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FLASHROM(8)			  2019-12-31			   FLASHROM(8)

NAME
       flashrom	- detect, read,	write, verify and erase	flash chips

SYNOPSIS
       flashrom	[-h|-R|-L|-z|
		 -p <programmername>[:<parameters>] [-c	<chipname>]
		   (--flash-name|--flash-size|
		    [-E|-r <file>|-w <file>|-v <file>]
		    [(-l  <file>|--ifd|	 --fmap|--fmap-file  <file>)  [-i <im-
       age>]]
		    [-n] [-N] [-f])]
		[-V[V[V]]] [-o <logfile>]

DESCRIPTION
       flashrom	is a utility for detecting, reading,  writing,	verifying  and
       erasing	 flash	 chips.	  It's	often  used  to	 flash	BIOS/EFI/core-
       boot/firmware images in-system using a supported	mainboard. However, it
       also  supports various external PCI/USB/parallel-port/serial-port based
       devices which can program flash chips,  including  some	network	 cards
       (NICs),	SATA/IDE  controller cards, graphics cards, the	Bus Pirate de-
       vice, various FTDI FT2232/FT4232H/FT232H	based USB devices, and more.

       It supports a wide range	of DIP32,  PLCC32,  DIP8,  SO8/SOIC8,  TSOP32,
       TSOP40, TSOP48, and BGA chips, which use	various	protocols such as LPC,
       FWH, parallel flash, or SPI.

OPTIONS
       IMPORTANT: Please note that the command	line  interface	 for  flashrom
       will  change  before  flashrom  1.0.  Do	not use	flashrom in scripts or
       other automated tools without checking that your	flashrom version won't
       interpret options in a different	way.

       You  can	specify	one of -h, -R, -L, -z, -E, -r, -w, -v or no operation.
       If no operation is specified, flashrom will only	probe for flash	chips.
       It  is recommended that if you try flashrom the first time on a system,
       you run it in probe-only	mode and check the output. Also	 you  are  ad-
       vised  to make a	backup of your current ROM contents with -r before you
       try to write a new image. All  operations  involving  any  chip	access
       (probe/read/write/...)  require	the  -p/--programmer option to be used
       (please see below).

       -r, --read <file>
	      Read flash ROM contents and save them into the given <file>.  If
	      the file already exists, it will be overwritten.

       -w, --write <file>
	      Write <file> into	flash ROM. This	will first automatically erase
	      the chip,	then write to it.

	      In the process the chip is also read several times. First	an in-
	      memory  backup  is  made for disaster recovery and to be able to
	      skip regions that	are already equal to the image file. This copy
	      is  updated along	with the write operation. In case of erase er-
	      rors it is even re-read completely. After	writing	 has  finished
	      and if verification is enabled, the whole	flash chip is read out
	      and compared with	the input image.

       -n, --noverify
	      Skip the automatic verification  of  flash  ROM  contents	 after
	      writing.	Using  this option is not recommended, you should only
	      use it if	you know what you are doing and	if you feel  that  the
	      time for verification takes too long.

	      Typical usage is:	flashrom -p prog -n -w <file>

	      This option is only useful in combination	with --write.

       -N, --noverify-all
	      Skip  not	 included  regions during automatic verification after
	      writing (cf.  -l and -i).	 You should only use  this  option  if
	      you  are sure that communication with the	flash chip is reliable
	      (e.g. when using the internal programmer). Even if  flashrom  is
	      instructed  not to touch parts of	the flash chip,	their contents
	      could be damaged (e.g. due to misunderstood erase	commands).

	      This option is required to flash an Intel	system with locked  ME
	      flash region using the internal programmer. It may be enabled by
	      default in this case in the future.

       -v, --verify <file>
	      Verify the flash ROM contents against the	given <file>.

       -E, --erase
	      Erase the	flash ROM chip.

       -V, --verbose
	      More verbose output. This	option can be supplied multiple	 times
	      (max. 3 times, i.e.  -VVV) for even more debug output.

       -c, --chip <chipname>
	      Probe  only  for the specified flash ROM chip. This option takes
	      the chip name as printed by flashrom -L without the vendor  name
	      as parameter. Please note	that the chip name is case sensitive.

       -f, --force
	      Force one	or more	of the following actions:

	      *	Force chip read	and pretend the	chip is	there.

	      *	 Force chip access even	if the chip is bigger than the maximum
	      supported	size for the flash bus.

	      *	Force erase even if erase is known bad.

	      *	Force write even if write is known bad.

       -l, --layout <file>
	      Read ROM layout from <file>.

	      flashrom supports	ROM layouts. This allows you to	flash  certain
	      parts  of	the flash chip only. A ROM layout file contains	multi-
	      ple lines	with the following syntax:

		startaddr:endaddr imagename

	      startaddr	and endaddr are	hexadecimal addresses within  the  ROM
	      file  and	do not refer to	any physical address. Please note that
	      using a 0x prefix	for those hexadecimal numbers  is  not	neces-
	      sary, but	you can't specify decimal/octal	numbers.  imagename is
	      an arbitrary name	for the	region/image from   startaddr  to  en-
	      daddr (both addresses included).

	      Example:

		00000000:00008fff gfxrom
		00009000:0003ffff normal
		00040000:0007ffff fallback

	      If you only want to update the image named normal	in a ROM based
	      on the layout above, run

		 flashrom  -p  prog  --layout  rom.layout  --image  normal  -w
	      some.rom

	      To update	only the images	named normal and fallback, run:

		 flashrom  -p  prog  -l	 rom.layout  -i	 normal	-i fallback -w
	      some.rom

	      Overlapping sections are not supported.

       --fmap Read layout from fmap in flash chip.

	      flashrom supports	the fmap binary	format which is	commonly  used
	      by coreboot for partitioning a flash chip. The on-chip fmap will
	      be read and used to generate the layout.

	      If you only want to update the COREBOOT region  defined  in  the
	      fmap, run

	       flashrom	-p prog	--fmap --image COREBOOT	-w some.rom

       --fmap-file <file>
	      Read  layout from	a <file> containing binary fmap	(e.g. coreboot
	      roms).

	      flashrom supports	the fmap binary	format which is	commonly  used
	      by coreboot for partitioning a flash chip. The fmap in the spec-
	      ified file will be read and used to generate the layout.

	      If you only want to update the COREBOOT region  defined  in  the
	      binary fmap file,	run

		 flashrom  -p  prog  --fmap-file  some.rom --image COREBOOT -w
	      some.rom

       --ifd  Read ROM layout from Intel Firmware Descriptor.

	      flashrom supports	ROM layouts given by  an  Intel	 Firmware  De-
	      scriptor	(IFD). The on-chip descriptor will be read and used to
	      generate the layout. If you need to change the layout, you  have
	      to update	the IFD	only first.

