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FONT(7)								       FONT(7)

NAME
       font, subfont - external	format for fonts and subfonts

SYNOPSIS
       #include	<draw.h>

DESCRIPTION
       Fonts and subfonts are described	in cachechars(3).

       External	 bitmap	 fonts	are described by a plain text file that	can be
       read using openfont.  The format	of the file is a  header  followed  by
       any  number  of	subfont	range specifications.  The header contains two
       numbers:	the height and the ascent, both	in pixels.  The	height is  the
       inter-line  spacing  and	the ascent is the distance from	the top	of the
       line to the baseline.  These numbers are	chosen to display consistently
       all  the	 subfonts of the font.	A subfont range	specification contains
       two or three numbers and	a file name.  The numbers  are	the  inclusive
       range  of  characters covered by	the subfont, with an optional starting
       position	within the subfont, and	the file name names an	external  file
       suitable	 for  readsubfont  (see	graphics(3)).  The minimum number of a
       covered range is	mapped to the  specified  starting  position  (default
       zero)  of the corresponding subfont.  If	the subfont file name does not
       begin with a slash, it is taken relative	to  the	 directory  containing
       the  font file.	Each field must	be followed by some white space.  Each
       numeric field may be C-format decimal, octal, or	hexadecimal.

       External	subfonts are represented in a more rigid format	 that  can  be
       read  and  written using	readsubfont and	writesubfont (see subfont(3)).
       The format for subfont files is:	an image containing character  glyphs,
       followed	 by  a subfont header, followed	by character information.  The
       image has the format for	external image files  described	 in  image(7).
       The  subfont header has 3 decimal strings: n, height, and ascent.  Each
       number is right-justified and blank padded in 11	 characters,  followed
       by  a  blank.   The character info consists of n+1 6-byte entries, each
       giving the Fontchar x (2	bytes, low order  byte	first),	 top,  bottom,
       left, and width.	 The x field of	the last Fontchar is used to calculate
       the image width of the previous character; the other fields in the last
       Fontchar	are irrelevant.

       Note  that  the convention of using the character with value zero (NUL)
       to represent characters of zero width (see draw(3))  means  that	 fonts
       should have, as their zeroth character, one with	non-zero width.

   Font	Names
       Font  names in Plan 9 from User Space are a small language describing a
       font.  The most basic form is the name of an existing bitmap font file,
       following the convention:

	      /lib/font/bit/name/range.size.font

       where size is approximately the height in pixels	of the lower case let-
       ters (without ascenders or descenders).	Range gives some indication of
       which characters	will be	available: for example ascii, latin1, euro, or
       unicode.	 Euro includes most European languages,	punctuation marks, the
       International Phonetic Alphabet,	etc., but no Oriental languages.  Uni-
       code includes every character for which appropriate-sized images	 exist
       on the system.

       In  Plan	 9  from  User Space, the font files are rooted	in $PLAN9/font
       instead of /lib/font/bit, but to	keep  old  references  working,	 paths
       beginning  with	/lib/font/bit  are  interpreted	 as  references	to the
       actual font directory.

       Fonts need not be stored	on disk	in the Plan 9  format.	 If  the  font
       name  has the form /mnt/font/name/size/font, fontsrv is invoked to syn-
       thesize a bitmap	font from  the	operating  system's  installed	vector
       fonts.	The  command  fontsrv  -p  .   lists the available fonts.  See
       fontsrv(4) for more.

       If the font name	has the	form scale*fontname, where scale  is  a	 small
       decimal	integer, the fontname is loaded	and then scaled	by pixel repe-
       tition.

       The Plan	9 bitmap fonts were designed for screens  with	pixel  density
       around 100 DPI.	When used on screens with pixel	density	above 200 DPI,
       the bitmap fonts	are automatically  pixel  doubled.   Similarly,	 fonts
       loaded from fontsrv(4) are automatically	doubled	in size	by varying the
       effective size path element.  In	both cases, the	effect is that a  sin-
       gle  font  name	can be used on both low- and high-density displays (or
       even in a  window  moved	 between  differing  displays)	while  keeping
       roughly the same	effective size.

       For more	control	over the fonts used on low- and	high-density displays,
       if the font name	has the	form lowfont,highfont, lowfont is used on low-
       density displays	and highfont on	high-density displays.	In effect, the
       behavior	described above	is that	the font name

	      /lib/font/bit/lucsans/euro.8.font

       really means

	      /lib/font/bit/lucsans/euro.8.font,2*/lib/font/bit/luc-
	      sans/euro.8.font

       and similarly

	      /mnt/font/LucidaGrande/15a/font

       really means

	      /mnt/font/LucidaGrande/15a/font,/mnt/font/LucidaGrande/30a/font

       Using  an explicit comma-separated font pair allows finer control, such
       as using	a Plan 9 bitmap	font on	low-density displays but switching  to
       a system-installed vector font on high-density displays:

	      /lib/font/bit/lucsans/euro.8.font,/mnt/font/Lucida-
	      Grande/30a/font

FILES
       /usr/local/plan9/font/*
	      font directories

SEE ALSO
       graphics(3), draw(3), cachechars(3), subfont(3)

								       FONT(7)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | FILES | SEE ALSO

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