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ftio(1)			    General Commands Manual		       ftio(1)

NAME
       ftio - faster tape I/O

SYNOPSIS
       |blksize]  type]	 extarg]  comment]  filelist]  datefile]  script] tty]
       nobufs] tapedev [pathnames] ignorenames]

       |blksize] script] tty] nobufs] tapedev [patterns]

       tapedev [patterns]

DESCRIPTION
       is a tool designed specifically for copying files to tape  drives.   It
       performs	 faster	 than  either or in comparable situations (see cpio(1)
       and tar(1)).  uses multiple processes (to read/write  the  file	system
       and  to write/read the tape device), with large amounts of memory shar-
       ing between processes as	well as	a large	block  size  for  reading  and
       writing to the tape.

       is compatible with in that output from is always	readable by and	output
       from is readable	by except as explained	in  the	 "cpio	Compatibility"
       section,	later in the manpage.

       must  be	 invoked with exactly one of the following options: or The and
       options specify that is writing "out" from file system to tape; the and
       options specify that is writing "in" from tape to file system.  The and
       options can be followed by modifiers that must appear immediately after
       the  option  with  no spaces between the	option and the modifier, as in
       (see Modifiers section below).

       tapedev specifies the name of a device special file for the tape	device
       to  which  the  output is written.  A device on a remote	machine	can be
       specified in the	form

       creates a server	process	from on	the remote machine to access the  tape
       device.	 If  does  not	exist  on  the remote system, creates a	server
       process from on the remote machine to access the	tape device.

   Options
       recognizes the following	options:

	      Copy (out) files from the	file system to
			     tapedev, including	path name and status  informa-
			     tion.   If	 pathnames  are	specified, recursively
			     descends pathnames	looking	for files, and	copies
			     those  files  to  tapedev.	  If pathnames are not
			     specified,	reads the standard input to  obtain  a
			     list of path names	to copy.  can copy to multiple
			     tapes if required.	 For every tape	 used,	gener-
			     ates  a  tape  header containing the current tape
			     volume number, machine node name and type,	 oper-
			     ating  system  name,  release and version numbers
			     (all from the system call;	see  uname(2)),	 user-
			     name  of the person issuing the command, the time
			     and date the command was executed,	the number  of
			     consecutive  times	 the  current  media  has been
			     used, a comment field, and	other items  used  in-
			     ternally by The tape header is separated from the
			     main body of the tape archive by  an  end-of-file
			     mark.   The  tape	header can be read by invoking
			     with the device file name as the  first  argument
			     (see  cat(1)).   Note, character and block	device
			     special files written with	 the  option  are  not
			     transportable to other HP-UX implementations.

	      Copy out files in	the same way as
			     when  no  modifiers are used with the However, if
			     the file exists in	 the  user's  home  directory,
			     opens  this  file and scans for lines preceded by
			     Options defined on	matching lines are  passed  to
			     as	 if  they  had	been  specified	on the command
			     line.  See	EXAMPLES section.

	      Extract (copy into the file system) files	from
			     tapedev, which is assumed to be a	tape  and  the
			     product of	a previous operation.  Only files with
			     names that	match patterns,	according to the rules
			     of	Pattern	Matching Notation (see regexp(5)), are
			     selected.	In addition, a leading within  a  pat-
			     tern  indicates that only those names that	do not
			     match the remainder of the	pattern	should be  se-
			     lected.   Multiple	patterns can be	specified.  If
			     no	patterns are specified,	the default  for  pat-
			     terns  is	(that  is, select all files).  The ex-
			     tracted  files  are  conditionally	 created   and
			     copied  into  the	current	 directory tree, based
			     upon the options described	 below.	  The  permis-
			     sions  of the files are those of the previous op-
			     eration.

	      Extract (copy into the file system) files	in the same way	as for
			     when no modifiers are used	with the  However,  if
			     the  file	exists	in  the	user's home directory,
			     opens this	file, and scans	for lines preceded  by
			     Options  defined  on matching lines are passed to
			     as	if they	had  been  specified  on  the  command
			     line.  See	EXAMPLES section.

	      Read the file list in
			     tapedev.	If  patterns  is  specified, only file
			     names that	match are  printed.   Note  that  file
			     names  are	always preceded	by the volume that ex-
			     pected the	file to	be on when the file  list  was
			     created;  thus  only  the last volume is valid in
			     this respect.

	      Specifies	the handling of	any extent attributes of  the  file[s]
	      to be archived.
			     Extent  attributes	 cannot	 be preserved when ar-
			     chiving files with	extarg takes one of  the  fol-
			     lowing values:

				  Issue	a warning message and archive the file
				  without extent attributes.

				  A  file  with	 extent	 attributes  will   be
				  archived, without preserving the
					    extent  attributes and without is-
					    suing a warning message.

				  A file with extent attributes	 will  not  be
				  archived and a
					    warning message will be issued.