	      The following ROM	images may be present in an IFD:

		fd    the IFD itself
		bios  the host firmware	aka. BIOS
		me    Intel Management Engine firmware
		gbe   gigabit ethernet firmware
		pd    platform specific	data

       -i, --image <imagename>
	      Only flash region/image <imagename> from flash layout.

       --flash-name
	      Prints out the detected flash chips name.

       --flash-size
	      Prints out the detected flash chips size.

       -L, --list-supported
	      List  the	 flash	chips, chipsets, mainboards, and external pro-
	      grammers (including PCI, USB, parallel  port,  and  serial  port
	      based devices) supported by flashrom.

	      There  are  many unlisted	boards which will work out of the box,
	      without special support in flashrom. Please let us know  if  you
	      can verify that other boards work	or do not work out of the box.

	      IMPORTANT:  For  verification  you  have to test an ERASE	and/or
	      WRITE operation, so make sure you	 only  do  that	 if  you  have
	      proper means to recover from failure!

       -z, --list-supported-wiki
	      Same  as --list-supported, but outputs the supported hardware in
	      MediaWiki	syntax,	so that	it can be easily pasted	into the  sup-
	      ported  hardware wiki page <https://flashrom.org/Supported_hard-
	      ware>.  Please note that MediaWiki output	is not compiled	in  by
	      default.

       -p, --programmer	<name>[:parameter[,parameter[,parameter]]]
	      Specify  the programmer device. This is mandatory	for all	opera-
	      tions involving any  chip	 access	 (probe/read/write/...).  Cur-
	      rently supported are:

	      *	internal (for in-system	flashing in the	mainboard)

	      *	dummy (virtual programmer for testing flashrom)

	      *	nic3com	(for flash ROMs	on 3COM	network	cards)

	      *	 nicrealtek  (for  flash  ROMs on Realtek and SMC 1211 network
	      cards)

	      *	nicnatsemi (for	flash ROMs on  National	 Semiconductor	DP838*
	      network cards)

	      *	 nicintel (for parallel	flash ROMs on Intel 10/100Mbit network
	      cards)

	      *	gfxnvidia (for flash ROMs on NVIDIA graphics cards)

	      *	drkaiser (for flash ROMs on Dr.	Kaiser PC-Waechter PCI cards)

	      *	satasii	(for flash ROMs	on Silicon Image SATA/IDE controllers)

	      *	satamv (for flash ROMs on Marvell SATA controllers)

	      *	atahpt (for flash ROMs on Highpoint ATA/RAID controllers)

	      *	atavia (for flash ROMs on VIA VT6421A SATA controllers)

	      *	atapromise (for	flash ROMs on Promise PDC2026x	ATA/RAID  con-
	      trollers)

	      *	it8212 (for flash ROMs on ITE IT8212F ATA/RAID controller)

	      *	   ft2232_spi	(for   SPI   flash   ROMs   attached   to   an
	      FT2232/FT4232H/FT232H family based USB SPI programmer).

	      *	serprog	(for flash ROMs	attached to a programmer speaking ser-
	      prog, including some Arduino-based devices).

	      *	buspirate_spi (for SPI flash ROMs attached to a	Bus Pirate)

	      *	dediprog (for SPI flash	ROMs attached to a Dediprog SF100)

	      *	 rayer_spi  (for SPI flash ROMs	attached to a parallel port by
	      one of various cable types)

	      *	pony_spi (for SPI flash	ROMs attached to a SI-Prog serial port
	      bitbanging adapter)

	      *	 nicintel_spi  (for  SPI  flash	 ROMs on Intel Gigabit network
	      cards)

	      *	ogp_spi	(for SPI flash ROMs on Open Graphics Project  graphics
	      card)

	      *	 linux_mtd  (for  SPI  flash  ROMs accessible via /dev/mtdX on
	      Linux)

	      *	linux_spi (for SPI flash ROMs accessible via /dev/spidevX.Y on
	      Linux)

	      *	 usbblaster_spi	(for SPI flash ROMs attached to	an Altera USB-
	      Blaster compatible cable)

	      *	nicintel_eeprom	(for SPI  EEPROMs  on  Intel  Gigabit  network
	      cards)

	      *	 mstarddc_spi  (for  SPI  flash	ROMs accessible	through	DDC in
	      MSTAR-equipped displays)

	      *	pickit2_spi (for  SPI  flash  ROMs  accessible	via  Microchip
	      PICkit2)

	      *	ch341a_spi (for	SPI flash ROMs attached	to WCH CH341A)

	      *	digilent_spi (for SPI flash ROMs attached to iCEblink40	devel-
	      opment boards)

	      *	jlink_spi (for SPI flash ROMs attached to  SEGGER  J-Link  and
	      compatible devices)

	      *	 ni845x_spi  (for  SPI flash ROMs attached to National Instru-
	      ments USB-8451 or	USB-8452)

	      *	stlinkv3_spi (for SPI flash ROMs attached to  STMicroelectron-
	      ics STLINK V3 devices)

	      Some programmers have optional or	mandatory parameters which are
	      described	in detail in the PROGRAMMER-SPECIFIC INFORMATION  sec-
	      tion.  Support  for  some	programmers can	be disabled at compile
	      time.  flashrom -h lists all supported programmers.

       -h, --help
	      Show a help text and exit.

       -o, --output <logfile>
	      Save the full debug log to <logfile>.  If	the file  already  ex-
	      ists,  it	 will  be  overwritten.	This is	the recommended	way to
	      gather logs from flashrom	because	they will be verbose  even  if
	      the  on-screen messages are not verbose and don't	require	output
	      redirection.

       -R, --version
	      Show version information and exit.

PROGRAMMER-SPECIFIC INFORMATION
       Some programmer drivers accept further parameters  to  set  programmer-
       specific	parameters. These parameters are separated from	the programmer
       name by a colon.	While some programmers take arguments at  fixed	 posi-
       tions, other programmers	use a key/value	interface in which the key and
       value is	separated by an	equal sign and different pairs	are  separated
       by a comma or a colon.

   internal programmer
       Board Enables

	      Some mainboards require to run mainboard specific	code to	enable
	      flash erase and write support (and probe support on old  systems
	      with  parallel flash).  The mainboard brand and model (if	it re-
	      quires specific code) is usually autodetected using one  of  the
	      following	 mechanisms:  If  your system is running coreboot, the
	      mainboard	type is	determined from	the  coreboot  table.	Other-
	      wise, the	mainboard is detected by examining the onboard PCI de-
	      vices and	possibly DMI info. If PCI and DMI do not  contain  in-
	      formation	 to  uniquely identify the mainboard (which is the ex-
	      ception),	or if you want	to  override  the  detected  mainboard
	      model, you can specify the mainboard using the

		flashrom -p internal:mainboard=<vendor>:<board>	syntax.

