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FIND(1)			    General Commands Manual		       FIND(1)

NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-D debugopts] [-Olevel] [path...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches
       the directory tree rooted at each given file  name  by  evaluating  the
       given  expression  from left to right, according	to the rules of	prece-
       dence (see section OPERATORS), until the	outcome	 is  known  (the  left
       hand  side  is  false  for and operations, true for or),	at which point
       find moves on to	the next file name.

       If you are using	find in	an environment	where  security	 is  important
       (for  example  if  you  are  using  it  to  search directories that are
       writable	by other users), you should read the "Security Considerations"
       chapter	of  the	findutils documentation, which is called Finding Files
       and comes with findutils.   That	document also includes a lot more  de-
       tail  and  discussion  than this	manual page, so	you may	find it	a more
       useful source of	information.

OPTIONS
       The -H, -L and -P options control  the  treatment  of  symbolic	links.
       Command-line  arguments	following these	are taken to be	names of files
       or directories to be examined, up to the	 first	argument  that	begins
       with  `-', or the argument `(' or `!'.  That argument and any following
       arguments are taken to be the  expression  describing  what  is	to  be
       searched	 for.	If  no paths are given,	the current directory is used.
       If no expression	is given, the  expression  -print  is  used  (but  you
       should probably consider	using -print0 instead, anyway).

       This  manual  page  talks  about	 `options' within the expression list.
       These options control the behaviour of find but are  specified  immedi-
       ately after the last path name.	The five `real'	options	-H, -L,	-P, -D
       and -O must appear before the first path	name, if  at  all.   A	double
       dash -- can also	be used	to signal that any remaining arguments are not
       options (though ensuring	that all start points begin with  either  `./'
       or  `/'	is  generally  safer if	you use	wildcards in the list of start
       points).

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This  is  the  default  behaviour.
	      When find	examines or prints information a file, and the file is
	      a	symbolic link, the information used shall be  taken  from  the
	      properties of the	symbolic link itself.

       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find	examines or prints information
	      about files, the information used	shall be taken from the	 prop-
	      erties  of  the file to which the	link points, not from the link
	      itself (unless it	is a broken symbolic link or find is unable to
	      examine  the file	to which the link points).  Use	of this	option
	      implies -noleaf.	If you later use the -P	option,	 -noleaf  will
	      still  be	 in  effect.   If -L is	in effect and find discovers a
	      symbolic link to a subdirectory during its search, the subdirec-
	      tory pointed to by the symbolic link will	be searched.

	      When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will	always
	      match against the	type of	the file that a	symbolic  link	points
	      to rather	than the link itself (unless the symbolic link is bro-
	      ken).  Using -L causes the -lname	and -ilname predicates	always
	      to return	false.

       -H     Do  not  follow symbolic links, except while processing the com-
	      mand line	arguments.  When find examines or  prints  information
	      about  files, the	information used shall be taken	from the prop-
	      erties of	the symbolic link itself.   The	only exception to this
	      behaviour	is when	a file specified on the	command	line is	a sym-
	      bolic link, and the link can be resolved.	 For  that  situation,
	      the  information	used is	taken from whatever the	link points to
	      (that is,	the link is followed).	The information	about the link
	      itself  is used as a fallback if the file	pointed	to by the sym-
	      bolic link cannot	be examined.  If -H is in effect  and  one  of
	      the  paths specified on the command line is a symbolic link to a
	      directory, the contents  of  that	 directory  will  be  examined
	      (though of course	-maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If more than one	of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the oth-
       ers; the	last one appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since it
       is  the default,	the -P option should be	considered to be in effect un-
       less either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find	frequently stats files during the processing  of  the  command
       line itself, before any searching has begun.  These options also	affect
       how those arguments are processed.  Specifically, there are a number of
       tests  that  compare files listed on the	command	line against a file we
       are currently considering.  In each case, the  file  specified  on  the
       command	line  will  have been examined and some	of its properties will
       have been saved.	 If the	named file is in fact a	symbolic link, and the
       -P  option  is  in effect (or if	neither	-H nor -L were specified), the
       information used	for the	comparison will	be taken from  the  properties
       of  the symbolic	link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from	the properties
       of the file the link points to.	If find	cannot follow  the  link  (for
       example	because	it has insufficient privileges or the link points to a
       nonexistent file) the properties	of the link itself will	be used.

