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frecover(1M)							  frecover(1M)

       frecover	- selectively recover files

       config] device] skip] extarg]


       config] path] device] graph] path] skip]	extarg]

       device] config]

       device] config]

       reads  media written by the command.  Its actions are controlled	by the
       selected	function or

       The function performed by is specified by one of	the following options:

       The backup media	is read	and the	contents are loaded
		   into	the directories	from which they	were backed up.	  This
		   option  should  only	 be  used to recover a complete	backup
		   onto	a clear	directory or to	recover	an incremental	backup
		   after  a  full level-zero recovery (see fbackup(1M)).  This
		   is the default behavior.

       The files identified by the
		   and options (see below) are extracted or not	extracted from
		   the	backup media.  If a file to be extracted matches a di-
		   rectory whose contents have been written to the backup  me-
		   dia,	 and the option	is not specified, the directory	is re-
		   cursively extracted.	 The owner, modification time, and ac-
		   cess	 control  list (including optional entries, unless the
		   option is specified)	are recovered.	If no file argument is
		   given  (including  an  empty	 graph file), all files	on the
		   backup media	are extracted, unless the option is specified.

       The index on the	current	volume is extracted
		   from	the backup media and is	written	to path.

       The volume header on the	current	volume
		   is extracted	from the backup	media and is written to	 path.
		   The	following  fields from the header are extracted	in the
		   format label:value with one pair per	line.

		   On valid		       media, it contains the value On
					       pre-10.20 media,	it contains
		   This	field contains the result of
		   This	field contains the result of
		   This	field contains the result of
		   This	field contains the result of
		   This	field contains the result of
		   This	 field	contains the maximum length in bytes of	a data
		   This	field contains the time
					       was started.
		   This	field contains the number of times
					       the media  has  been  used  for
		   This	field contains a       character followed by 3 digits,
					       and identifies the current vol-
					       ume in the backup.
		   This	 field	contains  the  number  of data records between
		   This	field contains the number of files between
					       for backups made	with DDS  tape
		   This	field contains the size	of the index.
		   This	field is composed of 2 items: the process
					       ID (pid), and the start time of
					       that process.
		   This	field contains the language used to make the backup.

       An interrupted full recovery can	be continued using this	option.
		   uses	the information	in file	path to	continue the  recovery
		   from	 where	it was interrupted.  The only command line op-
		   tion	used by	with this option is The	values in  path	 over-
		   ride	all other options to Note also that only full recover-
		   ies are restarted with this option, because no  history  of
		   include or exclude lists is stored in the restart file.  If
		   a partial recovery (i.e., using the option) is  interrupted
		   then	restarted with this option, continues recovering where
		   the partial recovery	left off, but restores	all  files  on
		   the backup media beyond this	point.

       The  following options can be used in addition to the option above that
       selects the desired function:

       config	   specifies the name of a configuration file to  be  used  to
		   alter  the  behavior	 of  The configuration file allows the
		   user	to specify the action to be taken on all  errors,  the
		   maximum  number of attempts at resynchronizing on media er-
		   rors	option), and the action	to be taken on	media  errors.
		   Each	 entry	of  a configuration file consists of an	action
		   identifier followed by a separator followed by  the	speci-
		   fied	 action.   Valid action	identifiers are	and Separators
		   can be either tabs or spaces.  In the following sample con-
		   figuration  file,  each  time  an error is encountered, the
		   script is executed.	The script is executed each  time  the
		   backup  media  is  to  be  changed.	 The maximum number of
		   resynchronization attempts is five.

       path	   is interpreted as a graph to	be excluded from the recovery.
		   There is no limit on	how many times the option can be spec-

       device	   identifies the backup device	to be used instead of the  de-
		   fault If device is reads from standard input.  Thus and can
		   be used in a	pipeline to backup and recover a  file	system
		   as follows:

		   If  more  than  one output file is specified, uses each one
		   successively	and then repeats in a cyclical pattern.	  Pat-
		   terns  can  be  used	in the device name in a	way similar to
		   file	name expansion as done by sh(1).  The expansion	of the
		   pattern  results in all matching names being	in the list of
		   devices used.  A device on the remote machine can be	speci-
		   fied	 in  the  form creates a server	process, on the	remote
		   machine to access the tape device.  If does	not  exist  on
		   the remote system, creates a	server process from on the re-
		   mote	machine	to access the tape device.  The	pattern	match-
		   ing	capability does	not apply to remote devices.  Only raw
		   magnetic tapes can be remote	devices.   The	capability  is
		   not used when accessing remote DDS devices.