	      See  the 'Known boards' or 'Known	laptops' section in the	output
	      of 'flashrom -L' for a list of boards which require the specifi-
	      cation of	the board name,	if no coreboot table is	found.

	      Some  of	these  board-specific flash enabling functions (called
	      board enables) in	flashrom have not yet  been  tested.  If  your
	      mainboard	is detected needing an untested	board enable function,
	      a	warning	message	is printed and the board enable	 is  not  exe-
	      cuted,  because  a  wrong	 board enable function might cause the
	      system to	behave erratically, as board  enable  functions	 touch
	      the  low-level  internals	 of a mainboard. Not executing a board
	      enable function (if one is  needed)  might  cause	 detection  or
	      erasing  failure.	 If your board protects	only part of the flash
	      (commonly	the top	end, called boot block),  flashrom  might  en-
	      counter  an  error  only	after erasing the unprotected part, so
	      running without the board-enable function	might be dangerous for
	      erase and	write (which includes erase).

	      The suggested procedure for a mainboard with untested board spe-
	      cific code is to	first  try  to	probe  the  ROM	 (just	invoke
	      flashrom and check that it detects your flash chip type) without
	      running the board	enable code (i.e.  without any parameters). If
	      it  finds	 your  chip,  fine. Otherwise, retry probing your chip
	      with the board-enable code running, using

		flashrom -p internal:boardenable=force

	      If your chip is still not	detected, the board enable code	 seems
	      to  be  broken  or the flash chip	unsupported. Otherwise,	make a
	      backup of	your current ROM contents (using -r) and store it to a
	      medium  outside  of your computer, like a	USB drive or a network
	      share. If	you needed to run the board enable  code  already  for
	      probing,	use  it	 for reading too.  If reading succeeds and the
	      contens of the read file look legit you can try to write the new
	      image.  You should enable	the board enable code in any case now,
	      as it has	been written because it	is known that  writing/erasing
	      without  the board enable	is going to fail. In any case (success
	      or failure), please report to the	flashrom mailing list, see be-
	      low.

       Coreboot

	      On systems running coreboot, flashrom checks whether the desired
	      image matches your mainboard. This needs some special  board  ID
	      to  be present in	the image.  If flashrom	detects	that the image
	      you want to write	and the	current	board do not  match,  it  will
	      refuse to	write the image	unless you specify

		flashrom -p internal:boardmismatch=force

       ITE IT87	Super I/O

	      If your mainboard	is manufactured	by GIGABYTE and	supports Dual-
	      BIOS it is very likely that it uses an ITE IT87 series Super I/O
	      to  switch  between the two flash	chips. Only one	of them	can be
	      accessed at a time and you can manually select which one to  use
	      with the

		flashrom -p internal:dualbiosindex=chip

	      syntax where chip	is the index of	the chip to use	(0 = main, 1 =
	      backup). You can check which one is currently selected by	 leav-
	      ing out the chip parameter.

	      If  your	mainboard  uses	 an  ITE  IT87	series	Super  I/O for
	      LPC<->SPI	flash bus translation, flashrom	should autodetect that
	      configuration.  If you want to set the I/O base port of the IT87
	      series SPI controller manually instead of	using the  value  pro-
	      vided by the BIOS, use the

		flashrom -p internal:it87spiport=portnum

	      syntax  where portnum is the I/O port number (must be a multiple
	      of 8). In	the unlikely case flashrom doesn't  detect  an	active
	      IT87  LPC<->SPI bridge, please send a bug	report so we can diag-
	      nose the problem.

       AMD chipsets

	      Beginning	with the SB700 chipset there is	an  integrated	micro-
	      controller  (IMC)	based on the 8051 embedded in every AMD	south-
	      bridge. Its firmware resides in  the  same  flash	 chip  as  the
	      host's  which makes writing to the flash risky if	the IMC	is ac-
	      tive. Flashrom tries to temporarily disable  the	IMC  but  even
	      then  changing  the  contents of the flash can have unwanted ef-
	      fects: when the IMC continues (at	the latest after a reboot)  it
	      will continue executing code from	the flash. If the code was re-
	      moved or changed in an unfortunate way it	is unpredictable  what
	      the IMC will do. Therefore, if flashrom detects an active	IMC it
	      will disable write support unless	the user forces	it with	the

		flashrom -p internal:amd_imc_force=yes

	      syntax. The user is responsible for supplying a  suitable	 image
	      or  leaving  out	the IMC	region with the	help of	a layout file.
	      This limitation might be removed in the future  when  we	under-
	      stand  the details better	and have received enough feedback from
	      users. Please report the outcome if you had to use  this	option
	      to write a chip.

	      An  optional  spispeed  parameter	specifies the frequency	of the
	      SPI bus where applicable (i.e. SB600 or later with an SPI	 flash
	      chip directly attached to	the chipset).  Syntax is

		flashrom -p internal:spispeed=frequency

	      where frequency can be '16.5 MHz', '22 MHz', '33 MHz', '66 MHz',
	      '100 MHZ', or '800 kHz'.	Support	of individual frequencies  de-
	      pends on the generation of the chipset:

	      *	SB6xx, SB7xx, SP5xxx: from 16.5	MHz up to and including	33 MHz

	      *	SB8xx, SB9xx, Hudson: from 16.5	MHz up to and including	66 MHz

	      *	 Yangtze  (with	SPI 100	engine as found	in Kabini and Tamesh):
	      all of them

	      The default is to	use 16.5 MHz and disable Fast Reads.

       Intel chipsets

	      If you have an Intel chipset with	an ICH8	or  later  southbridge
	      with  SPI	 flash attached, and if	a valid	descriptor was written
	      to it (e.g. by the vendor), the chipset provides an  alternative
	      way  to  access the flash	chip(s)	named Hardware Sequencing.  It
	      is much simpler than the normal access method  (called  Software
	      Sequencing),  but	 does not allow	the software to	choose the SPI
	      commands to be sent.  You	can use	the

		flashrom -p internal:ich_spi_mode=value

	      syntax where value can be	auto, swseq or hwseq.  By default  (or
	      when  setting  ich_spi_mode=auto)	 the module tries to use swseq
	      and only activates hwseq if need be (e.g.	if  important  opcodes
	      are inaccessible due to lockdown;	or if more than	one flash chip
	      is attached). The	other options (swseq, hwseq)  select  the  re-
	      spective mode (if	possible).

	      ICH8  and	later southbridges may also have locked	address	ranges
	      of different kinds if a valid descriptor was written to it.  The
	      flash  address  space  is	then partitioned in multiple so	called
	      "Flash Regions" containing the host firmware,  the  ME  firmware
	      and so on	respectively. The flash	descriptor can also specify up
	      to 5 so called "Protected	Regions", which	are freely chosen  ad-
	      dress  ranges  independent  from	the  aforementioned "Flash Re-
	      gions". All of them can be write and/or read protected individu-
	      ally.