       When the	-H or -L options are in	effect,	any symbolic links  listed  as
       the  argument of	-newer will be dereferenced, and the timestamp will be
       taken from the file to which the	symbolic link points.  The  same  con-
       sideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.

       The  -follow  option has	a similar effect to -L,	though it takes	effect
       at the point where it appears (that is, if -L is	not used  but  -follow
       is, any symbolic	links appearing	after -follow on the command line will
       be dereferenced,	and those before it will not).

       -D debugoptions
	      Print diagnostic information; this can be	 helpful  to  diagnose
	      problems	with why find is not doing what	you want.  The list of
	      debug options should be comma separated.	Compatibility  of  the
	      debug  options  is not guaranteed	between	releases of findutils.
	      For a complete list of valid debug options, see  the  output  of
	      find -D help.  Valid debug options include

	      help   Explain the debugging options

	      tree   Show  the	expression  tree in its	original and optimised
		     form.

	      stat   Print messages as files are examined with	the  stat  and
		     lstat  system  calls.  The	find program tries to minimise
		     such calls.

	      opt    Prints diagnostic information relating to	the  optimisa-
		     tion of the expression tree; see the -O option.

	      rates  Prints a summary indicating how often each	predicate suc-
		     ceeded or failed.

       -Olevel
	      Enables query optimisation.   The	find program reorders tests to
	      speed up execution while preserving the overall effect; that is,
	      predicates with side effects are not reordered relative to  each
	      other.   The  optimisations performed at each optimisation level
	      are as follows.

	      0	     Equivalent	to optimisation	level 1.

	      1	     This is the default optimisation level and	corresponds to
		     the  traditional behaviour.  Expressions are reordered so
		     that tests	based only on the names	of files (for  example
		     -name and -regex) are performed first.

	      2	     Any  -type	 or -xtype tests are performed after any tests
		     based only	on the names of	files, but  before  any	 tests
		     that  require information from the	inode.	On many	modern
		     versions of Unix, file types are  returned	 by  readdir()
		     and so these predicates are faster	to evaluate than pred-
		     icates which need to stat the file	first.

	      3	     At	this optimisation level, the full cost-based query op-
		     timiser  is  enabled.   The order of tests	is modified so
		     that cheap	(i.e. fast) tests are performed	first and more
		     expensive ones are	performed later, if necessary.	Within
		     each cost band, predicates	are evaluated earlier or later
		     according	to  whether they are likely to succeed or not.
		     For -o, predicates	which are likely to succeed are	evalu-
		     ated  earlier, and	for -a,	predicates which are likely to
		     fail are evaluated	earlier.

	      The cost-based optimiser has a fixed  idea  of  how  likely  any
	      given  test  is to succeed.  In some cases the probability takes
	      account of the specific nature of	the test (for example, -type f
	      is  assumed  to  be  more	 likely	to succeed than	-type c).  The
	      cost-based optimiser is currently	being evaluated.   If it  does
	      not actually improve the performance of find, it will be removed
	      again.  Conversely, optimisations	that prove to be reliable, ro-
	      bust  and	 effective may be enabled at lower optimisation	levels
	      over time.  However, the default	behaviour  (i.e.  optimisation
	      level  1)	 will not be changed in	the 4.3.x release series.  The
	      findutils	test suite runs	all the	tests on find at each  optimi-
	      sation level and ensures that the	result is the same.

EXPRESSIONS
       The  expression	is  made up of options (which affect overall operation
       rather than the processing of a specific	file, and always return	true),
       tests  (which  return  a	 true or false value), and actions (which have
       side effects and	return a true or false value), all separated by	opera-
       tors.  -and is assumed where the	operator is omitted.

       If the expression contains no actions other than	-prune,	-print is per-
       formed on all files for which the expression is true.

