Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Man Pages

Man Page or Keyword Search:
Man Architecture
Apropos Keyword Search (all sections) Output format
home | help
FIND(1L)                                                              FIND(1L)

NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find [path...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page documents the GNU version of find.  find searches the
       directory tree rooted at each given file name by evaluating the given
       expression from left to right, according to the rules of precedence
       (see section OPERATORS), until the outcome is known (the left hand side
       is false for and operations, true for or), at which point find moves on
       to the next file name.

       The first argument that begins with `-', `(', `)', `,', or `!' is taken
       to be the beginning of the expression; any arguments before it are
       paths to search, and any arguments after it are the rest of the
       expression.  If no paths are given, the current directory is used.  If
       no expression is given, the expression `-print' is used.

       find exits with status 0 if all files are processed successfully,
       greater than 0 if errors occur.

EXPRESSIONS
       The expression is made up of options (which affect overall operation
       rather than the processing of a specific file, and always return true),
       tests (which return a true or false value), and actions (which have
       side effects and return a true or false value), all separated by
       operators.  -and is assumed where the operator is omitted.  If the
       expression contains no actions other than -prune, -print is performed
       on all files for which the expression is true.

   OPTIONS
       All options always return true.  They always take effect, rather than
       being processed only when their place in the expression is reached.
       Therefore, for clarity, it is best to place them at the beginning of
       the expression.

       -daystart
              Measure times (for -amin, -atime, -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and
              -mtime) from the beginning of today rather than from 24 hours
              ago.

       -depth Process each directory's contents before the directory itself.

       -follow
              Dereference symbolic links.  Implies -noleaf.

       -help, --help
              Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.

       -maxdepth levels
              Descend at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels of
              directories below the command line arguments.  `-maxdepth 0'
              means only apply the tests and actions to the command line
              arguments.

       -mindepth levels
              Do not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels (a
              non-negative integer).  `-mindepth 1' means process all files
              except the command line arguments.

       -mount Don't descend directories on other filesystems.  An alternate
              name for -xdev, for compatibility with some other versions of
              find.

       -noleaf
              Do not optimize by assuming that directories contain 2 fewer
              subdirectories than their hard link count.  This option is
              needed when searching filesystems that do not follow the Unix
              directory-link convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS filesystems
              or AFS volume mount points.  Each directory on a normal Unix
              filesystem has at least 2 hard links: its name and its `.'
              entry.  Additionally, its subdirectories (if any) each have a
              `..'  entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining a
              directory, after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the
              directory's link count, it knows that the rest of the entries in
              the directory are non-directories (`leaf' files in the directory
              tree).  If only the files' names need to be examined, there is
              no need to stat them; this gives a significant increase in
              search speed.

       -version, --version
              Print the find version number and exit.

       -xdev  Don't descend directories on other filesystems.

   TESTS
       Numeric arguments can be specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
              File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
              File was last accessed more recently than file was modified.
              -anewer is affected by -follow only if -follow comes before
              -anewer on the command line.

       -atime n
              File was last accessed n*24 hours ago.

       -cmin n
              File's status was last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
              File's status was last changed more recently than file was
              modified.  -cnewer is affected by -follow only if -follow comes
              before -cnewer on the command line.

       -ctime n
              File's status was last changed n*24 hours ago.

       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
              File is on a filesystem of type type.  The valid filesystem
              types vary among different versions of Unix; an incomplete list
              of filesystem types that are accepted on some version of Unix or
              another is: ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs, S51K, S52K.  You can
              use -printf with the %F directive to see the types of your
              filesystems.

       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
              File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
              Like -lname, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iname pattern
              Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the
              patterns `fo*' and `F??' match the file names `Foo', `FOO',
              `foo', `fOo', etc.

       -inum n
              File has inode number n.

       -ipath pattern
              Like -path, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iregex pattern
              Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -links n
              File has n links.

       -lname pattern
              File is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern
              pattern.  The metacharacters do not treat `/' or `.' specially.

       -mmin n
              File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
              File's data was last modified n*24 hours ago.

       -name pattern
              Base of file name (the path with the leading directories
              removed) matches shell pattern pattern.  The metacharacters
              (`*', `?', and `[]') do not match a `.' at the start of the base
              name.  To ignore a directory and the files under it, use -prune;
              see an example in the description of -path.

       -newer file
              File was modified more recently than file.  -newer is affected
              by -follow only if -follow comes before -newer on the command
              line.

       -nouser
              No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

       -nogroup
              No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

       -path pattern
              File name matches shell pattern pattern.  The metacharacters do
              not treat `/' or `.' specially; so, for example,
                        find . -path './sr*sc'
              will print an entry for a directory called './src/misc' (if one
              exists).  To ignore a whole directory tree, use -prune rather
              than checking every file in the tree.  For example, to skip the
              directory `src/emacs' and all files and directories under it,
              and print the names of the other files found, do something like
              this:
                        find . -path './src/emacs' -prune -o -print

       -perm mode
              File's permission bits are exactly mode (octal or symbolic).
              Symbolic modes use mode 0 as a point of departure.

       -perm -mode
              All of the permission bits mode are set for the file.

       -perm +mode
              Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.

       -regex pattern
              File name matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match
              on the whole path, not a search.  For example, to match a file
              named `./fubar3', you can use the regular expression `.*bar.' or
              `.*b.*3', but not `b.*r3'.

       -size n[bckw]
              File uses n units of space.  The units are 512-byte blocks by
              default or if `b' follows n, bytes if `c' follows n, kilobytes
              if `k' follows n, or 2-byte words if `w' follows n.  The size
              does not count indirect blocks, but it does count blocks in
              sparse files that are not actually allocated.

       -true  Always true.