	      If  you  have an Intel chipset with an ICH2 or later southbridge
	      and if you want to set specific IDSEL values for	a  non-default
	      flash chip or an embedded	controller (EC), you can use the

		flashrom -p internal:fwh_idsel=value

	      syntax  where  value  is	the 48-bit hexadecimal raw value to be
	      written in the IDSEL registers of	the Intel southbridge. The up-
	      per  32  bits  use  one  hex digit each per 512 kB range between
	      0xffc00000 and 0xffffffff, and the lower 16  bits	 use  one  hex
	      digit  each per 1024 kB range between 0xff400000 and 0xff7fffff.
	      The rightmost hex	digit  corresponds  with  the  lowest  address
	      range. All address ranges	have a corresponding sister range 4 MB
	      below with identical IDSEL settings. The default value for  ICH7
	      is given in the example below.

	      Example: flashrom	-p internal:fwh_idsel=0x001122334567

       Laptops

	      Using flashrom on	older laptops that don't boot from the SPI bus
	      is dangerous and may easily make	your  hardware	unusable  (see
	      also the BUGS section). The embedded controller (EC) in some ma-
	      chines may interact badly	with flashing.	More information is in
	      the  wiki	 <https://flashrom.org/Laptops>.   Problems occur when
	      the flash	chip is	shared between BIOS and	EC firmware,  and  the
	      latter  does  not	 expect	 flashrom  to  access  the chip. While
	      flashrom tries to	change the contents  of	 that  memory  the  EC
	      might  need  to fetch new	instructions or	data from it and could
	      stop working correctly. Probing for and reading  from  the  chip
	      may also irritate	your EC	and cause fan failure, backlight fail-
	      ure, sudden poweroff, and	other nasty effects. flashrom will at-
	      tempt  to	 detect	 if  it	 is running on such a laptop and limit
	      probing to SPI buses. If you want	to probe the LPC bus anyway at
	      your own risk, use

		flashrom -p internal:laptop=force_I_want_a_brick

	      We  will	not help you if	you force flashing on a	laptop because
	      this is a	really dumb idea.

	      You have been warned.

	      Currently	we rely	on the chassis type encoded in the  DMI/SMBIOS
	      data  to	detect	laptops.  Some vendors did not implement those
	      bits correctly or	set  them  to  generic	and/or	dummy  values.
	      flashrom	will  then  issue  a  warning  and restrict buses like
	      above. In	this case you can use

		flashrom -p internal:laptop=this_is_not_a_laptop

	      to tell flashrom (at your	own risk) that it is not running on  a
	      laptop.

   dummy programmer
	      The  dummy  programmer  operates	on a buffer in memory only. It
	      provides a safe and fast way to test various aspects of flashrom
	      and  is  mainly  used in development and while debugging.	 It is
	      able to emulate some chips to  a	certain	 degree	 (basic	 iden-
	      tify/read/erase/write operations work).

	      An optional parameter specifies the bus types it should support.
	      For that you have	to use the

		flashrom -p dummy:bus=[type[+type[+type]]]

	      syntax where type	can be parallel, lpc, fwh, spi in  any	order.
	      If you specify bus without type, all buses will be disabled.  If
	      you do not specify bus, all buses	will be	enabled.

	      Example: flashrom	-p dummy:bus=lpc+fwh

	      The dummy	programmer supports flash chip emulation for automated
	      self-tests  without  hardware  access.  If you want to emulate a
	      flash chip, use the

		flashrom -p dummy:emulate=chip

	      syntax where chip	is one of the following	chips (please  specify
	      only the chip name, not the vendor):

	      *	ST M25P10.RES SPI flash	chip (128 kB, RES, page	write)

	      *	SST SST25VF040.REMS SPI	flash chip (512	kB, REMS, byte write)

	      *	SST SST25VF032B	SPI flash chip (4096 kB, RDID, AAI write)

	      *	Macronix MX25L6436 SPI flash chip (8192	kB, RDID, SFDP)

	      Example: flashrom	-p dummy:emulate=SST25VF040.REMS

       Persistent images

	      If  you  use  flash  chip	 emulation, flash image	persistence is
	      available	as well	by using the

		flashrom -p dummy:emulate=chip,image=image.rom

	      syntax where image.rom is	the file where the simulated chip con-
	      tents  are  read on flashrom startup and where the chip contents
	      on flashrom shutdown are written to.

	      Example: flashrom	-p dummy:emulate=M25P10.RES,image=dummy.bin

       SPI write chunk size

	      If you use SPI flash chip	emulation for a	 chip  which  supports
	      SPI  page	write with the default opcode, you can set the maximum
	      allowed write chunk size with the

		flashrom -p dummy:emulate=chip,spi_write_256_chunksize=size

	      syntax where size	is the number of bytes (min. 1,	max. 256).

	      Example:

		flashrom -p dummy:emulate=M25P10.RES,spi_write_256_chunksize=5

       SPI blacklist

	      To simulate a programmer which refuses to	send certain SPI  com-
	      mands to the flash chip, you can specify a blacklist of SPI com-
	      mands with the

		flashrom -p dummy:spi_blacklist=commandlist

	      syntax where commandlist is a list of two-digit hexadecimal rep-
	      resentations  of	SPI  commands.	If  commandlist	 is e.g. 0302,
	      flashrom will behave as if the SPI  controller  refuses  to  run
	      command  0x03  (READ) and	command	0x02 (WRITE).  commandlist may
	      be up to 512 characters  (256  commands)	long.	Implementation
	      note: flashrom will detect an error during command execution.

       SPI ignorelist

	      To simulate a flash chip which ignores (doesn't support) certain
	      SPI commands, you	can specify an ignorelist of SPI commands with
	      the

		flashrom -p dummy:spi_ignorelist=commandlist

	      syntax where commandlist is a list of two-digit hexadecimal rep-
	      resentations of SPI commands. If commandlist is e.g.  0302,  the
	      emulated	flash chip will	ignore command 0x03 (READ) and command
	      0x02 (WRITE).  commandlist may be	up to 512 characters (256 com-
	      mands)  long.  Implementation note: flashrom won't detect	an er-
	      ror during command execution.

       SPI status register

	      You can specify the initial content of the chip's	status	regis-
	      ter with the

		flashrom -p dummy:spi_status=content

	      syntax where content is an 8-bit hexadecimal value.

   nic3com,  nicrealtek,  nicnatsemi, nicintel,	nicintel_eeprom, nicintel_spi,
       gfxnvidia, ogp_spi, drkaiser, satasii, satamv,  atahpt,	atavia	,  at-
       apromise	and it8212 programmers
	      These  programmers  have an option to specify the	PCI address of
	      the card your want to use, which must be specified if more  than
	      one  card	 supported  by the selected programmer is installed in
	      your system. The syntax is

		flashrom -p xxxx:pci=bb:dd.f,

	      where xxxx is the	name of	the programmer,	bb is the PCI bus num-
	      ber, dd is the PCI device	number,	and f is the PCI function num-
	      ber of the desired device.