   OPTIONS
       All options always return true.	 Except	 for  -daystart,  -follow  and
       -regextype, the options affect all tests, including tests specified be-
       fore the	option.	 This is because the options are  processed  when  the
       command	line  is parsed, while the tests don't do anything until files
       are examined.  The -daystart, -follow and -regextype options  are  dif-
       ferent  in  this	respect, and have an effect only on tests which	appear
       later in	the command line.  Therefore, for clarity, it is best to place
       them  at	 the  beginning	of the expression.  A warning is issued	if you
       don't do	this.

       -d     A	synonym	for -depth, for	compatibility  with  FreeBSD,  NetBSD,
	      MacOS X and OpenBSD.

       -daystart
	      Measure  times  (for  -amin,  -atime,  -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and
	      -mtime) from the beginning of today rather than  from  24	 hours
	      ago.   This  option only affects tests which appear later	on the
	      command line.

       -depth Process each directory's contents	before the  directory  itself.
	      The -delete action also implies -depth.

       -follow
	      Deprecated;  use	the  -L	 option	instead.  Dereference symbolic
	      links.  Implies -noleaf.	The -follow option affects only	 those
	      tests  which appear after	it on the command line.	 Unless	the -H
	      or -L option has been specified, the position of the -follow op-
	      tion  changes  the  behaviour of the -newer predicate; any files
	      listed as	the argument of	-newer will be	dereferenced  if  they
	      are symbolic links.  The same consideration applies to -newerXY,
	      -anewer and -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type predicate will	always
	      match  against  the type of the file that	a symbolic link	points
	      to rather	than the link itself.  Using -follow causes the	-lname
	      and -ilname predicates always to return false.

       -help, --help
	      Print a summary of the command-line usage	of find	and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
	      Normally,	 find will emit	an error message when it fails to stat
	      a	file.  If you give this	option and a file is  deleted  between
	      the  time	find reads the name of the file	from the directory and
	      the time it tries	to stat	the file, no error message will	be is-
	      sued.	This  also applies to files or directories whose names
	      are given	on the command line.  This option takes	effect at  the
	      time  the	 command  line	is  read,  which means that you	cannot
	      search one part of the filesystem	with this option on  and  part
	      of  it  with  this  option off (if you need to do	that, you will
	      need to issue two	find commands instead, one with	the option and
	      one without it).

       -maxdepth levels
	      Descend at most levels (a	non-negative integer) levels of	direc-
	      tories below the command line arguments.	-maxdepth 0
	       means only apply	the tests and actions to the command line  ar-
	      guments.

       -mindepth levels
	      Do  not apply any	tests or actions at levels less	than levels (a
	      non-negative integer).  -mindepth	1 means	process	all files  ex-
	      cept the command line arguments.

       -mount Don't  descend  directories  on other filesystems.  An alternate
	      name for -xdev, for compatibility	with some  other  versions  of
	      find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
	      Turns off	the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
	      Do  not  optimize	 by  assuming that directories contain 2 fewer
	      subdirectories than their	 hard  link  count.   This  option  is
	      needed  when  searching  filesystems that	do not follow the Unix
	      directory-link convention, such as CD-ROM	or MS-DOS  filesystems
	      or  AFS  volume  mount  points.  Each directory on a normal Unix
	      filesystem has at	least 2	hard links: its	name and its `.'   en-
	      try.  Additionally, its subdirectories (if any) each have	a `..'
	      entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining a	direc-
	      tory,  after  it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the di-
	      rectory's	link count, it knows that the rest of the  entries  in
	      the directory are	non-directories	(`leaf'	files in the directory
	      tree).  If only the files' names need to be examined,  there  is
	      no  need	to  stat  them;	 this  gives a significant increase in
	      search speed.

       -regextype type
	      Changes the regular expression syntax understood by  -regex  and
	      -iregex tests which occur	later on the command line.  Currently-
	      implemented types	are emacs (this	is  the	 default),  posix-awk,
	      posix-basic, posix-egrep and posix-extended.

       -version, --version
	      Print the	find version number and	exit.