			     If	is not specified, the default value for	extarg
			     is

	      Specify the size (in bytes) of blocks written to tape.
			     This number can end with which  specifies	multi-
			     plication by 1024.	 The use of larger blocks gen-
			     erally improves performance and tape usage.   The
			     maximum  allowable	 block	size is	limited	by the
			     tape drive	used.  A default of 16384 bytes	is set
			     because  this  is	the maximum block size on most
			     Hewlett-Packard tape drives.

	      Descend a	directory recursively, only if the
			     file system to which it belongs  is  type,	 where
			     type can be or

	      Arguments	following
			     specify patterns that should not be copied	to the
			     tape.  The	same rules apply to ignorenames	as  to
			     patterns; see the earlier description for

	      Specify a	comment	to be placed in	the
			     tape header.

	      Create a list of the files being backed up.
			     filelist specifies	the output file.  If pathnames
			     is	specified, perform the file search and	gener-
			     ate  a list of files prior	to actually commencing
			     the backup.  This list is then  appended  to  the
			     tape  header of each tape in the backup as	a list
			     of	files that attempted to	fit  onto  this	 tape.
			     The  last	tape  in the backup contains a catalog
			     identifying where the files are  in  the  archive
			     set.   If	pathnames  is  not also	specified, the
			     file list is taken	from standard input before the
			     backup  begins.   In  addition to generating file
			     lists, the	option implements tape	checkpointing,
			     allowing the backup to restart from a write fail-
			     ure on bad	media.

	      Make fully compatible with
			     That is, do not generate or expect	 tape  headers
			     and  change the default block size	to 5120	bytes.
			     (See the cpio Compatibility section below.)

	      Only files newer than the	file specified in
			     datefile are copied to tape.

	      Resynchronize automatically, when
			     goes out of phase.	 This is useful	when restoring
			     from  a  multi-tape  backup from tapes other than
			     the first.	 By default, asks the user  if	resyn-
			     chronization is required.

	      Specify a	command	to be invoked every time a tape	is completed
			     in	 a  multi-tape backup.	The command is invoked
			     with  the	following  arguments:  script  tape_no
			     user_name.	  script is the	string argument	script
			     specified with the	option.	 tape_no is the	number
			     of	 the  tape required, and user_name is the user
			     who invoked Typically, the	string	script	speci-
			     fies  a  shell script which is used to notify the
			     user that a tape change is	required.

	      Specify alternative to
			     Normally is opened	by when	 terminal  interaction
			     is	required.

	      Specify the number of
			     blksize  chunks  of memory	to use as buffer space
			     between the two processes,	where blksize  is  the
			     size  of blocks written to	the tape.  More	chunks
			     is	usually	better,	but a point is	reached	 where
			     no	 improvement  is gained, and performance might
			     deteriorate as buffer space  is  swapped  out  of
			     main  memory.   A	default	value of 16 is set for
			     nobufs, but using 32 or 64	might improve  perfor-
			     mance if your system is not heavily loaded.  Best
			     results are obtained when backups	are  performed
			     with  the	system	in single-user mode (see shut-
			     down(1M)).

   Modifiers
       The following modifiers can be used with	certain	options	 as  indicated
       in the SYNOPSIS:

	      After files are copied to	tape, reset their access time to
		      appear as	though the files were not accessed by

	      Write header information in
		      ASCII character form, for	portability.

	      When restoring files, create directories as needed.

	      Copy in all files	except those that match
		      patterns.

	      Archive the files	to which symbolic links	point,
		      as  if  they  were  normal files or directories.	By de-
		      fault, archives the link itself.

	      Retain previous file modification	time and ownership of file.
		      Restoring	modification time does not apply  to  directo-
		      ries that	are being restored.

	      At  the  end  of	the  backup, print the number of blocks	trans-
	      ferred,
		      the total	time taken (excluding tape  rewind  and	 reel-
		      change time), and	the effective transfer rate calculated
		      from these figures.  These values	are printed at the end
		      of each tape if is specified twice.

	      Print only a table of contents of	the input.
		      No files are created, read, or copied.

	      Copy unconditionally (by default,
		      does  not	 replace a newer file with a older file	of the
		      same name).

	      Be verbose.
		      Print a list of file names and tape headers.  When  used
		      with  the	modifier, the table of contents	looks the same
		      as the output of the (ell) command (see ls(1)).

	      Save or restore device special files.
		      uses mknod(2) to recreate	these files during  a  restore
		      operation.   Thus,  this modifier	is restricted to users
		      with appropriate privileges.  This is intended  for  in-
		      trasystem	 (backup)  use.	 Restoring device files	onto a
		      different	system can be very dangerous.

	      If copying from tape
		      or option), print	all file names found on	the  tape  ar-
		      chive,  noting  which files have been restored.  This is
		      useful when the user restores selected files, but	 wants
		      to know which (if	any) files are on the tape.

