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FOPENCOOKIE(3)		   Linux Programmer's Manual		FOPENCOOKIE(3)

NAME
       fopencookie - opening a custom stream

SYNOPSIS
       #define _GNU_SOURCE	   /* See feature_test_macros(7) */
       #include	<stdio.h>

       FILE *fopencookie(void *cookie, const char *mode,
			 cookie_io_functions_t io_funcs);

DESCRIPTION
       The fopencookie() function allows the programmer	to create a custom im-
       plementation for	a standard I/O stream.	This implementation can	 store
       the  stream's  data  at	a  location  of	its own	choosing; for example,
       fopencookie() is	used to	implement fmemopen(3), which provides a	stream
       interface to data that is stored	in a buffer in memory.

       In order	to create a custom stream the programmer must:

       *  Implement  four  "hook"  functions  that  are	used internally	by the
	  standard I/O library when performing I/O on the stream.

       *  Define a "cookie" data type, a structure that	 provides  bookkeeping
	  information  (e.g.,  where to	store data) used by the	aforementioned
	  hook functions.  The standard	I/O package knows  nothing  about  the
	  contents  of	this cookie (thus it is	typed as void *	when passed to
	  fopencookie()), but automatically supplies the cookie	as  the	 first
	  argument when	calling	the hook functions.

       *  Call fopencookie() to	open a new stream and associate	the cookie and
	  hook functions with that stream.

       The fopencookie() function serves a purpose  similar  to	 fopen(3):  it
       opens  a	new stream and returns a pointer to a FILE object that is used
       to operate on that stream.

       The cookie argument is a	pointer	to the caller's	cookie structure  that
       is  to  be associated with the new stream.  This	pointer	is supplied as
       the first argument when the standard I/O	library	 invokes  any  of  the
       hook functions described	below.

       The mode	argument serves	the same purpose as for	fopen(3).  The follow-
       ing modes are supported:	r, w, a, r+, w+, and a+.  See fopen(3) for de-
       tails.

       The io_funcs argument is	a structure that contains four fields pointing
       to the programmer-defined hook functions	that  are  used	 to  implement
       this stream.  The structure is defined as follows

	   typedef struct {
	       cookie_read_function_t  *read;
	       cookie_write_function_t *write;
	       cookie_seek_function_t  *seek;
	       cookie_close_function_t *close;
	   } cookie_io_functions_t;

       The four	fields are as follows:

       cookie_read_function_t *read
	      This  function  implements read operations for the stream.  When
	      called, it receives three	arguments:

		  ssize_t read(void *cookie, char *buf,	size_t size);

	      The buf and size arguments  are,	respectively,  a  buffer  into
	      which  input data	can be placed and the size of that buffer.  As
	      its function result, the read function should return the	number
	      of bytes copied into buf,	0 on end of file, or -1	on error.  The
	      read function should update the stream offset appropriately.

	      If *read is a null pointer, then reads from  the	custom	stream
	      always return end	of file.

       cookie_write_function_t *write
	      This  function implements	write operations for the stream.  When
	      called, it receives three	arguments:

		  ssize_t write(void *cookie, const char *buf, size_t size);

	      The buf and size arguments are, respectively, a buffer  of  data
	      to  be output to the stream and the size of that buffer.	As its
	      function result, the write function should return	the number  of
	      bytes  copied  from  buf,	or 0 on	error.	(The function must not
	      return a negative	value.)	 The write function should update  the
	      stream offset appropriately.

	      If  *write  is a null pointer, then output to the	stream is dis-
	      carded.

       cookie_seek_function_t *seek
	      This function implements seek operations on  the	stream.	  When
	      called, it receives three	arguments:

		  int seek(void	*cookie, off64_t *offset, int whence);

	      The  *offset argument specifies the new file offset depending on
	      which of the following three values is supplied in whence:

	      SEEK_SET	The stream offset should be set	*offset	bytes from the
			start of the stream.

	      SEEK_CUR	*offset	should be added	to the current stream offset.

	      SEEK_END	The  stream  offset  should  be	set to the size	of the
			stream plus *offset.

	      Before returning,	the seek function should update	*offset	to in-
	      dicate the new stream offset.

	      As  its  function	 result,  the seek function should return 0 on
	      success, and -1 on error.

	      If *seek is a null pointer, then it is not possible  to  perform
	      seek operations on the stream.

       cookie_close_function_t *close
	      This  function  closes  the  stream.   The  hook function	can do
	      things such as freeing buffers allocated for the	stream.	  When
	      called, it receives one argument:

		  int close(void *cookie);

	      The  cookie  argument is the cookie that the programmer supplied
	      when calling fopencookie().

	      As its function result, the close	function should	 return	 0  on
	      success, and EOF on error.

	      If  *close is NULL, then no special action is performed when the
	      stream is	closed.

RETURN VALUE
       On success fopencookie()	returns	a pointer to the new stream.   On  er-
       ror, NULL is returned.

CONFORMING TO
       This function is	a nonstandard GNU extension.