       -warn, -nowarn
	      Turn  warning  messages on or off.  These	warnings apply only to
	      the command line usage, not to any conditions  that  find	 might
	      encounter	 when  it searches directories.	 The default behaviour
	      corresponds to -warn if standard input is	a tty, and to  -nowarn
	      otherwise.

       -xdev  Don't descend directories	on other filesystems.

   TESTS
       Some  tests,  for  example -newerXY and -samefile, allow	comparison be-
       tween the file currently	being examined and some	reference file	speci-
       fied  on	 the command line.  When these tests are used, the interpreta-
       tion of the reference file is determined	by the options -H, -L  and  -P
       and any previous	-follow, but the reference file	is only	examined once,
       at the time the command line is parsed.	If the reference  file	cannot
       be examined (for	example, the stat(2) system call fails for it),	an er-
       ror message is issued, and find exits with a nonzero status.

       Numeric arguments can be	specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
	      File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
	      File was last accessed more recently than	file was modified.  If
	      file is a	symbolic link and the -H option	or the -L option is in
	      effect, the access time of the file it points to is always used.

       -atime n
	      File was last accessed n*24 hours	ago.  When  find  figures  out
	      how  many	 24-hour  periods  ago the file	was last accessed, any
	      fractional part is ignored, so to	match -atime +1, a file	has to
	      have been	accessed at least two days ago.

       -cmin n
	      File's status was	last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
	      File's status was	last changed more recently than	file was modi-
	      fied.  If	file is	a symbolic link	and the	-H option  or  the  -L
	      option  is  in  effect,  the  status-change  time	of the file it
	      points to	is always used.

       -ctime n
	      File's status was	last changed n*24 hours	ago.  See the comments
	      for -atime to understand how rounding affects the	interpretation
	      of file status change times.

       -empty File is empty and	is either a regular file or a directory.

       -executable
	      Matches files which are executable  and  directories  which  are
	      searchable  (in  a file name resolution sense).  This takes into
	      account access control lists  and	 other	permissions  artefacts
	      which  the  -perm	 test ignores.	This test makes	use of the ac-
	      cess(2) system call, and so can be fooled	by NFS	servers	 which
	      do UID mapping (or root-squashing), since	many systems implement
	      access(2)	in the client's	kernel and so cannot make use  of  the
	      UID  mapping  information	held on	the server.  Because this test
	      is based only on the result of the access(2) system call,	 there
	      is no guarantee that a file for which this test succeeds can ac-
	      tually be	executed.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
	      File is on a filesystem of  type	type.	The  valid  filesystem
	      types  vary among	different versions of Unix; an incomplete list
	      of filesystem types that are accepted on some version of Unix or
	      another  is:  ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs,	tmp, mfs, S51K,	S52K.  You can
	      use -printf with the %F directive	 to  see  the  types  of  your
	      filesystems.

       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
	      File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
	      Like  -lname,  but the match is case insensitive.	 If the	-L op-
	      tion or the -follow option is in effect, this test returns false
	      unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -iname pattern
	      Like -name, but the match	is case	insensitive.  For example, the
	      patterns `fo*' and `F??' match  the  file	 names	`Foo',	`FOO',
	      `foo',  `fOo',  etc.   In	these patterns,	unlike filename	expan-
	      sion by the shell, an initial '.'	can be matched by  `*'.	  That
	      is, find -name *bar will match the file `.foobar'.   Please note
	      that you should quote patterns as	a matter of course,  otherwise
	      the shell	will expand any	wildcard characters in them.

       -inum n
	      File  has	 inode	number	n.   It	 is normally easier to use the
	      -samefile	test instead.

       -ipath pattern
	      Behaves in the same way as -iwholename.  This option  is	depre-
	      cated, so	please do not use it.

       -iregex pattern
	      Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
	      Like -wholename, but the match is	case insensitive.

       -links n
	      File has n links.

       -lname pattern
	      File  is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern pat-
	      tern.  The metacharacters	do not treat `/' or `.'	specially.  If
	      the  -L option or	the -follow option is in effect, this test re-
	      turns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -mmin n
	      File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
	      File's data was last modified n*24 hours ago.  See the  comments
	      for -atime to understand how rounding affects the	interpretation
	      of file modification times.