       graph	   defines  a graph file.  Graph files are text	files and con-
		   tain	the list of file names (graphs)	 to  be	 recovered  or
		   skipped.  Files are recovered using the option; so, for ex-
		   ample, if the user wants to recover all of the  graph  file
		   contains one	entry:

		   It  is also possible	to skip	files by using the option. For
		   example, if a user wants to recover all of except  for  the
		   subgraph the	graph file contains two	entries:

		   If  the graph file is missing, exits	with an	error message.
		   An empty graph file results in recovering all files on  the

       Extract the actual directory, rather than the files that	it references.
		   This	prevents hierarchical restoration of complete subtrees
		   from	the backup media.

       path	   is interpreted as a graph to	be included in	the  recovery.
		   There is no limit on	how many times the option can be spec-

       Print a message each time a file	marker is encountered.
		   Using this option, prints a message each time either	a  DDS
		   a filemark (EOF), or	a checkpoint record is read.  Although
		   useful primarily for	troubleshooting,  these	 messages  can
		   also	 be  used to reassure the user that the	backup is pro-
		   gressing during long, and otherwise silent, periods	during
		   the recovery.

       Recover the file	from the backup	media irrespective of age.
		   Normally  does not overwrite	an existing file with an older
		   version of the file.

       Attempt to optimize disk	usage by not writing
		   null	blocks of data to sparse files.

       Normally	   works silently.  Verbose option.   Displays the  file  type
		   and name of each file processed.

       Automatically answer
		   to any inquiries.

       Do not recover any optional entries in access control lists
		   (ACLs).   Normally, all access control information, includ-
		   ing optional	ACL entries, is	recovered.  This option	 drops
		   any optional	entries	and sets the permissions of the	recov-
		   ered	file to	the permissions	of the backed  up  file.   Use
		   this	 option	 when recovering files backed up from a	system
		   with	ACLs on	a system  where	 ACLs  are  not	 present  (see

       Recover files without recovering	leading	directories.
		   For	example,  this option would be used if a user wants to
		   recover and to a local directory without creating  each  of
		   the graph structures.

       Specifies the handling of any extent attributes backed up by
		   The option takes the	following keywords as arguments:

		   Issue a warning message if extent attributes	cannot
			     be	restored, but restore the file anyway.

		   Do not restore extent attributes.

		   Issue an error message and do not restore the file
			     if	extent attributes cannot be restored.

			     Extent attributes cannot be restored if the files
			     are being restored	to a file  system  which  does
			     not support extent	attributes or if the file sys-
			     tem's block size is incompatible with the	extent
			     attributes.  If is	not specified, extarg defaults

       (no recovery)
		   Prevent from	actually recovering any	files onto  disk,  but
		   read	 the backup as if it was, in fact, recovering the data
		   from	the backup, producing the same output that it would on
		   a  normal  recovery.	  This	option is useful for verifying
		   backup media	contents in terms of validity (block  checksum
		   errors  are reported), and contents (a listing of files can
		   be produced by using	the and	options	together).  Note  that
		   the listing of files	produced with the and options requires
		   the reading of the entire backup, but is therefore  a  more
		   accurate reflection of the backup's contents	than the index
		   stored at the beginning of the backup (which	was created at
		   the	start of the backup session, and is not	changed	during
		   the course of the backup).

       Use the effective uid and gid for the owner and group
		   of the recovered file instead of the	values on  the	backup

       does not	ask whether it should abort the	recovery
		   if  it  gets	a media	error.	It tries to skip the bad block
		   or blocks and continue.  Residual or	lost data  is  written
		   to  the  file  named	 by skip.  The user can	then edit this
		   file	and recover otherwise irretrievable data.

       Recover files relative to the current working directory.
		   Normally recovers files to their absolute path name.

   Environment Variables
       determines the order in which expects files to be stored	on the	backup
       device and the order in which file names	are output by the option.

       determines the language in which	messages are displayed.

