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FTP(1)			FreeBSD	General	Commands Manual			FTP(1)

     ftp -- Internet file transfer program

     ftp [-46AadefginpRtvV] [-N	netrc] [-o output] [-P port] [-q quittime]
	 [-r retry] [-T	dir,max[,inc]] [[user@]host [port]]
	 [[user@]host:[path][/]] [file:///path]
	 [http://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path] [...]
     ftp -u URL	file [...]

     ftp is the	user interface to the Internet standard	File Transfer Proto-
     col.  The program allows a	user to	transfer files to and from a remote
     network site.

     The last five arguments will fetch	a file using the FTP or	HTTP proto-
     cols, or by direct	copying, into the current directory.  This is ideal
     for scripts.  Refer to AUTO-FETCHING FILES	below for more information.

     Options may be specified at the command line, or to the command inter-

     -4	      Forces ftp to only use IPv4 addresses.

     -6	      Forces ftp to only use IPv6 addresses.

     -A	      Force active mode	ftp.  By default, ftp will try to use passive
	      mode ftp and fall	back to	active mode if passive is not sup-
	      ported by	the server.  This option causes	ftp to always use an
	      active connection.  It is	only useful for	connecting to very old
	      servers that do not implement passive mode properly.

     -a	      Causes ftp to bypass normal login	procedure, and use an anony-
	      mous login instead.

     -d	      Enables debugging.

     -e	      Disables command line editing.  This is useful for Emacs ange-
	      ftp mode.

     -f	      Forces a cache reload for	transfers that go through the FTP or
	      HTTP proxies.

     -g	      Disables file name globbing.

     -i	      Turns off	interactive prompting during multiple file transfers.

     -n	      Restrains	ftp from attempting ``auto-login'' upon	initial	con-
	      nection for non auto-fetch transfers.  If	auto-login is enabled,
	      ftp will check the .netrc	(see below) file in the	user's home
	      directory	for an entry describing	an account on the remote
	      machine.	If no entry exists, ftp	will prompt for	the remote
	      machine login name (default is the user identity on the local
	      machine),	and, if	necessary, prompt for a	password and an
	      account with which to login.  To override	the auto-login for
	      auto-fetch transfers, specify the	username (and optionally,
	      password)	as appropriate.

     -N	netrc
	      Use netrc	instead	of ~/.netrc.  Refer to THE .netrc FILE for
	      more information.

     -o	output
	      When auto-fetching files,	save the contents in output.  output
	      is parsed	according to the FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS below.	 If
	      output is	not `-'	or doesn't start with `|', then	only the first
	      file specified will be retrieved into output; all	other files
	      will be retrieved	into the basename of their remote name.

     -p	      Enable passive mode operation for	use behind connection filter-
	      ing firewalls.  This option has been deprecated as ftp now tries
	      to use passive mode by default, falling back to active mode if
	      the server does not support passive connections.

     -P	port  Sets the port number to port.

     -r	wait  Retry the	connection attempt if it failed, pausing for wait sec-

     -q	quittime
	      Quit if the connection has stalled for quittime seconds.

     -R	      Restart all non-proxied auto-fetches.

     -t	      Enables packet tracing.

     -T	direction,maximum[,increment]
	      Set the maximum transfer rate for	direction to maximum
	      bytes/second, and	if specified, the increment to increment
	      bytes/second.  Refer to rate for more information.

     -u	URL file [...]
	      Upload files on the command line to URL where URL	is one of the
	      ftp URL types as supported by auto-fetch (with an	optional tar-
	      get filename for single file uploads), and file is one or	more
	      local files to be	uploaded.

     -v	      Enable verbose and progress.  This is the	default	if output is
	      to a terminal (and in the	case of	progress, ftp is the fore-
	      ground process).	Forces ftp to show all responses from the
	      remote server, as	well as	report on data transfer	statistics.

     -V	      Disable verbose and progress, overriding the default of enabled
	      when output is to	a terminal.

     The client	host with which	ftp is to communicate may be specified on the
     command line.  If this is done, ftp will immediately attempt to establish
     a connection to an	FTP server on that host; otherwise, ftp	will enter its
     command interpreter and await instructions	from the user.	When ftp is
     awaiting commands from the	user the prompt	`ftp>' is provided to the
     user.  The	following commands are recognized by ftp:

     ! [command	[args]]
		 Invoke	an interactive shell on	the local machine.  If there
		 are arguments,	the first is taken to be a command to execute
		 directly, with	the rest of the	arguments as its arguments.

     $ macro-name [args]
		 Execute the macro macro-name that was defined with the	macdef
		 command.  Arguments are passed	to the macro unglobbed.

     account [passwd]
		 Supply	a supplemental password	required by a remote system
		 for access to resources once a	login has been successfully
		 completed.  If	no argument is included, the user will be
		 prompted for an account password in a non-echoing input mode.

     append local-file [remote-file]
		 Append	a local	file to	a file on the remote machine.  If
		 remote-file is	left unspecified, the local file name is used
		 in naming the remote file after being altered by any ntrans
		 or nmap setting.  File	transfer uses the current settings for
		 type, format, mode, and structure.

     ascii	 Set the file transfer type to network ASCII.  This is the
		 default type.

     bell	 Arrange that a	bell be	sounded	after each file	transfer com-
		 mand is completed.

