'' (mostly for PDP-10's	and PDP-20's).
       Ftp  supports  the  ascii  and image types of file transfer, plus local
       byte size 8 for tenex mode transfers.

       Ftp supports only the default values for	the  remaining	file  transfer
       parameters: mode, form, and struct.

THE .netrc FILE
       The  .netrc  file contains login	and initialization information used by
       the auto-login process.	It resides in the user's home directory.   The
       following tokens	are recognized;	they may be separated by spaces, tabs,
       or new-lines:

       machine name
	      Identify a remote	machine	name.  The auto-login process searches
	      the  .netrc file for a machine token that	matches	the remote ma-
	      chine specified on the ftp command line or as  an	 open  command
	      argument.	  Once	a  match is made, the subsequent .netrc	tokens
	      are processed, stopping when the end of file is reached  or  an-
	      other machine or a default token is encountered.

       default
	      This is the same as machine name except that default matches any
	      name.  There can be only one default token, and it must be after
	      all machine tokens.  This	is normally used as:

		   default login anonymous password user@site

	      thereby  giving  the  user  automatic anonymous ftp login	to ma-
	      chines not specified in .netrc.  This can	be overridden by using
	      the -n flag to disable auto-login.

       login name
	      Identify	a  user	 on  the  remote  machine.   If	 this token is
	      present, the auto-login process will initiate a login using  the
	      specified	name.

       password	string
	      Supply  a	 password.   If	 this token is present,	the auto-login
	      process will supply the specified	string if  the	remote	server
	      requires	a password as part of the login	process.  Note that if
	      this token is present in the .netrc file for any user other than
	      anonymous,  ftp  will abort the auto-login process if the	.netrc
	      is readable by anyone besides the	user.

       account string
	      Supply  an  additional  account  password.   If  this  token  is
	      present, the auto-login process will supply the specified	string
	      if the remote server requires an additional account password, or
	      the  auto-login process will initiate an ACCT command if it does
	      not.

       macdef name
	      Define a macro.  This token functions like the ftp  macdef  com-
	      mand functions.  A macro is defined with the specified name; its
	      contents begin with the next .netrc line and  continue  until  a
	      null  line (consecutive new-line characters) is encountered.  If
	      a	macro named init is defined, it	is automatically  executed  as
	      the last step in the auto-login process.

ENVIRONMENT
       Ftp utilizes the	following environment variables.

       HOME   For default location of a	.netrc file, if	one exists.

       SHELL  For default shell.

SEE ALSO
       ftpd(8)

       Lunt, S.	J., FTP	Security Extensions, Internet Draft, November 1993.

HISTORY
       The ftp command appeared	in 4.2BSD.

BUGS
       Correct	execution of many commands depends upon	proper behavior	by the
       remote server.

       An error	in the treatment of carriage returns in	the 4.2BSD  ascii-mode
       transfer	code has been corrected.  This correction may result in	incor-
       rect transfers of binary	files to and from  4.2BSD  servers  using  the
       ascii type.  Avoid this problem by using	the binary image type.

									FTP(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | COMMANDS | ABORTING A FILE TRANSFER | FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS | FILE TRANSFER PARAMETERS | THE .netrc FILE | ENVIRONMENT | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | BUGS

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