	      Example: flashrom	-p nic3com:pci=05:04.0

   atavia programmer
	      Due to the mysterious address handling of	the VIA	 VT6421A  con-
	      troller the user can specify an offset with the

		flashrom -p atavia:offset=addr

	      syntax  where  addr will be interpreted as usual (leading	0x (0)
	      for hexadecimal (octal) values, or else decimal).	 For more  in-
	      formation	      please	   see	     its       wiki	  page
	      <https://flashrom.org/VT6421A>.

   atapromise programmer
	      This programmer is currently limited to 32 kB, regardless	of the
	      actual size of the flash chip. This stems	from the fact that, on
	      the tested device	(a Promise Ultra100), not all  of  the	chip's
	      address lines were actually connected. You may use this program-
	      mer to flash firmware updates, since these are  only  16	kB  in
	      size (padding to 32 kB is	required).

   nicintel_eeprom programmer
	      This  is	the  first programmer module in	flashrom that does not
	      provide access to	NOR flash chips	but EEPROMs mounted on gigabit
	      Ethernet	cards based on Intel's 82580 NIC. Because EEPROMs nor-
	      mally do not announce their size	nor  allow  themselves	to  be
	      identified, the controller relies	on correct size	values written
	      to predefined addresses within the chip. Flashrom	 follows  this
	      scheme  but assumes the minimum size of 16 kB (128 kb) if	an un-
	      programmed EEPROM/card is	detected.  Intel  specifies  following
	      EEPROMs  to  be  compatible: Atmel AT25128, AT25256, Micron (ST)
	      M95128, M95256 and OnSemi	(Catalyst) CAT25CS128.

   ft2232_spi programmer
	      This  module  supports  various  programmers   based   on	  FTDI
	      FT2232/FT4232H/FT232H   chips  including	the  DLP  Design  DLP-
	      USB1232H,	    openbiosprog-spi,	  Amontec     JTAGkey/JTAGkey-
	      tiny/JTAGkey-2,  Dangerous  Prototypes  Bus Blaster, Olimex ARM-
	      USB-TINY/-H, Olimex ARM-USB-OCD/-H, OpenMoko Neo1973 Debug board
	      (V2+),  TIAO/DIYGADGET USB Multi-Protocol	Adapter	(TUMPA), TUMPA
	      Lite, GOEPEL PicoTAP, Google Servo v1/v2 and Tin Can Tools  Fly-
	      swatter/Flyswatter 2.

	      An optional parameter specifies the controller type, channel/in-
	      terface/port and GPIO-based chip select it should	 support.  For
	      that you have to use the

		flashrom -p ft2232_spi:type=model,port=interface,csgpiol=gpio

	      syntax  where  model  can	 be  2232H, 4232H, 232H, jtagkey, bus-
	      blaster, openmoko,  arm-usb-tiny,	 arm-usb-tiny-h,  arm-usb-ocd,
	      arm-usb-ocd-h,  tumpa, tumpalite,	picotap, google-servo, google-
	      servo-v2 or google-servo-v2-legacy interface can be A, B,	C,  or
	      D	 and  csgpiol  can  be	a  number  between  0  and 3, denoting
	      GPIOL0-GPIOL3 correspondingly.  The default model	is  4232H  the
	      default interface	is A and GPIO is not used by default.

	      If  there	 is  more  than	 one ft2232_spi-compatible device con-
	      nected, you can select which one should be  used	by  specifying
	      its serial number	with the

		flashrom -p ft2232_spi:serial=number

	      syntax  where  number  is	the serial number of the device	(which
	      can be found for example in the output of	lsusb -v).

	      All models supported by the ft2232_spi driver can	configure  the
	      SPI  clock  rate	by setting a divisor. The expressible divisors
	      are all even numbers between 2 and 2^17 (=131072)	 resulting  in
	      SPI  clock  frequencies  of 6 MHz	down to	about 92 Hz for	12 MHz
	      inputs. The default divisor is set to 2, but you can use another
	      one by specifying	the optional divisor parameter with the

		flashrom -p ft2232_spi:divisor=div

	      syntax.

   serprog programmer
	      This module supports all programmers speaking the	serprog	proto-
	      col. This	includes some Arduino-based devices as well as various
	      programmers by Urja Rannikko, Juhana Helovuo, Stefan Tauner, Chi
	      Zhang and	many others.

	      A	mandatory parameter specifies either a serial device (and baud
	      rate)  or	an IP/port combination for communicating with the pro-
	      grammer.	The device/baud	combination has	to start with dev= and
	      separate the optional baud rate with a colon.  For example

		flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyS0:115200

	      If  no  baud  rate  is given the default values by the operating
	      system/hardware will be used.  For IP connections	 you  have  to
	      use the

		flashrom -p serprog:ip=ipaddr:port

	      syntax.	In  case  the  device supports it, you can set the SPI
	      clock frequency with the optional	spispeed parameter.  The  fre-
	      quency  is  parsed  as hertz, unless an M, or k suffix is	given,
	      then megahertz or	kilohertz are used respectively.  Example that
	      sets the frequency to 2 MHz:

		flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/device:baud,spispeed=2M

	      More  information	 about	serprog	is available in	serprog-proto-
	      col.txt in the source distribution.

   buspirate_spi programmer
	      A	required dev parameter specifies the Bus  Pirate  device  node
	      and  an  optional	 spispeed parameter specifies the frequency of
	      the SPI bus. The parameter delimiter is a	comma. Syntax is

		flashrom -p buspirate_spi:dev=/dev/device,spispeed=frequency

	      where frequency can be 30k, 125k,	250k, 1M, 2M, 2.6M, 4M	or  8M
	      (in Hz). The default is the maximum frequency of 8 MHz.

	      The baud rate for	communication between the host and the Bus Pi-
	      rate can be specified with the optional  serialspeed  parameter.
	      Syntax is

		flashrom -p buspirate_spi:serialspeed=baud

	      where  baud  can be 115200, 230400, 250000 or 2000000 (2M).  The
	      default is 2M baud for  Bus  Pirate  hardware  version  3.0  and
	      greater, and 115200 otherwise.