     binary	 Set the file transfer type to support binary image transfer.

     bye	 Terminate the FTP session with	the remote server and exit
		 ftp.  An end of file will also	terminate the session and

     case	 Toggle	remote computer	file name case mapping during get,
		 mget and mput commands.  When case is on (default is off),
		 remote	computer file names with all letters in	upper case are
		 written in the	local directory	with the letters mapped	to
		 lower case.

     cd	remote-directory
		 Change	the working directory on the remote machine to

     cdup	 Change	the remote machine working directory to	the parent of
		 the current remote machine working directory.

     chmod mode	remote-file
		 Change	the permission modes of	the file remote-file on	the
		 remote	system to mode.

     close	 Terminate the FTP session with	the remote server, and return
		 to the	command	interpreter.  Any defined macros are erased.

     cr		 Toggle	carriage return	stripping during ascii type file
		 retrieval.  Records are denoted by a carriage return/linefeed
		 sequence during ascii type file transfer.  When cr is on (the
		 default), carriage returns are	stripped from this sequence to
		 conform with the UNIX single linefeed record delimiter.
		 Records on non-UNIX remote systems may	contain	single line-
		 feeds;	when an	ascii type transfer is made, these linefeeds
		 may be	distinguished from a record delimiter only when	cr is

     debug [debug-value]
		 Toggle	debugging mode.	 If an optional	debug-value is speci-
		 fied it is used to set	the debugging level.  When debugging
		 is on,	ftp prints each	command	sent to	the remote machine,
		 preceded by the string	`-->'

     delete remote-file
		 Delete	the file remote-file on	the remote machine.

     dir [remote-path [local-file]]
		 Print a listing of the	contents of a directory	on the remote
		 machine.  The listing includes	any system-dependent informa-
		 tion that the server chooses to include; for example, most
		 UNIX systems will produce output from the command `ls -l'.
		 If remote-path	is left	unspecified, the current working
		 directory is used.  If	interactive prompting is on, ftp will
		 prompt	the user to verify that	the last argument is indeed
		 the target local file for receiving dir output.  If no	local
		 file is specified, or if local-file is	`-', the output	is
		 sent to the terminal.

     disconnect	 A synonym for close.

     edit	 Toggle	command	line editing, and context sensitive command
		 and file completion.  This is automatically enabled if	input
		 is from a terminal, and disabled otherwise.

     epsv4	 Toggle	the use	of the extended	EPSV and EPRT commands on IPv4
		 connections; first try	EPSV / EPRT, and then PASV / PORT.
		 This is enabled by default.  If an extended command fails
		 then this option will be temporarily disabled for the dura-
		 tion of the current connection, or until epsv4	is executed

     exit	 A synonym for bye.

     features	 Display what features the remote server supports (using the
		 FEAT command).

     fget localfile
		 Retrieve the files listed in localfile, which has one line
		 per filename.

     form format
		 Set the file transfer form to format.	The default (and only
		 supported) format is ``non-print''.

     ftp host [port]
		 A synonym for open.

     gate [host	[port]]
		 Toggle	gate-ftp mode, which used to connect through the TIS
		 FWTK and Gauntlet ftp proxies.	 This will not be permitted if
		 the gate-ftp server hasn't been set (either explicitly	by the
		 user, or from the FTPSERVER environment variable).  If	host
		 is given, then	gate-ftp mode will be enabled, and the gate-
		 ftp server will be set	to host.  If port is also given, that
		 will be used as the port to connect to	on the gate-ftp

     get remote-file [local-file]
		 Retrieve the remote-file and store it on the local machine.
		 If the	local file name	is not specified, it is	given the same
		 name it has on	the remote machine, subject to alteration by
		 the current case, ntrans, and nmap settings.  The current
		 settings for type, form, mode,	and structure are used while
		 transferring the file.

     glob	 Toggle	filename expansion for mdelete,	mget, mput, and
		 mreget.  If globbing is turned	off with glob, the file	name
		 arguments are taken literally and not expanded.  Globbing for
		 mput is done as in csh(1).  For mdelete, mget,	and mreget,
		 each remote file name is expanded separately on the remote
		 machine and the lists are not merged.	Expansion of a direc-
		 tory name is likely to	be different from expansion of the
		 name of an ordinary file: the exact result depends on the
		 foreign operating system and ftp server, and can be previewed
		 by doing `mls remote-files -' Note: mget, mput	and mreget are
		 not meant to transfer entire directory	subtrees of files.
		 That can be done by transferring a tar(1) archive of the sub-
		 tree (in binary mode).

     hash [size]
		 Toggle	hash-sign (``#'') printing for each data block trans-
		 ferred.  The size of a	data block defaults to 1024 bytes.
		 This can be changed by	specifying size	in bytes.  Enabling
		 hash disables progress.

     help [command]
		 Print an informative message about the	meaning	of command.
		 If no argument	is given, ftp prints a list of the known com-

     idle [seconds]
		 Set the inactivity timer on the remote	server to seconds sec-
		 onds.	If seconds is omitted, the current inactivity timer is

     image	 A synonym for binary.

     lcd [directory]
		 Change	the working directory on the local machine.  If	no
		 directory is specified, the user's home directory is used.

     less file	 A synonym for page.

     lpage local-file
		 Display local-file with the program specified by the set
		 pager option.

     lpwd	 Print the working directory on	the local machine.