       -name pattern
	      Base of file name	(the path with	the  leading  directories  re-
	      moved)  matches shell pattern pattern.  The metacharacters (`*',
	      `?', and `[]') match a `.' at the	start of the base  name	 (this
	      is  a  change  in	findutils-4.2.2; see section STANDARDS CONFOR-
	      MANCE below).  To	ignore a directory and the files under it, use
	      -prune;  see an example in the description of -path.  Braces are
	      not recognised as	being special,	despite	 the  fact  that  some
	      shells  including	 Bash  imbue  braces with a special meaning in
	      shell patterns.  The filename matching is	performed with the use
	      of  the  fnmatch(3)  library function.   Don't forget to enclose
	      the pattern in quotes in order to	protect	it from	 expansion  by
	      the shell.

       -newer file
	      File  was	 modified  more	recently than file.  If	file is	a sym-
	      bolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in effect,  the
	      modification time	of the file it points to is always used.

       -newerXY	reference
	      Compares	the timestamp of the current file with reference.  The
	      reference	argument is normally the name of a file	 (and  one  of
	      its  timestamps is used for the comparison) but it may also be a
	      string describing	an absolute time.  X and  Y  are  placeholders
	      for other	letters, and these letters select which	time belonging
	      to how reference is used for the comparison.

	      a	  The access time of the file reference
	      B	  The birth time of the	file reference
	      c	  The inode status change time of reference
	      m	  The modification time	of the file reference
	      t	  reference is interpreted directly as a time

	      Some combinations	are invalid; for example, it is	invalid	for  X
	      to  be t.	 Some combinations are not implemented on all systems;
	      for example B is not supported on	all systems.  If an invalid or
	      unsupported  combination	of  XY is specified, a fatal error re-
	      sults.  Time specifications are interpreted as for the  argument
	      to  the -d option	of GNU date.  If you try to use	the birth time
	      of a reference file, and the birth time cannot be	determined,  a
	      fatal error message results.  If you specify a test which	refers
	      to the birth time	of files being examined, this test  will  fail
	      for any files where the birth time is unknown.

       -nogroup
	      No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

       -nouser
	      No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

       -path pattern
	      File  name matches shell pattern pattern.	 The metacharacters do
	      not treat	`/' or `.' specially; so, for example,
			find . -path "./sr*sc"
	      will print an entry for a	directory called `./src/misc' (if  one
	      exists).	 To  ignore  a whole directory tree, use -prune	rather
	      than checking every file in the tree.  For example, to skip  the
	      directory	 `src/emacs'  and  all files and directories under it,
	      and print	the names of the other files found, do something  like
	      this:
			find . -path ./src/emacs -prune	-o -print
	      Note that	the pattern match test applies to the whole file name,
	      starting from one	of the start points named on the command line.
	      It  would	 only  make sense to use an absolute path name here if
	      the relevant start point is also an absolute path.   This	 means
	      that this	command	will never match anything:
			find bar -path /foo/bar/myfile -print
	      The  predicate -path is also supported by	HP-UX find and will be
	      in a forthcoming version of the POSIX standard.

       -perm mode
	      File's permission	bits are exactly  mode	(octal	or  symbolic).
	      Since  an	 exact match is	required, if you want to use this form
	      for symbolic modes, you may have to  specify  a  rather  complex
	      mode  string.  For example -perm g=w will	only match files which
	      have mode	0020 (that is, ones for	which group  write  permission
	      is  the  only  permission	set).  It is more likely that you will
	      want to use the `/' or `-' forms,	for example -perm -g=w,	 which
	      matches  any file	with group write permission.  See the EXAMPLES
	      section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
	      All of the permission bits mode are set for the file.   Symbolic
	      modes  are accepted in this form,	and this is usually the	way in
	      which would want to use them.  You must specify `u', `g' or  `o'
	      if  you use a symbolic mode.   See the EXAMPLES section for some
	      illustrative examples.