       -type c
              File is of type c:

              b      block (buffered) special

              c      character (unbuffered) special

              d      directory

              p      named pipe (FIFO)

              f      regular file

              l      symbolic link

              s      socket

              D      door (Solaris)

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is n.

       -used n
              File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
              File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).

       -xtype c
              The same as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For
              symbolic links: if -follow has not been given, true if the file
              is a link to a file of type c; if -follow has been given, true
              if c is `l'.  In other words, for symbolic links, -xtype checks
              the type of the file that -type does not check.

   ACTIONS
       -exec command ;
              Execute command; true if 0 status is returned.  All following
              arguments to find are taken to be arguments to the command until
              an argument consisting of `;' is encountered.  The string `{}'
              is replaced by the current file name being processed everywhere
              it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments
              where it is alone, as in some versions of find.  Both of these
              constructions might need to be escaped (with a `\') or quoted to
              protect them from expansion by the shell.  The command is
              executed in the starting directory.

       -fls file
              True; like -ls but write to file like -fprint.

       -fprint file
              True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not
              exist when find is run, it is created; if it does exist, it is
              truncated.  The file names ``/dev/stdout'' and ``/dev/stderr''
              are handled specially; they refer to the standard output and
              standard error output, respectively.

       -fprint0 file
              True; like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.

       -fprintf file format
              True; like -printf but write to file like -fprint.

       -ok command ;
              Like -exec but ask the user first (on the standard input); if
              the response does not start with `y' or `Y', do not run the
              command, and return false.

       -print True; print the full file name on the standard output, followed
              by a newline.

       -print0
              True; print the full file name on the standard output, followed
              by a null character.  This allows file names that contain
              newlines to be correctly interpreted by programs that process
              the find output.

       -printf format
              True; print format on the standard output, interpreting `\'
              escapes and `%' directives.  Field widths and precisions can be
              specified as with the `printf' C function.  Unlike -print,
              -printf does not add a newline at the end of the string.  The
              escapes and directives are:

              \a     Alarm bell.

              \b     Backspace.

              \c     Stop printing from this format immediately and flush the
                     output.

              \f     Form feed.

              \n     Newline.

              \r     Carriage return.

              \t     Horizontal tab.

              \v     Vertical tab.

              \\     A literal backslash (`\').

              \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

              A `\' character followed by any other character is treated as an
              ordinary character, so they both are printed.

              %%     A literal percent sign.

              %a     File's last access time in the format returned by the C
                     `ctime' function.

              %Ak    File's last access time in the format specified by k,
                     which is either `@' or a directive for the C `strftime'
                     function.  The possible values for k are listed below;
                     some of them might not be available on all systems, due
                     to differences in `strftime' between systems.

                     @      seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT.

                     Time fields:

                     H      hour (00..23)

                     I      hour (01..12)

                     k      hour ( 0..23)

                     l      hour ( 1..12)

                     M      minute (00..59)

                     p      locale's AM or PM

                     r      time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

                     S      second (00..61)

                     T      time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

                     X      locale's time representation (H:M:S)

                     Z      time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone
                            is determinable

                     Date fields:

                     a      locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

                     A      locale's full weekday name, variable length
                            (Sunday..Saturday)

                     b      locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

                     B      locale's full month name, variable length
                            (January..December)

                     c      locale's date and time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST
                            1989)

                     d      day of month (01..31)

                     D      date (mm/dd/yy)

                     h      same as b

                     j      day of year (001..366)

                     m      month (01..12)

                     U      week number of year with Sunday as first day of
                            week (00..53)

                     w      day of week (0..6)

                     W      week number of year with Monday as first day of
                            week (00..53)

                     x      locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

                     y      last two digits of year (00..99)

                     Y      year (1970...)

              %b     File's size in 512-byte blocks (rounded up).

              %c     File's last status change time in the format returned by
                     the C `ctime' function.

              %Ck    File's last status change time in the format specified by
                     k, which is the same as for %A.

              %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a
                     command line argument.

              %f     File's name with any leading directories removed (only
                     the last element).

              %F     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can be
                     used for -fstype.

              %g     File's group name, or numeric group ID if the group has
                     no name.

              %G     File's numeric group ID.

              %h     Leading directories of file's name (all but the last
                     element).

              %H     Command line argument under which file was found.

              %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

              %k     File's size in 1K blocks (rounded up).

              %l     Object of symbolic link (empty string if file is not a
                     symbolic link).

              %m     File's permission bits (in octal).

              %n     Number of hard links to file.

              %p     File's name.

              %P     File's name with the name of the command line argument
                     under which it was found removed.

              %s     File's size in bytes.

              %t     File's last modification time in the format returned by
                     the C `ctime' function.

              %Tk    File's last modification time in the format specified by
                     k, which is the same as for %A.

              %u     File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user has no
                     name.

              %U     File's numeric user ID.

              A `%' character followed by any other character is discarded
              (but the other character is printed).

       -prune If -depth is not given, true; do not descend the current
              directory.
              If -depth is given, false; no effect.

       -ls    True; list current file in `ls -dils' format on standard output.
              The block counts are of 1K blocks, unless the environment
              variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which case 512-byte blocks
              are used.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
              Force precedence.

       ! expr True if expr is false.

       -not expr
              Same as ! expr.

       expr1 expr2
              And (implied); expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is false.

       expr1 -a expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -o expr2
              Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
              Same as expr1 -o expr2.

       expr1 , expr2
              List; both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The value of
              expr1 is discarded; the value of the list is the value of expr2.

SEE ALSO
       locate(1L), locatedb(5L), updatedb(1L), xargs(1L) Finding Files (on-
       line in Info, or printed)

                                                                      FIND(1L)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | EXPRESSIONS | SEE ALSO

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=find&sektion=1l&manpath=Red+Hat+Linux%2fi386+9>

home | help