	      An  optional  pullups parameter specifies	the use	of the Bus Pi-
	      rate internal pull-up resistors. This may	be needed if  you  are
	      working  with  a flash ROM chip that you have physically removed
	      from the board. Syntax is

		flashrom -p buspirate_spi:pullups=state

	      where state can be on or off.  More information  about  the  Bus
	      Pirate  pull-up  resistors  and  their purpose is	available in a
	      guide	by     dangerousprototypes     <http://dangerousproto-
	      types.com/docs/Practical_guide_to_Bus_Pirate_pull-up_resistors>.
	      Only the external	supply voltage (Vpu) is	supported as  of  this
	      writing.

   pickit2_spi programmer
	      An  optional voltage parameter specifies the voltage the PICkit2
	      should use. The default unit is Volt if no  unit	is  specified.
	      You  can	use mV,	millivolt, V or	Volt as	unit specifier.	Syntax
	      is

		flashrom -p pickit2_spi:voltage=value

	      where value can be 0V, 1.8V, 2.5V, 3.5V or the equivalent	in mV.

	      An optional spispeed parameter specifies the  frequency  of  the
	      SPI bus. Syntax is

		flashrom -p pickit2_spi:spispeed=frequency

	      where  frequency	can be 250k, 333k, 500k	or 1M (in Hz). The de-
	      fault is a frequency of 1	MHz.

   dediprog programmer
	      An optional voltage parameter specifies the voltage the Dediprog
	      should  use.  The	 default unit is Volt if no unit is specified.
	      You can use mV, milliVolt, V or Volt as unit  specifier.	Syntax
	      is

		flashrom -p dediprog:voltage=value

	      where value can be 0V, 1.8V, 2.5V, 3.5V or the equivalent	in mV.

	      An  optional  device  parameter specifies	which of multiple con-
	      nected Dediprog devices should be	used.  Please  be  aware  that
	      the order	depends	on libusb's usb_get_busses() function and that
	      the numbering starts at 0.  Usage	example	to select  the	second
	      device:

		flashrom -p dediprog:device=1

	      An  optional  spispeed  parameter	specifies the frequency	of the
	      SPI bus. The firmware on the device needs	to be 5.0.0 or	newer.
	      Syntax is

		flashrom -p dediprog:spispeed=frequency

	      where  frequency	can be 375k, 750k, 1.5M, 2.18M,	3M, 8M,	12M or
	      24M (in Hz). The default is a frequency of 12 MHz.

	      An optional target parameter specifies which target chip	should
	      be used. Syntax is

		flashrom -p dediprog:target=value

	      where  value  can	be 1 or	2 to select target chip	1 or 2 respec-
	      tively. The default is target chip 1.

   rayer_spi programmer
	      The default I/O base address used	for the	parallel port is 0x378
	      and  you can use the optional iobase parameter to	specify	an al-
	      ternate base I/O address with the

		flashrom -p rayer_spi:iobase=baseaddr

	      syntax where baseaddr is base I/O	port address of	 the  parallel
	      port,  which must	be a multiple of four. Make sure to not	forget
	      the "0x" prefix for hexadecimal port addresses.

	      The default cable	type is	the RayeR cable. You can use  the  op-
	      tional type parameter to specify the cable type with the

		flashrom -p rayer_spi:type=model

	      syntax  where  model  can	 be  rayer  for	the RayeR cable, byte-
	      blastermv	for the	Altera ByteBlasterMV,  stk200  for  the	 Atmel
	      STK200/300,  wiggler  for	 the Macraigor Wiggler,	xilinx for the
	      Xilinx Parallel Cable III	(DLC 5), or spi_tt for SPI Tiny	Tools-
	      compatible hardware.

	      More  information	 about	the  RayeR  hardware  is  available at
	      RayeR's  website	<http://rayer.g6.cz/elektro/spipgm.htm>.   The
	      Altera  ByteBlasterMV  datasheet	can  be	 obtained  from	Altera
	      <http://www.altera.co.jp/literature/ds/dsbytemv.pdf>.  For  more
	      information  about  the  Macraigor  Wiggler  see	their  company
	      homepage <http://www.macraigor.com/wiggler.htm>.	The  schematic
	      of  the  Xilinx  DLC  5  was  published  in  a Xilinx user guide
	      <http://www.xilinx.com/support/documentation/user_guides/xtp029.pdf>.

   pony_spi programmer
	      The  serial port (like /dev/ttyS0, /dev/ttyUSB0 on Linux or COM3
	      on windows) is specified using the mandatory dev parameter.  The
	      adapter type is selectable between SI-Prog (used for SPI devices
	      with  PonyProg  2000)  or	 a  custom  made   serial   bitbanging
	      programmer  named	"serbang". The optional	type parameter accepts
	      the values "si_prog" (default) or	"serbang".

	      Information about	the  SI-Prog  adapter  can  be	found  at  its
	      website <http://www.lancos.com/siprogsch.html>.

	      An example call to flashrom is

		flashrom -p pony_spi:dev=/dev/ttyS0,type=serbang

	      Please note that while USB-to-serial adapters work under certain
	      circumstances, this slows	down operation considerably.

   ogp_spi programmer
	      The flash	ROM chip to access must	 be  specified	with  the  rom
	      parameter.

		flashrom -p ogp_spi:rom=name

	      Where  name  is either cprom or s3 for the configuration ROM and
	      bprom or bios for	the BIOS ROM. If more than one card  supported
	      by  the ogp_spi programmer is installed in your system, you have
	      to specify the PCI address of the	card you want to use with  the
	      pci= parameter as	explained in the nic3com et al.	section	above.

   linux_mtd programmer
	      You may specify the MTD device to	use with the

		flashrom -p linux_mtd:dev=/dev/mtdX

	      syntax  where  /dev/mtdX	is  the	Linux device node for your MTD
	      device. If left unspecified the first  MTD  device  found	 (e.g.
	      /dev/mtd0) will be used by default.

	      Please note that the linux_mtd driver only works on Linux.

   linux_spi programmer
	      You have to specify the SPI controller to	use with the

		flashrom -p linux_spi:dev=/dev/spidevX.Y

	      syntax  where  /dev/spidevX.Y  is	the Linux device node for your
	      SPI controller.

	      In case the device supports  it,	you  can  set  the  SPI	 clock
	      frequency	with the optional spispeed parameter. The frequency is
	      parsed as	kilohertz.  Example that sets the frequency to 8 MHz:

		flashrom -p linux_spi:dev=/dev/spidevX.Y,spispeed=8000

	      Please note that the linux_spi driver only works on Linux.

   mstarddc_spi	programmer
	      The Display Data Channel (DDC) is	an I2C bus present on VGA  and
	      DVI  connectors,	that  allows  exchanging information between a
	      computer and attached displays. Its most common uses are getting
	      display  capabilities  through  EDID  (at	 I2C address 0x50) and
	      sending commands to the display using the	 DDC/CI	 protocol  (at
	      address  0x37).  On  displays  driven  by	MSTAR SoCs, it is also
	      possible to access the SoC firmware flash	(connected to the  Soc
	      through  another	SPI  bus) using	an In-System Programming (ISP)
	      port, usually at address 0x49.  This flashrom module allows  the
	      latter via Linux's I2C driver.