       -perm /mode
	      Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.   Symbolic
	      modes  are  accepted in this form.  You must specify `u',	`g' or
	      `o' if you use a symbolic	mode.  See the	EXAMPLES  section  for
	      some  illustrative  examples.  If	no permission bits in mode are
	      set, this	test matches any file (the idea	here is	to be  consis-
	      tent with	the behaviour of -perm -000).

       -perm +mode
	      Deprecated,  old way of searching	for files with any of the per-
	      mission bits in mode set.	 You should use	-perm  /mode  instead.
	      Trying to	use the	`+' syntax with	symbolic modes will yield sur-
	      prising results.	For example, `+u+x' is a valid	symbolic  mode
	      (equivalent to +u,+x, i.e. 0111) and will	therefore not be eval-
	      uated as -perm +mode but instead as  the	exact  mode  specifier
	      -perm  mode  and so it matches files with	exact permissions 0111
	      instead of files with any	execute	bit set.  If  you  found  this
	      paragraph	 confusing,  you're  not alone - just use -perm	/mode.
	      This form	of the -perm test  is  deprecated  because  the	 POSIX
	      specification  requires  the  interpretation of a	leading	`+' as
	      being part of a symbolic mode, and so we switched	to  using  `/'
	      instead.

       -readable
	      Matches  files  which are	readable.  This	takes into account ac-
	      cess control lists and other  permissions	 artefacts  which  the
	      -perm test ignores.  This	test makes use of the access(2)	system
	      call, and	so can be fooled by NFS	servers	which do  UID  mapping
	      (or  root-squashing),  since many	systems	implement access(2) in
	      the client's kernel and so cannot	make use of  the  UID  mapping
	      information held on the server.

       -regex pattern
	      File  name  matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match
	      on the whole path, not a search.	For example, to	match  a  file
	      named `./fubar3',	you can	use the	regular	expression `.*bar.' or
	      `.*b.*3',	but not	`f.*r3'.  The regular  expressions  understood
	      by  find	are by default Emacs Regular Expressions, but this can
	      be changed with the -regextype option.

       -samefile name
	      File refers to the same inode as name.   When -L is  in  effect,
	      this can include symbolic	links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
	      File uses	n units	of space.  The following suffixes can be used:

	      `b'    for  512-byte blocks (this	is the default if no suffix is
		     used)

	      `c'    for bytes

	      `w'    for two-byte words

	      `k'    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)

	      `M'    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

	      `G'    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824	bytes)

	      The size does not	count  indirect	 blocks,  but  it  does	 count
	      blocks in	sparse files that are not actually allocated.  Bear in
	      mind that	the `%k' and `%b' format specifiers of -printf	handle
	      sparse   files  differently.   The  `b'  suffix  always  denotes
	      512-byte blocks and never	1 Kilobyte blocks, which is  different
	      to the behaviour of -ls.

       -true  Always true.

       -type c
	      File is of type c:

	      b	     block (buffered) special

	      c	     character (unbuffered) special

	      d	     directory

	      p	     named pipe	(FIFO)

	      f	     regular file

	      l	     symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option	or the
		     -follow option is in effect, unless the symbolic link  is
		     broken.  If you want to search for	symbolic links when -L
		     is	in effect, use -xtype.

	      s	     socket

	      D	     door (Solaris)

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is	n.

       -used n
	      File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
	      File is owned by user uname (numeric user	ID allowed).

       -wholename pattern
	      See -path.    This alternative is	less portable than -path.

       -writable
	      Matches files which are writable.	 This takes into  account  ac-
	      cess  control  lists  and	 other permissions artefacts which the
	      -perm test ignores.  This	test makes use of the access(2)	system
	      call,  and  so can be fooled by NFS servers which	do UID mapping
	      (or root-squashing), since many systems implement	 access(2)  in
	      the  client's  kernel  and so cannot make	use of the UID mapping
	      information held on the server.

       -xtype c
	      The same as -type	unless the file	is a symbolic link.  For  sym-
	      bolic  links:  if	the -H or -P option was	specified, true	if the
	      file is a	link to	a file of type c; if the -L  option  has  been
	      given,  true  if	c is `l'.  In other words, for symbolic	links,
	      -xtype checks the	type of	the file that -type does not check.