     ls	[remote-path [local-file]]
		 A synonym for dir.

     macdef macro-name
		 Define	a macro.  Subsequent lines are stored as the macro
		 macro-name; a null line (consecutive newline characters in a
		 file or carriage returns from the terminal) terminates	macro
		 input mode.  There is a limit of 16 macros and	4096 total
		 characters in all defined macros.  Macros remain defined
		 until a close command is executed.  The macro processor
		 interprets `$'	and `\'	as special characters.	A `$' followed
		 by a number (or numbers) is replaced by the corresponding
		 argument on the macro invocation command line.	 A `$' fol-
		 lowed by an `i' signals that macro processor that the execut-
		 ing macro is to be looped.  On	the first pass `$i' is
		 replaced by the first argument	on the macro invocation	com-
		 mand line, on the second pass it is replaced by the second
		 argument, and so on.  A `\' followed by any character is
		 replaced by that character.  Use the `\' to prevent special
		 treatment of the `$'.

     mdelete [remote-files]
		 Delete	the remote-files on the	remote machine.

     mdir remote-files local-file
		 Like dir, except multiple remote files	may be specified.  If
		 interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to ver-
		 ify that the last argument is indeed the target local file
		 for receiving mdir output.

     mget remote-files
		 Expand	the remote-files on the	remote machine and do a	get
		 for each file name thus produced.  See	glob for details on
		 the filename expansion.  Resulting file names will then be
		 processed according to	case, ntrans, and nmap settings.
		 Files are transferred into the	local working directory, which
		 can be	changed	with `lcd directory'; new local	directories
		 can be	created	with `!	mkdir directory'.

     mkdir directory-name
		 Make a	directory on the remote	machine.

     mls remote-files local-file
		 Like ls, except multiple remote files may be specified, and
		 the local-file	must be	specified.  If interactive prompting
		 is on,	ftp will prompt	the user to verify that	the last argu-
		 ment is indeed	the target local file for receiving mls	out-

     mlsd [remote-path]
		 Display the contents of remote-path (which should default to
		 the current directory if not given) in	a machine-parsable
		 form, using MLSD.  The	format of display can be changed with
		 `remopts mlst ...'.

     mlst [remote-path]
		 Display the details about remote-path (which should default
		 to the	current	directory if not given)	in a machine-parsable
		 form, using MLST.  The	format of display can be changed with
		 `remopts mlst ...'.

     mode mode-name
		 Set the file transfer mode to mode-name.  The default (and
		 only supported) mode is ``stream''.

     modtime remote-file
		 Show the last modification time of the	file on	the remote

     more file	 A synonym for page.

     mput local-files
		 Expand	wild cards in the list of local	files given as argu-
		 ments and do a	put for	each file in the resulting list.  See
		 glob for details of filename expansion.  Resulting file names
		 will then be processed	according to ntrans and	nmap settings.

     mreget remote-files
		 As per	mget, but performs a reget instead of get.

     msend local-files
		 A synonym for mput.

     newer remote-file [local-file]
		 Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file
		 is more recent	that the file on the current system.  If the
		 file does not exist on	the current system, the	remote file is
		 considered newer.  Otherwise, this command is identical to

     nlist [remote-path	[local-file]]
		 A synonym for ls.

     nmap [inpattern outpattern]
		 Set or	unset the filename mapping mechanism.  If no arguments
		 are specified,	the filename mapping mechanism is unset.  If
		 arguments are specified, remote filenames are mapped during
		 mput commands and put commands	issued without a specified
		 remote	target filename.  If arguments are specified, local
		 filenames are mapped during mget commands and get commands
		 issued	without	a specified local target filename.  This com-
		 mand is useful	when connecting	to a non-UNIX remote computer
		 with different	file naming conventions	or practices.  The
		 mapping follows the pattern set by inpattern and outpattern.
		 [Inpattern] is	a template for incoming	filenames (which may
		 have already been processed according to the ntrans and case
		 settings).  Variable templating is accomplished by including
		 the sequences `$1', `$2', ...,	`$9' in	inpattern.  Use	`\' to
		 prevent this special treatment	of the `$' character.  All
		 other characters are treated literally, and are used to
		 determine the nmap [inpattern]	variable values.  For example,
		 given inpattern $1.$2 and the remote file name	"",
		 $1 would have the value "mydata", and $2 would	have the value
		 "data".  The outpattern determines the	resulting mapped file-
		 name.	The sequences `$1', `$2', ....,	`$9' are replaced by
		 any value resulting from the inpattern	template.  The
		 sequence `$0' is replace by the original filename.  Addition-
		 ally, the sequence `[seq1, seq2]' is replaced by [seq1] if
		 seq1 is not a null string; otherwise it is replaced by	seq2.
		 For example, the command

		       nmap $1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]

		 would yield the output	filename "" for input file-
		 names "" and "", "myfile.file" for
		 the input filename "myfile", and "myfile.myfile" for the
		 input filename	".myfile".  Spaces may be included in
		 outpattern, as	in the example:	`nmap $1 sed "s/  *$//"	> $1'
		 .  Use	the `\'	character to prevent special treatment of the
		 `$','[',']', and `,' characters.

     ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
		 Set or	unset the filename character translation mechanism.
		 If no arguments are specified,	the filename character trans-
		 lation	mechanism is unset.  If	arguments are specified, char-
		 acters	in remote filenames are	translated during mput com-
		 mands and put commands	issued without a specified remote tar-
		 get filename.	If arguments are specified, characters in
		 local filenames are translated	during mget commands and get
		 commands issued without a specified local target filename.
		 This command is useful	when connecting	to a non-UNIX remote
		 computer with different file naming conventions or practices.
		 Characters in a filename matching a character in inchars are
		 replaced with the corresponding character in outchars.	 If
		 the character's position in inchars is	longer than the	length
		 of outchars, the character is deleted from the	file name.

     open host [port]
		 Establish a connection	to the specified host FTP server.  An
		 optional port number may be supplied, in which	case, ftp will
		 attempt to contact an FTP server at that port.	 If the	set
		 auto-login option is on (default), ftp	will also attempt to
		 automatically log the user in to the FTP server (see below).

     page file	 Retrieve file and display with	the program specified by the
		 set pager option.

     passive [auto]
		 Toggle	passive	mode (if no arguments are given).  If auto is
		 given,	act as if FTPMODE is set to `auto'.  If	passive	mode
		 is turned on (default), ftp will send a PASV command for all
		 data connections instead of a PORT command.  The PASV command
		 requests that the remote server open a	port for the data con-
		 nection and return the	address	of that	port.  The remote
		 server	listens	on that	port and the client connects to	it.
		 When using the	more traditional PORT command, the client lis-
		 tens on a port	and sends that address to the remote server,
		 who connects back to it.  Passive mode	is useful when using
		 ftp through a gateway router or host that controls the	direc-
		 tionality of traffic.	(Note that though FTP servers are
		 required to support the PASV command by RFC 1123, some	do

     pdir [remote-path]
		 Perform dir [remote-path], and	display	the result with	the
		 program specified by the set pager option.

     pls [remote-path]
		 Perform ls [remote-path], and display the result with the
		 program specified by the set pager option.

     pmlsd [remote-path]
		 Perform mlsd [remote-path], and display the result with the
		 program specified by the set pager option.

     preserve	 Toggle	preservation of	modification times on retrieved	files.

     progress	 Toggle	display	of transfer progress bar.  The progress	bar
		 will be disabled for a	transfer that has local-file as	`-' or
		 a command that	starts with `|'.  Refer	to FILE	NAMING
		 CONVENTIONS for more information.  Enabling progress disables

     prompt	 Toggle	interactive prompting.	Interactive prompting occurs
		 during	multiple file transfers	to allow the user to selec-
		 tively	retrieve or store files.  If prompting is turned off
		 (default is on), any mget or mput will	transfer all files,
		 and any mdelete will delete all files.

		 When prompting	is on, the following commands are available at
		 a prompt:

		       a   Answer `yes'	to the current file, and automatically
			   answer `yes'	to any remaining files for the current

		       n   Answer `no',	and do not transfer the	file.

		       p   Answer `yes'	to the current file, and turn off
			   prompt mode (as is ``prompt off'' had been given).

		       q   Terminate the current operation.

		       y   Answer `yes', and transfer the file.

		       ?   Display a help message.

		 Any other response will answer	`yes' to the current file.

     proxy ftp-command
		 Execute an ftp	command	on a secondary control connection.
		 This command allows simultaneous connection to	two remote FTP
		 servers for transferring files	between	the two	servers.  The
		 first proxy command should be an open,	to establish the sec-
		 ondary	control	connection.  Enter the command "proxy ?" to
		 see other FTP commands	executable on the secondary connec-
		 tion.	The following commands behave differently when pref-
		 aced by proxy:	open will not define new macros	during the
		 auto-login process, close will	not erase existing macro defi-
		 nitions, get and mget transfer	files from the host on the
		 primary control connection to the host	on the secondary con-
		 trol connection, and put, mput, and append transfer files
		 from the host on the secondary	control	connection to the host
		 on the	primary	control	connection.  Third party file trans-
		 fers depend upon support of the FTP protocol PASV command by
		 the server on the secondary control connection.

     put local-file [remote-file]
		 Store a local file on the remote machine.  If remote-file is
		 left unspecified, the local file name is used after process-
		 ing according to any ntrans or	nmap settings in naming	the
		 remote	file.  File transfer uses the current settings for
		 type, format, mode, and structure.

     pwd	 Print the name	of the current working directory on the	remote

     quit	 A synonym for bye.

     quote arg1	arg2 ...
		 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to	the remote FTP

     rate direction [maximum [increment]]
		 Throttle the maximum transfer rate to maximum bytes/second.
		 If maximum is 0, disable the throttle.

		 direction may be one of:
		       all  Both directions.
		       get  Incoming transfers.
		       put  Outgoing transfers.

		 maximum can be	modified on the	fly by increment bytes
		 (default: 1024) each time a given signal is received:

		       SIGUSR1	Increment maximum by increment bytes.

		       SIGUSR2	Decrement maximum by increment bytes.  The
				result must be a positive number.