		      If  copying  to tape or option), the modifier suppresses
		      warning messages regarding optional access control  list
		      entries.	 ftio(1) does not back up optional access con-
		      trol list	entries	in a file's access control  list  (see
		      acl(5)).	 Normally,  a  warning	message	is printed for
		      each file	that has optional access control list entries.

	      When archiving, store all	files having absolute path names
		      (that is,	path names beginning with with path names rel-
		      ative  to	the root directory (in other words, remove the
		      leading On restoration, any files	in  the	 archive  that
		      had  an absolute path name before	archiving are restored
		      relative to the current directory.

	      Same as the
		      option, except that the file list	is left	in the current
		      directory	 as  the  file	instead	 of  the file named in
		      filelist.

	      On restoration, use
		      to allocate disk space beforehand	for the	file (see pre-
		      alloc(2)).   This	 vastly	 improves  the localization of
		      file fragments.

       When end-of-tape	is reached, invokes script if the  option  was	speci-
       fied,  rewinds  the  current tape, then asks the	user to	mount the next
       tape.

       To pass one or more metacharacters to without having the	 shell	expand
       them,  protect  them  either by preceding each of them with a backslash
       (as in or enclosing them	in protective single quotes (as	in

   cpio	Compatibility
       uses the	same archive format as However,	by default creates tape	 head-
       ers  and	 uses  a  tape	block  size of 16KB.  by default uses 512-byte
       blocks.	When used with the option, uses	5120 byte blocks.  To  achieve
       full compatibility with in either input or output mode, the user	should
       specify the modifier.  creates a	single-	or multi-tape archive that has
       no  tape	 headers,  and,	 by default, the same block size as An archive
       created by a command can	be restored using If the modifier of  is  com-
       bined  with  a block-size specification,	full compatibility with	(no is
       achieved.

EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
   Environment Variables
       determines the collating	sequence used in evaluating  pattern  matching
       notation	for file name generation.

       determines  the	characters  matched  by	character class	expressions in
       pattern matching	notation.

       determines the format and contents of date and time strings.

       determines the language in which	messages are displayed.

       If or is	not specified in the  environment  or  is  set	to  the	 empty
       string, the value of is used as a default for each unspecified or empty
       variable.  If is	not specified or is set	to the empty string, a default
       of C (see lang(5)) is used instead of If	any internationalization vari-
       able contains an	invalid	setting, behaves as if	all  internationaliza-
       tion variables are set to C.  See environ(5).

   International Code Set Support
       Single-byte character code sets are supported.

EXAMPLES
       Copy  the  entire contents of the file system (including	special	files)
       onto tape drive

       Restore all the files on	relative to the	current	directory:

       List the	contents of a backup set created using Note that  use  of  the
       modifier	 gives	a  more	detailed listing, and displays the contents of
       tape headers.

       Show how	to use the file:

	      Assume a file exists in the user's home directory	 and  contains
	      the following:

	      Invoke  with  the	 following  command line to back up the	user's
	      home directory and the operating system commands directory:

	      Specifying the option causes to check the	 file  for  additional
	      options.	 In this case, character headers are generated,	access
	      times are	reset, a listing of the	files copied  are  printed  to
	      standard	output,	 all  file names are copied to with path names
	      relative to performance data is printed when the backup is  com-
	      plete (and at every tape change),	and, if	the backup goes	beyond
	      one media	the script, is invoked by after	 each  media  is  com-
	      pleted.

WARNINGS
       Because of industry standards and interoperability goals, does not sup-
       port the	 archival  of  files  larger  than  2GB	 or  files  that  have
       user/group  IDs	greater	 than  60K.  Files with	user/group IDs greater
       than 60K	are archived and restored under	the user/group ID of the  cur-
       rent process.

       operates	 using	System	V shared memory	and semaphores.	 The resources
       committed to these functions are	not freed automatically	by the	system
       when  the  process  terminates.	does this only when it terminates nor-
       mally, or when it terminates after receiving one	the following signals:
       Any  other  signal  is  handled in the default manner described by sig-
       nal(2).	Note that the behavior for is to terminate the process without
       delay.	Thus, if receives a signal (as might be	produced by the	indis-
       criminate use of	(see kill(1)), system resources	used for shared	memory
       and semaphores are not returned to the system.  If it becomes necessary
       to terminate an invocation of use instead.   Current  system  usage  of
       shared  memory  and  semaphores	can  be	checked	using the command (see
       ipcs(1)).  Committed resources can be removed using (see	ipcrm(1)).

AUTHOR
       was developed by	HP.

SEE ALSO
       cpio(1),	find(1), ipcs(1), ipcrm(1), kill(1), ls(1), rmt(1M), mknod(2),
       prealloc(2),  signal(2),	 uname(2),  acl(5),  environ(5), lang(5), reg-
       exp(5), mt(7).

								       ftio(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | EXTERNAL INFLUENCES | EXAMPLES | WARNINGS | AUTHOR | SEE ALSO

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