	      IMPORTANT:  Before using this programmer,	the display MUST be in
	      standby mode, and	only connected to the computer that  will  run
	      flashrom	using  a  VGA  cable,  to  an  inactive	VGA output. It
	      absolutely MUST NOT be used as a display during the procedure!

	      You have to specify the DDC/I2C controller and  I2C  address  to
	      use with the

		flashrom -p mstarddc_spi:dev=/dev/i2c-X:YY

	      syntax  where  /dev/i2c-X	 is the	Linux device node for your I2C
	      controller connected to the display's DDC	channel, and YY	is the
	      (hexadecimal)  address  of  the  MSTAR ISP port (address 0x49 is
	      usually used).  Example that uses	I2C controller /dev/i2c-1  and
	      address 0x49:

		flashrom -p mstarddc_spi:dev=/dev/i2c-1:49

	      It  is  also  possible  to  inhibit  the	reset  command that is
	      normally sent to the display  once  the  flashrom	 operation  is
	      completed	 using	the  optional  noreset parameter. A value of 1
	      prevents flashrom	from sending the reset command.	 Example  that
	      does not reset the display at the	end of the operation:

		flashrom -p mstarddc_spi:dev=/dev/i2c-1:49,noreset=1

	      Please  note that	sending	the reset command is also inhibited if
	      an error occurred	during	the  operation.	  To  send  the	 reset
	      command  afterwards,  you	 can simply run	flashrom once more, in
	      chip probe mode  (not  specifying	 an  operation),  without  the
	      noreset  parameter,  once	 the  flash  read/write	 operation you
	      intended to perform has completed	successfully.

	      Please also note that the	 mstarddc_spi  driver  only  works  on
	      Linux.

   ch341a_spi programmer
       The  WCH	 CH341A	 programmer does not support any parameters currently.
       SPI frequency is	fixed at 2 MHz,	and CS0	is used	as per the device.

   ni845x_spi programmer
	      An optional voltage parameter could be used to  specify  the  IO
	      voltage. This parameter is available for the NI USB-8452 device.
	      The default unit is Volt if no unit is specified.	 You  can  use
	      mV, milliVolt, V or Volt as unit specifier.  Syntax is

		flashrom -p ni845x_spi:voltage=value

	      where  value  can	 be  1.2V,  1.5V,  1.8V,  2.5V,	 3.3V  or  the
	      equivalent in mV.

	      In the case if none of the programmer's supported	IO voltage  is
	      within  the  supported  voltage range of the detected flash chip
	      the flashrom will	abort the operation (to	prevent	 damaging  the
	      flash  chip).   You can override this behaviour by passing "yes"
	      to the ignore_io_voltage_limits parameter	(for e.g. if  you  are
	      using an external	voltage	translator circuit).  Syntax is

		flashrom -p ni845x_spi:ignore_io_voltage_limits=yes

	      You  can	use  the  serial parameter to explicitly specify which
	      connected	NI USB-845x device should be  used.   You  should  use
	      your  device's 7 digit hexadecimal serial	number.	 Usage example
	      to select	the device with	1230A12	serial number:

		flashrom -p ni845x_spi:serial=1230A12

	      An optional spispeed parameter specifies the  frequency  of  the
	      SPI bus.	Syntax is

		flashrom -p ni845x_spi:spispeed=frequency

	      where  frequency	should	a  number corresponding	to the desired
	      frequency	in kHz.	 The maximum frequency is 12 MHz  (12000  kHz)
	      for  the	USB-8451 and 50	MHz (50000 kHz)	for the	USB-8452.  The
	      default is a frequency of	1 MHz (1000 kHz).

	      An optional cs parameter specifies which target chip select line
	      should be	used. Syntax is

		flashrom -p ni845x_spi:csnumber=value

	      where  value  should  be	between	 0 and 7 By default the	CS0 is
	      used.

   digilent_spi	programmer
	      An optional spispeed parameter specifies the  frequency  of  the
	      SPI bus.	Syntax is

		flashrom -p digilent_spi:spispeed=frequency

	      where frequency can be 62.5k, 125k, 250k,	500k, 1M, 2M or	4M (in
	      Hz). The default is a frequency of 4 MHz.

   jlink_spi programmer
	      This module supports SEGGER J-Link and compatible	devices.

	      The MOSI signal of the flash chip	must be	attached to TDI	pin of
	      the  programmer,	MISO  to  TDO and SCK to TCK.  The chip	select
	      (CS) signal of the flash chip can	be attached to different  pins
	      of the programmer	which can be selected with the

		flashrom -p jlink_spi:cs=pin

	      syntax  where  pin can be	either TRST or RESET.  The default pin
	      for chip select is RESET.	 Note that, when using	RESET,	it  is
	      normal that the indicator	LED blinks orange or red.
	      Additionally,  the  VTref	pin of the programmer must be attached
	      to the logic level of the	flash chip.  The  programmer  measures
	      the  voltage on this pin and generates the reference voltage for
	      its input	comparators and	adapts its output voltages to it.

	      Pinout for devices with 20-pin JTAG connector:

		  +-------+
		  |  1	2 |	1: VTref     2:
		  |  3	4 |	3: TRST	     4:	GND
		  |  5	6 |	5: TDI	     6:	GND
		+-+  7	8 |	7:	     8:	GND
		|    9 10 |	9: TCK	    10:	GND
		|   11 12 |    11:	    12:	GND
		+-+ 13 14 |    13: TDO	    14:
		  | 15 16 |    15: RESET    16:
		  | 17 18 |    17:	    18:
		  | 19 20 |    19: PWR_5V   20:
		  +-------+

	      If there is more than one	compatible device connected,  you  can
	      select  which one	should be used by specifying its serial	number
	      with the

		flashrom -p jlink_spi:serial=number

	      syntax where number is the serial	number of  the	device	(which
	      can be found for example in the output of	lsusb -v).

	      The SPI speed can	be selected by using the

		flashrom -p jlink_spi:spispeed=frequency

	      syntax  where  frequency is the SPI clock	frequency in kHz.  The
	      maximum speed depends on the device in use.

   stlinkv3_spi	programmer
	      This  module  supports  SPI  flash   programming	 through   the
	      STMicroelectronics  STLINK  V3  programmer/debugger's SPI	bridge
	      interface

		flashrom -p stlinkv3_spi

	      If there is more than one	compatible device connected,  you  can
	      select  which one	should be used by specifying its serial	number
	      with the

		flashrom -p stlinkv3_spi:serial=number

	      syntax where number is the serial	number of  the	device	(which
	      can be found for example in the output of	lsusb -v).