		 If maximum is not supplied, the current throttle rates	are

		 Note: rate is not yet implemented for ascii mode transfers.

     rcvbuf size
		 Set the size of the socket receive buffer to size.

     recv remote-file [local-file]
		 A synonym for get.

     reget remote-file [local-file]
		 reget acts like get, except that if local-file	exists and is
		 smaller than remote-file, local-file is presumed to be	a par-
		 tially	transferred copy of remote-file	and the	transfer is
		 continued from	the apparent point of failure.	This command
		 is useful when	transferring very large	files over networks
		 that are prone	to dropping connections.

     remopts command [command-options]
		 Set options on	the remote FTP server for command to
		 command-options (whose	absence	is handled on a	command-spe-
		 cific basis).	Remote FTP commands known to support options
		 include: `MLST' (used for MLSD	and MLST).

     rename [from [to]]
		 Rename	the file from on the remote machine, to	the file to.

     reset	 Clear reply queue.  This command re-synchronizes com-
		 mand/reply sequencing with the	remote FTP server.  Resynchro-
		 nization may be necessary following a violation of the	FTP
		 protocol by the remote	server.

     restart marker
		 Restart the immediately following get or put at the indicated
		 marker.  On UNIX systems, marker is usually a byte offset
		 into the file.

     rhelp [command-name]
		 Request help from the remote FTP server.  If a	command-name
		 is specified it is supplied to	the server as well.

     rmdir directory-name
		 Delete	a directory on the remote machine.

     rstatus [remote-file]
		 With no arguments, show status	of remote machine.  If
		 remote-file is	specified, show	status of remote-file on
		 remote	machine.

     runique	 Toggle	storing	of files on the	local system with unique file-
		 names.	 If a file already exists with a name equal to the
		 target	local filename for a get or mget command, a ".1" is
		 appended to the name.	If the resulting name matches another
		 existing file,	a ".2" is appended to the original name.  If
		 this process continues	up to ".99", an	error message is
		 printed, and the transfer does	not take place.	 The generated
		 unique	filename will be reported.  Note that runique will not
		 affect	local files generated from a shell command (see
		 below).  The default value is off.

     send local-file [remote-file]
		 A synonym for put.

     sendport	 Toggle	the use	of PORT	commands.  By default, ftp will
		 attempt to use	a PORT command when establishing a connection
		 for each data transfer.  The use of PORT commands can prevent
		 delays	when performing	multiple file transfers.  If the PORT
		 command fails,	ftp will use the default data port.  When the
		 use of	PORT commands is disabled, no attempt will be made to
		 use PORT commands for each data transfer.  This is useful for
		 certain FTP implementations which do ignore PORT commands
		 but, incorrectly, indicate they've been accepted.

     set [option value]
		 Set option to value.  If option and value are not given, dis-
		 play all of the options and their values.  The	currently sup-
		 ported	options	are:

		       anonpass	   Defaults to $FTPANONPASS

		       ftp_proxy   Defaults to $ftp_proxy.

		       http_proxy  Defaults to $http_proxy.

		       no_proxy	   Defaults to $no_proxy.

		       pager	   Defaults to $PAGER.

		       prompt	   Defaults to $FTPPROMPT.

		       rprompt	   Defaults to $FTPRPROMPT.

     site arg1 arg2 ...
		 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to	the remote FTP
		 server	as a SITE command.

     size remote-file
		 Return	size of	remote-file on remote machine.

     sndbuf size
		 Set the size of the socket send buffer	to size.

     status	 Show the current status of ftp.

     struct struct-name
		 Set the file transfer structure to struct-name.  The default
		 (and only supported) structure	is ``file''.

     sunique	 Toggle	storing	of files on remote machine under unique	file
		 names.	 The remote FTP	server must support FTP	protocol STOU
		 command for successful	completion.  The remote	server will
		 report	unique name.  Default value is off.

     system	 Show the type of operating system running on the remote

     tenex	 Set the file transfer type to that needed to talk to TENEX

     throttle	 A synonym for rate.

     trace	 Toggle	packet tracing.

     type [type-name]
		 Set the file transfer type to type-name.  If no type is spec-
		 ified,	the current type is printed.  The default type is net-
		 work ASCII.

     umask [newmask]
		 Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask.	 If
		 newmask is omitted, the current umask is printed.

     unset option
		 Unset option.	Refer to set for more information.

     usage command
		 Print the usage message for command.

     user user-name [password [account]]
		 Identify yourself to the remote FTP server.  If the password
		 is not	specified and the server requires it, ftp will prompt
		 the user for it (after	disabling local	echo).	If an account
		 field is not specified, and the FTP server requires it, the
		 user will be prompted for it.	If an account field is speci-
		 fied, an account command will be relayed to the remote	server
		 after the login sequence is completed if the remote server
		 did not require it for	logging	in.  Unless ftp	is invoked
		 with ``auto-login'' disabled, this process is done automati-
		 cally on initial connection to	the FTP	server.

     verbose	 Toggle	verbose	mode.  In verbose mode,	all responses from the
		 FTP server are	displayed to the user.	In addition, if	ver-
		 bose is on, when a file transfer completes, statistics
		 regarding the efficiency of the transfer are reported.	 By
		 default, verbose is on.

     xferbuf size
		 Set the size of the socket send and receive buffers to	size.

     ? [command]
		 A synonym for help.

     Command arguments which have embedded spaces may be quoted	with quote `"'

     Commands which toggle settings can	take an	explicit on or off argument to
     force the setting appropriately.