       If  and	are  not  specified in the environment or are set to the empty
       string, the value of is used as a default for each unspecified or empty
       variable.  If is	not specified or is set	to the empty string, a default
       of "C" (see lang(5)) is used instead  of	 If  any  internationalization
       variable	 contains an invalid setting, behaves as if all	international-
       ization variables are set to "C".  See environ(5).

   International Code Set Support
       Single- and multi-byte character	code sets are supported.

       For incremental backups created prior to	installing HP-UX Release  8.0,
       or for recoveries that do not begin with	the first volume (such as when
       reading tape 3 first), it is possible for the preceding directories  to
       a  recoverable file to not be on	the media.  This can happen, for exam-
       ple, if the directories did not change since the	last full backup.   If
       encounters  a  file  on the backup that should be recovered, but	it has
       not recovered the file's	parent directories from	the backup, it	prints
       a  message  stating that	the recovery will continue with	that file, and
       attempts	to create the file's parent directories	as needed.

       Use of does not require special privileges.  However, if	 a  user  does
       not have	access permission to a given file, the file is not recovered.

       The  index  format  now	includes the file size in the first field; the
       previous	format simply had the '#' character in that field.  The	imple-
       mentation  provides both	forward	and backward compatibility between the
       old and new index formats.  However, the	file sizes are	used  in  con-
       junction	 with  the checkpoints to increase selective recovery speed on
       DLT devices, so recovery	of an volume that does not have	the new	 index
       format will not see that	performance gain.

       When  using a DDS tape written with the current release of to do	a par-
       tial recovery, attempts to use the DDS fast-search capability  to  find
       files on	the tape more quickly.	In order to do this, however, needs to
       create an in-memory copy	of the index, and mark the files on that index
       which  it  needs	to recover before actually reading through the tape to
       find the	files.	This is	done when the first index  is  read  from  the
       tape,  and  accounts  for a period of time just after recovery is begun
       where the tape is inactive while	this in-memory index  is  constructed.
       The larger the index is,	the longer this	period lasts.

       The  utility  set  comprised  of	and was	originally designed for	use on
       systems equipped	with not more than one gigabyte	of total  file	system
       storage.	  Although  the	utilities have no programming limitations that
       restrict	users to this size, complete backups and  recoveries  of  sub-
       stantially  larger  systems can cause a large amount of system activity
       due to the amount of virtual memory (swap space)	used to	store the  in-
       dices.	Users  who  want to use	these utilities, but are noticing poor
       system-wide performance due to the size of the backup,  are  encouraged
       to  back	up their systems in multiple smaller sessions, rather than at-
       tempting	to back	up the entire system at	one time.  However, if the en-
       tire  backup must be done with a	single session,	the user may encounter
       an error	in if there is not enough virtual memory available.   If  this
       happens,	the user might consider	adjusting the maxdsiz parameter	or the
       swap space; both	of these require a reboot.

       Note that when recovering files with access control lists, the ACL  en-
       tries  are  stored  on the backup as user login names.  If a login name
       cannot be found in the password file, the file is recovered without its
       ACL,  and  an error is printed.	In order to fully recover files	backed
       up with ACLs, the password file must be recovered before	attempting  to
       recover any desired ACLs.

       Network	special	 files	are obsolete.  Therefore, cannot restore these
       files.  A warning message is issued if an attempt is made to recover  a
       network special file, and the file is skipped.

       Care  should  be	 taken to match	the names specified by the include and
       exclude options with the	names in the index on  the  tape.   Since  the
       files  are  stored on the backup	in lexographic order as	defined	by the
       or environment variable,	uses the exact path names to determine when  a
       partial	recovery  is  complete,	 and  when an earlier tape needs to be
       loaded.	If a user's specification of a file to be  recovered  is  mis-
       spelled,	this may cause confusing messages, such	as asking for the pre-
       vious volume, when volume one is	mounted.

       does not	support	QIC-120	and QIC-150 formats on QIC devices.  If	is at-
       tempted for these formats, fails	and the	following message is displayed

       was developed by	HP.

       Default backup device.

       cpio(1),	dump(1M), fbackup(1M), restore(1M), rmt(1M), acl(5).



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