	      The SPI speed can	be selected by using the

		flashrom -p stlinkv3_spi:spispeed=frequency

	      syntax  where  frequency	is the SPI clock frequency in kHz.  If
	      the passed frequency is not supported by the adapter the nearest
	      lower supported frequency	will be	used.

EXAMPLES
       To back up and update your BIOS,	run

       flashrom	-p internal -r backup.rom -o backuplog.txt
       flashrom	-p internal -w newbios.rom -o writelog.txt

       Please  make  sure to copy backup.rom to	some external media before you
       try to write. That makes	offline	recovery easier.
       If writing fails	and flashrom complains about  the  chip	 being	in  an
       unknown state, you can try to restore the backup	by running

       flashrom	-p internal -w backup.rom -o restorelog.txt

       If   you	  encounter   any  problems,  please  contact  us  and	supply
       backuplog.txt, writelog.txt and restorelog.txt. See  section  BUGS  for
       contact info.

EXIT STATUS
       flashrom	 exits	with  0	on success, 1 on most failures but with	3 if a
       call to mmap() fails.

REQUIREMENTS
       flashrom	needs different	access permissions for different programmers.

       internal	needs raw memory access, PCI configuration space  access,  raw
       I/O port	access (x86) and MSR access (x86).

       atavia needs PCI	configuration space access.

       nic3com,	 nicrealtek  and  nicnatsemi need PCI configuration space read
       access and raw I/O port access.

       atahpt needs PCI	configuration space access and raw I/O port access.

       gfxnvidia, drkaiser and it8212 need PCI configuration space access  and
       raw memory access.

       rayer_spi needs raw I/O port access.

       satasii,	  nicintel,   nicintel_eeprom	and   nicintel_spi   need  PCI
       configuration space read	access and raw memory access.

       satamv and atapromise need PCI configuration space read access, raw I/O
       port access and raw memory access.

       serprog needs TCP access	to the network or userspace access to a	serial
       port.

       buspirate_spi needs userspace access to a serial	port.

       ft2232_spi,  usbblaster_spi  and	 pickit2_spi  need   access   to   the
       respective USB device via libusb	API version 0.1.

       ch341a_spi  and	dediprog  need access to the respective	USB device via
       libusb API version 1.0.

       dummy needs no access permissions at all.

       internal,  nic3com,  nicrealtek,	  nicnatsemi,	gfxnvidia,   drkaiser,
       satasii,	 satamv,  atahpt,  atavia  and	atapromise  have  to be	run as
       superuser/root, and need	additional raw access permission.

       serprog,	  buspirate_spi,   dediprog,	usbblaster_spi,	   ft2232_spi,
       pickit2_spi,  ch341a_spi	 and digilent_spi can be run as	normal user on
       most operating systems if appropriate device permissions	are set.

       ogp needs PCI configuration space read access and raw memory access.

       On  OpenBSD,  you  can  obtain  raw  access   permission	  by   setting
       securelevel=-1  in /etc/rc.securelevel and rebooting, or	rebooting into
       single user mode.

BUGS
       Please	report	 any   bugs   to    the	   flashrom    mailing	  list
       <flashrom@flashrom.org>.

       We	  recommend	    to	      subscribe	       first	    at
       https://flashrom.org/mailman/listinfo/flashrom.

       Many of the developers communicate via the  #flashrom  IRC  channel  on
       chat.freenode.net.   If	you  don't have	an IRC client, you can use the
       freenode	webchat	<http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=flashrom>.  You
       are  welcome to join and	ask questions, send us bug and success reports
       there too. Please provide a way to  contact  you	 later	(e.g.  a  mail
       address)	 and  be  patient  if there is no immediate reaction. Also, we
       provide a pastebin service <https://paste.flashrom.org>	that  is  very
       useful when you want to share logs etc. without spamming	the channel.

   Laptops
       Using  flashrom	on older laptops is dangerous and may easily make your
       hardware	unusable. flashrom will	attempt	to detect if it	is running  on
       a  susceptible  laptop  and  restrict  flash-chip  probing  for	safety
       reasons.	 Please	 see  the  detailed  discussion	 of  this  topic   and
       associated  flashrom  options  in the Laptops paragraph in the internal
       programmer subsection of	the  PROGRAMMER-SPECIFIC  INFORMATION  section
       and the information in our wiki <https://flashrom.org/Laptops>.

   One-time programmable (OTP) memory and unique IDs
       Some  flash  chips  contain  OTP	 memory	 often	denoted	 as  "security
       registers".  They usually have a	capacity in the	range of some bytes to
       a  few  hundred	bytes  and can be used to give devices unique IDs etc.
       flashrom	is not able to read or write these memories and	may  therefore
       not  be	able  to  duplicate a chip completely. For chip	types known to
       include OTP memories a warning is printed when they are detected.

       Similar to OTP memories are  unique,  factory  programmed,  unforgeable
       IDs.  They are not modifiable by	the user at all.

LICENSE
       flashrom	is covered by the GNU General Public License (GPL), version 2.
       Some files are additionally available under any later  version  of  the
       GPL.

COPYRIGHT
       Please see the individual files.

AUTHORS
       Andrew Morgan
       Carl-Daniel Hailfinger
       Claus Gindhart
       David Borg
       David Hendricks
       Dominik Geyer
       Edward O'Callaghan
       Eric Biederman
       Giampiero Giancipoli
       Helge Wagner
       Idwer Vollering
       Joe Bao
       Joerg Fischer
       Joshua Roys
       Kyosti Malkki
       Luc Verhaegen
       Li-Ta Lo
       Mark Marshall
       Markus Boas
       Mattias Mattsson
       Michael Karcher
       Nikolay Petukhov
       Patrick Georgi
       Peter Lemenkov
       Peter Stuge
       Reinder E.N. de Haan
       Ronald G. Minnich
       Ronald Hoogenboom
       Sean Nelson
       Stefan Reinauer
       Stefan Tauner
       Stefan Wildemann
       Stephan Guilloux
       Steven James
       Urja Rannikko
       Uwe Hermann
       Wang Qingpei
       Yinghai Lu
       some others, please see the flashrom svn	changelog for details.
       All   still  active  authors  can  be  reached  via  the	 mailing  list
       <flashrom@flashrom.org>.

       This manual page	was written by Uwe Hermann <uwe@hermann-uwe.de>, Carl-
       Daniel  Hailfinger, Stefan Tauner and others.  It is licensed under the
       terms of	the GNU	GPL (version 2 or later).

v1.2				  2019-12-31			   FLASHROM(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | PROGRAMMER-SPECIFIC INFORMATION | EXAMPLES | EXIT STATUS | REQUIREMENTS | BUGS | LICENSE | COPYRIGHT | AUTHORS

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