     Commands which take a byte	count as an argument (e.g., hash, rate,	and
     xferbuf) support an optional suffix on the	argument which changes the
     interpretation of the argument.  Supported	suffixes are:
	   b	Causes no modification.	 (Optional)
	   k	Kilo; multiply the argument by 1024
	   m	Mega; multiply the argument by 1048576
	   g	Giga; multiply the argument by 1073741824

     If	ftp receives a SIGINFO (see the	``status'' argument of stty(1))	or
     SIGQUIT signal whilst a transfer is in progress, the current transfer
     rate statistics will be written to	the standard error output, in the same
     format as the standard completion message.

     In	addition to standard commands, this version of ftp supports an auto-
     fetch feature.  To	enable auto-fetch, simply pass the list	of host-
     names/files on the	command	line.

     The following formats are valid syntax for	an auto-fetch element:

	   ``Classic'' FTP format.

	   If path contains a glob character and globbing is enabled, (see
	   glob), then the equivalent of `mget path' is	performed.

	   If the directory component of path contains no globbing characters,
	   it is stored	locally	with the name basename (see basename(1)) of
	   path, in the	current	directory.  Otherwise, the full	remote name is
	   used	as the local name, relative to the local root directory.

	   An FTP URL, retrieved using the FTP protocol	if set ftp_proxy isn't
	   defined.  Otherwise,	transfer the URL using HTTP via	the proxy
	   defined in set ftp_proxy.  If set ftp_proxy isn't defined and user
	   is given, login as user.  In	this case, use password	if supplied,
	   otherwise prompt the	user for one.

	   If a	suffix of `;type=A' or `;type=I' is supplied, then the trans-
	   fer type will take place as ascii or	binary (respectively).	The
	   default transfer type is binary.

	   In order to be compliant with RFC 1738, ftp interprets the path
	   part	of an ``ftp://'' auto-fetch URL	as follows:

	   +o   The `/' immediately after the host[:port] is interpreted	as a
	       separator before	the path, and not as part of the path itself.

	   +o   The path	is interpreted as a `/'-separated list of name compo-
	       nents.  For all but the last such component, ftp	performs the
	       equivalent of a cd command.  For	the last path component, ftp
	       performs	the equivalent of a get	command.

	   +o   Empty name components, which result from	`//' within the	path,
	       or from an extra	`/' at the beginning of	the path, will cause
	       the equivalent of a cd command without a	directory name.	 This
	       is unlikely to be useful.

	   +o   Any `%XX' codes (per RFC	1738) within the path components are
	       decoded,	with XX	representing a character code in hexadecimal.
	       This decoding takes place after the path	has been split into
	       components, but before each component is	used in	the equivalent
	       of a cd or get command.	Some often-used	codes are `%2F'	(which
	       represents `/') and `%7E' (which	represents `~').

	   The above interpretation has	the following consequences:

	   +o   The path	is interpreted relative	to the default login directory
	       of the specified	user or	of the `anonymous' user.  If the /
	       directory is required, use a leading path of ``%2F''.  If a
	       user's home directory is	required (and the remote server	sup-
	       ports the syntax), use a	leading	path of	``%7Euser/''.  For
	       example,	to retrieve /etc/motd from `localhost' as the user
	       `myname'	with the password `mypass', use

	   +o   The exact cd and	get commands can be controlled by careful
	       choice of where to use `/' and where to use `%2F' (or `%2f').
	       For example, the	following URLs correspond to the equivalents
	       of the indicated	commands:

	       ftp://host/dir1/dir2/file	 ``cd dir1'', ``cd dir2'',
						 ``get file''.

	       ftp://host/%2Fdir1/dir2/file	 ``cd /dir1'', ``cd dir2'',
						 ``get file''.

	       ftp://host/dir1%2Fdir2/file	 ``cd dir1/dir2'', ``get

	       ftp://host/%2Fdir1%2Fdir2/file	 ``cd /dir1/dir2'', ``get

	       ftp://host/dir1%2Fdir2%2Ffile	 ``get dir1/dir2/file''.

	       ftp://host/%2Fdir1%2Fdir2%2Ffile	 ``get /dir1/dir2/file''.

	   +o   You must	have appropriate access	permission for each of the
	       intermediate directories	that is	used in	the equivalent of a cd

	   An HTTP URL,	retrieved using	the HTTP protocol.  If set http_proxy
	   is defined, it is used as a URL to an HTTP proxy server.  If	HTTP
	   authorization is required to	retrieve path, and `user' (and option-
	   ally	`password') is in the URL, use them for	the first attempt to

	   A local URL,	copied from /path on the local host.

     Unless noted otherwise above, and -o output is not	given, the file	is
     stored in the current directory as	the basename(1)	of path.  Note that if
     a HTTP redirect is	received, the fetch is retried using the new target
     URL supplied by the server, with a	corresponding new path.	 Using an
     explicit -o output	is recommended,	to avoid writing to unexpected file

     If	a classic format or an FTP URL format has a trailing `/' or an empty
     path component, then ftp will connect to the site and cd to the directory
     given as the path,	and leave the user in interactive mode ready for fur-
     ther input.  This will not	work if	set ftp_proxy is being used.

     Direct HTTP transfers use HTTP 1.1.  Proxied FTP and HTTP transfers use
     HTTP 1.0.

     If	-R is given, all auto-fetches that don't go via	the FTP	or HTTP	prox-
     ies will be restarted.  For FTP, this is implemented by using reget
     instead of	get.  For HTTP,	this is	implemented by using the `Range:
     bytes=' HTTP/1.1 directive.