EXAMPLE
       The  program  below  implements	a custom stream	whose functionality is
       similar (but not	identical) to that available via fmemopen(3).  It  im-
       plements	a stream whose data is stored in a memory buffer.  The program
       writes its command-line arguments to the	stream,	and then seeks through
       the stream reading two out of every five	characters and writing them to
       standard	output.	 The following shell session demonstrates the  use  of
       the program:

	   $ ./a.out 'hello world'
	   /he/
	   / w/
	   /d/
	   Reached end of file

       Note that a more	general	version	of the program below could be improved
       to more robustly	handle	various	 error	situations  (e.g.,  opening  a
       stream  with a cookie that already has an open stream; closing a	stream
       that has	already	been closed).

   Program source

       #define _GNU_SOURCE
       #include	<sys/types.h>
       #include	<stdio.h>
       #include	<stdlib.h>
       #include	<unistd.h>
       #include	<string.h>

       #define INIT_BUF_SIZE 4

       struct memfile_cookie {
	   char	  *buf;	       /* Dynamically sized buffer for data */
	   size_t  allocated;  /* Size of buf */
	   size_t  endpos;     /* Number of characters in buf */
	   off_t   offset;     /* Current file offset in buf */
       };

       ssize_t
       memfile_write(void *c, const char *buf, size_t size)
       {
	   char	*new_buff;
	   struct memfile_cookie *cookie = c;

	   /* Buffer too small?	Keep doubling size until big enough */

	   while (size + cookie->offset	> cookie->allocated) {
	       new_buff	= realloc(cookie->buf, cookie->allocated * 2);
	       if (new_buff == NULL) {
		   return -1;
	       } else {
		   cookie->allocated *=	2;
		   cookie->buf = new_buff;
	       }
	   }

	   memcpy(cookie->buf +	cookie->offset,	buf, size);

	   cookie->offset += size;
	   if (cookie->offset >	cookie->endpos)
	       cookie->endpos =	cookie->offset;

	   return size;
       }

       ssize_t
       memfile_read(void *c, char *buf,	size_t size)
       {
	   ssize_t xbytes;
	   struct memfile_cookie *cookie = c;

	   /* Fetch minimum of bytes requested and bytes available */

	   xbytes = size;
	   if (cookie->offset +	size > cookie->endpos)
	       xbytes =	cookie->endpos - cookie->offset;
	   if (xbytes <	0)     /* offset may be	past endpos */
	      xbytes = 0;

	   memcpy(buf, cookie->buf + cookie->offset, xbytes);

	   cookie->offset += xbytes;
	   return xbytes;
       }

       int
       memfile_seek(void *c, off64_t *offset, int whence)
       {
	   off64_t new_offset;
	   struct memfile_cookie *cookie = c;

	   if (whence == SEEK_SET)
	       new_offset = *offset;
	   else	if (whence == SEEK_END)
	       new_offset = cookie->endpos + *offset;
	   else	if (whence == SEEK_CUR)
	       new_offset = cookie->offset + *offset;
	   else
	       return -1;

	   if (new_offset < 0)
	       return -1;

	   cookie->offset = new_offset;
	   *offset = new_offset;
	   return 0;
       }

       int
       memfile_close(void *c)
       {
	   struct memfile_cookie *cookie = c;

	   free(cookie->buf);
	   cookie->allocated = 0;
	   cookie->buf = NULL;

	   return 0;
       }

       int
       main(int	argc, char *argv[])
       {
	   cookie_io_functions_t  memfile_func = {
	       .read  =	memfile_read,
	       .write =	memfile_write,
	       .seek  =	memfile_seek,
	       .close =	memfile_close
	   };
	   FILE	*fp;
	   struct memfile_cookie mycookie;
	   ssize_t nread;
	   long	p;
	   int j;
	   char	buf[1000];

	   /* Set up the cookie	before calling fopencookie() */

	   mycookie.buf	= malloc(INIT_BUF_SIZE);
	   if (mycookie.buf == NULL) {
	       perror("malloc");
	       exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
	   }

	   mycookie.allocated =	INIT_BUF_SIZE;
	   mycookie.offset = 0;
	   mycookie.endpos = 0;

	   fp =	fopencookie(&mycookie,"w+", memfile_func);
	   if (fp == NULL) {
	       perror("fopencookie");
	       exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
	   }

	   /* Write command-line arguments to our file */

	   for (j = 1; j < argc; j++)
	       if (fputs(argv[j], fp) == EOF) {
		   perror("fputs");
		   exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
	       }

	   /* Read two bytes out of every five,	until EOF */

	   for (p = 0; ; p += 5) {
	       if (fseek(fp, p,	SEEK_SET) == -1) {
		   perror("fseek");
		   exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
	       }
	       nread = fread(buf, 1, 2,	fp);
	       if (nread == -1)	{
		   perror("fread");
		   exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
	       }
	       if (nread == 0) {
		   printf("Reached end of file\n");
		   break;
	       }

	       printf("/%.*s/\n", nread, buf);
	   }

	   exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
       }

SEE ALSO
       fclose(3), fmemopen(3), fopen(3), fseek(3)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.74 of the	Linux  man-pages  project.   A
       description  of	the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest	 version    of	  this	  page,	   can	   be	  found	    at
       http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux				  2013-03-17			FOPENCOOKIE(3)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUE | CONFORMING TO | EXAMPLE | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

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