     If	WWW or proxy WWW authentication	is required, you will be prompted to
     enter a username and password to authenticate with.

     When specifying IPv6 numeric addresses in a URL, you need to surround the
     address in	square brackets.  E.g.:	``ftp://[::1]:21/''.  This is because
     colons are	used in	IPv6 numeric address as	well as	being the separator
     for the port number.

     To	abort a	file transfer, use the terminal	interrupt key (usually Ctrl-
     C).  Sending transfers will be immediately	halted.	 Receiving transfers
     will be halted by sending an FTP protocol ABOR command to the remote
     server, and discarding any	further	data received.	The speed at which
     this is accomplished depends upon the remote server's support for ABOR
     processing.  If the remote	server does not	support	the ABOR command, the
     prompt will not appear until the remote server has	completed sending the
     requested file.

     If	the terminal interrupt key sequence is used whilst ftp is awaiting a
     reply from	the remote server for the ABOR processing, then	the connection
     will be closed.  This is different	from the traditional behaviour (which
     ignores the terminal interrupt during this	phase),	but is considered more

     Files specified as	arguments to ftp commands are processed	according to
     the following rules.

     1.	  If the file name `-' is specified, the stdin (for reading) or	stdout
	  (for writing)	is used.

     2.	  If the first character of the	file name is `|', the remainder	of the
	  argument is interpreted as a shell command.  ftp then	forks a	shell,
	  using	popen(3) with the argument supplied, and reads (writes)	from
	  the stdout (stdin).  If the shell command includes spaces, the argu-
	  ment must be quoted; e.g.  ``"| ls -lt"''.  A	particularly useful
	  example of this mechanism is:	``dir "" |more''.

     3.	  Failing the above checks, if ``globbing'' is enabled,	local file
	  names	are expanded according to the rules used in the	csh(1);	c.f.
	  the glob command.  If	the ftp	command	expects	a single local file
	  (e.g.	 put), only the	first filename generated by the	"globbing"
	  operation is used.

     4.	  For mget commands and	get commands with unspecified local file
	  names, the local filename is the remote filename, which may be
	  altered by a case, ntrans, or	nmap setting.  The resulting filename
	  may then be altered if runique is on.

     5.	  For mput commands and	put commands with unspecified remote file
	  names, the remote filename is	the local filename, which may be
	  altered by a ntrans or nmap setting.	The resulting filename may
	  then be altered by the remote	server if sunique is on.

     The FTP specification specifies many parameters which may affect a	file
     transfer.	The type may be	one of ``ascii'', ``image'' (binary),
     ``ebcdic'', and ``local byte size'' (for PDP-10's and PDP-20's mostly).
     ftp supports the ascii and	image types of file transfer, plus local byte
     size 8 for	tenex mode transfers.

     ftp supports only the default values for the remaining file transfer
     parameters: mode, form, and struct.

THE .netrc FILE
     The .netrc	file contains login and	initialization information used	by the
     auto-login	process.  It resides in	the user's home	directory, unless
     overridden	with the -N netrc option, or specified in the NETRC environ-
     ment variable.  The following tokens are recognized; they may be sepa-
     rated by spaces, tabs, or new-lines:

     machine name
	       Identify	a remote machine name.	The auto-login process
	       searches	the .netrc file	for a machine token that matches the
	       remote machine specified	on the ftp command line	or as an open
	       command argument.  Once a match is made,	the subsequent .netrc
	       tokens are processed, stopping when the end of file is reached
	       or another machine or a default token is	encountered.

     default   This is the same	as machine name	except that default matches
	       any name.  There	can be only one	default	token, and it must be
	       after all machine tokens.  This is normally used	as:

		     default login anonymous password user@site

	       thereby giving the user an automatic anonymous FTP login	to
	       machines	not specified in .netrc.  This can be overridden by
	       using the -n flag to disable auto-login.

     login name
	       Identify	a user on the remote machine.  If this token is
	       present,	the auto-login process will initiate a login using the
	       specified name.

     password string
	       Supply a	password.  If this token is present, the auto-login
	       process will supply the specified string	if the remote server
	       requires	a password as part of the login	process.  Note that if
	       this token is present in	the .netrc file	for any	user other
	       than anonymous, ftp will	abort the auto-login process if	the
	       .netrc is readable by anyone besides the	user.

     account string
	       Supply an additional account password.  If this token is
	       present,	the auto-login process will supply the specified
	       string if the remote server requires an additional account
	       password, or the	auto-login process will	initiate an ACCT com-
	       mand if it does not.

     macdef name
	       Define a	macro.	This token functions like the ftp macdef com-
	       mand functions.	A macro	is defined with	the specified name;
	       its contents begin with the next	.netrc line and	continue until
	       a blank line (consecutive new-line characters) is encountered.
	       If a macro named	init is	defined, it is automatically executed
	       as the last step	in the auto-login process.  For	example,

		     macdef init
		     epsv4 off

	       followed	by a blank line.

     ftp supports interactive command line editing, via	the editline(3)
     library.  It is enabled with the edit command, and	is enabled by default
     if	input is from a	tty.  Previous lines can be recalled and edited	with
     the arrow keys, and other GNU Emacs-style editing keys may	be used	as

     The editline(3) library is	configured with	a .editrc file - refer to
     editrc(5) for more	information.

     An	extra key binding is available to ftp to provide context sensitive
     command and filename completion (including	remote file completion).  To
     use this, bind a key to the editline(3) command ftp-complete.  By
     default, this is bound to the TAB key.

     By	default, ftp displays a	command	line prompt of ``ftp> '' to the	user.
     This can be changed with the set prompt command.

     A prompt can be displayed on the right side of the	screen (after the com-
     mand input) with the set rprompt command.

     The following formatting sequences	are replaced by	the given information:

	   %/	The current remote working directory.

		The trailing component of the current remote working direc-
		tory, or n trailing components if a digit n is given.  If n
		begins with `0', the number of skipped components precede the
		trailing component(s) in the format ``/<number>trailing'' (for
		`%c') or ``...trailing'' (for `%.').

	   %M	The remote host	name.

	   %m	The remote host	name, up to the	first `.'.

	   %n	The remote user	name.

	   %%	A single `%'.

     ftp uses the following environment	variables.

     FTPANONPASS    Password to	send in	an anonymous FTP transfer.  Defaults
		    to ```whoami`@''.

     FTPMODE	    Overrides the default operation mode.  Support values are:

		    active   active mode FTP only

		    auto     automatic determination of	passive	or active
			     (this is the default)

		    gate     gate-ftp mode

		    passive  passive mode FTP only

     FTPPROMPT	    Command-line prompt	to use.	 Defaults to ``ftp> ''.	 Refer
		    to COMMAND LINE PROMPT for more information.

     FTPRPROMPT	    Command-line right side prompt to use.  Defaults to	``''.
		    Refer to COMMAND LINE PROMPT for more information.

     FTPSERVER	    Host to use	as gate-ftp server when	gate is	enabled.

     FTPSERVERPORT  Port to use	when connecting	to gate-ftp server when	gate
		    is enabled.	 Default is port returned by a getservbyname()
		    lookup of ``ftpgate/tcp''.

     FTPUSERAGENT   The	value to send for the HTTP User-Agent header.

     HOME	    For	default	location of a .netrc file, if one exists.

     NETRC	    An alternate location of the .netrc	file.

     PAGER	    Used by various commands to	display	files.	Defaults to
		    more(1) if empty or	not set.

     SHELL	    For	default	shell.

     ftp_proxy	    URL	of FTP proxy to	use when making	FTP URL	requests (if
		    not	defined, use the standard FTP protocol).

		    See	http_proxy for further notes about proxy use.

     http_proxy	    URL	of HTTP	proxy to use when making HTTP URL requests.
		    If proxy authentication is required	and there is a user-
		    name and password in this URL, they	will automatically be
		    used in the	first attempt to authenticate to the proxy.

		    If ``unsafe'' URL characters are required in the username
		    or password	(for example `@' or `/'), encode them with RFC
		    1738 `%XX' encoding.

		    Note that the use of a username and	password in ftp_proxy
		    and	http_proxy may be incompatible with other programs
		    that use it	(such as lynx(1)).

		    NOTE: this is not used for interactive sessions, only for
		    command-line fetches.

     no_proxy	    A space or comma separated list of hosts (or domains) for
		    which proxying is not to be	used.  Each entry may have an
		    optional trailing ":port", which restricts the matching to
		    connections	to that	port.

     Some firewall configurations do not allow ftp to use extended passive
     mode.  If you find	that even a simple ls appears to hang after printing a
     message such as this:

	   229 Entering	Extended Passive Mode (|||58551|)

     then you will need	to disable extended passive mode with epsv4 off.  See
     the above section The .netrc File for an example of how to	make this

     getservbyname(3), editrc(5), services(5), ftpd(8)

     ftp attempts to be	compliant with RFC 959,	RFC 1123, RFC 1738, RFC	2068,
     RFC 2389, RFC 2428, RFC 2732, and draft-ietf-ftpext-mlst-11.

     The ftp command appeared in 4.2BSD.

     Various features such as command line editing, context sensitive command
     and file completion, dynamic progress bar,	automatic fetching of files
     and URLs, modification time preservation, transfer	rate throttling, con-
     figurable command line prompt, and	other enhancements over	the standard
     BSD ftp were implemented in NetBSD	1.3 and	later releases by Luke Mewburn

     IPv6 support was added by the WIDE/KAME project (but may not be present
     in	all non-NetBSD versions	of this	program, depending if the operating
     system supports IPv6 in a similar manner to KAME).

     Correct execution of many commands	depends	upon proper behavior by	the
     remote server.

     An	error in the treatment of carriage returns in the 4.2BSD ascii-mode
     transfer code has been corrected.	This correction	may result in incor-
     rect transfers of binary files to and from	4.2BSD servers using the ascii
     type.  Avoid this problem by using	the binary image type.

     ftp assumes that all IPv4 mapped addresses	(IPv6 addresses	with a form
     like ::ffff: indicate IPv4 destinations which can	be handled by
     AF_INET sockets.  However,	in certain IPv6	network	configurations,	this
     assumption	is not true.  In such an environment, IPv4 mapped addresses
     must be passed to AF_INET6	sockets	directly.  For example,	if your	site
     uses a SIIT translator for	IPv6-to-IPv4 translation, ftp is unable	to
     support your configuration.

FreeBSD	7.1		       January 15, 2005			   FreeBSD 7.1


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