   ACTIONS
       -delete
	      Delete files; true if removal succeeded.	If the removal failed,
	      an  error	message	is issued.  If -delete fails, find's exit sta-
	      tus will be nonzero (when	it eventually exits).  Use of  -delete
	      automatically turns on the -depth	option.

	      Warnings:	 Don't	forget that the	find command line is evaluated
	      as an expression,	so putting -delete first will make find	try to
	      delete everything	below the starting points you specified.  When
	      testing a	find command line that you later intend	 to  use  with
	      -delete,	you should explicitly specify -depth in	order to avoid
	      later surprises.	Because	-delete	 implies  -depth,  you	cannot
	      usefully use -prune and -delete together.

       -exec command ;
	      Execute  command;	 true  if 0 status is returned.	 All following
	      arguments	to find	are taken to be	arguments to the command until
	      an  argument  consisting of `;' is encountered.  The string `{}'
	      is replaced by the current file name being processed  everywhere
	      it occurs	in the arguments to the	command, not just in arguments
	      where it is alone, as in some versions of	find.  Both  of	 these
	      constructions might need to be escaped (with a `\') or quoted to
	      protect them from	expansion by the shell.	 See the EXAMPLES sec-
	      tion for examples	of the use of the -exec	option.	 The specified
	      command is run once for each matched file.  The command is  exe-
	      cuted  in	 the starting directory.   There are unavoidable secu-
	      rity problems surrounding	use of the -exec  action;  you	should
	      use the -execdir option instead.

       -exec command {}	+
	      This  variant  of	the -exec action runs the specified command on
	      the selected files, but the command line is built	 by  appending
	      each  selected file name at the end; the total number of invoca-
	      tions of the command will	 be  much  less	 than  the  number  of
	      matched  files.	The command line is built in much the same way
	      that xargs builds	its command lines.  Only one instance of  `{}'
	      is  allowed  within the command.	The command is executed	in the
	      starting directory.

       -execdir	command	;

       -execdir	command	{} +
	      Like -exec, but the specified command is run from	the  subdirec-
	      tory  containing the matched file, which is not normally the di-
	      rectory in which you started find.   This	 a  much  more	secure
	      method  for invoking commands, as	it avoids race conditions dur-
	      ing resolution of	the paths to the matched files.	 As  with  the
	      -exec action, the	`+' form of -execdir will build	a command line
	      to process more than one matched file, but any given  invocation
	      of command will only list	files that exist in the	same subdirec-
	      tory.  If	you use	this option, you must ensure that  your	 $PATH
	      environment  variable  does not reference	`.'; otherwise,	an at-
	      tacker can run any commands they like by	leaving	 an  appropri-
	      ately-named  file	in a directory in which	you will run -execdir.
	      The same applies to having entries in $PATH which	are  empty  or
	      which are	not absolute directory names.

       -fls file
	      True;  like -ls but write	to file	like -fprint.  The output file
	      is always	created, even if the predicate is never	matched.   See
	      the  UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual
	      characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint file
	      True; print the full file	name into file file.  If file does not
	      exist  when  find	is run,	it is created; if it does exist, it is
	      truncated.  The file names ``/dev/stdout''  and  ``/dev/stderr''
	      are  handled  specially;	they  refer to the standard output and
	      standard error output, respectively.  The	output file is	always
	      created,	even  if  the predicate	is never matched.  See the UN-
	      USUAL FILENAMES section for information about how	unusual	 char-
	      acters in	filenames are handled.

       -fprint0	file
	      True;  like  -print0 but write to	file like -fprint.  The	output
	      file is always created, even if the predicate is never  matched.
	      See  the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how un-
	      usual characters in filenames are	handled.

       -fprintf	file format
	      True; like -printf but write to file like	-fprint.   The	output
	      file  is always created, even if the predicate is	never matched.
	      See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES	section	for information	about how  un-
	      usual characters in filenames are	handled.

       -ls    True;  list  current file	in ls -dils format on standard output.
	      The block	counts are of 1K blocks, unless	the environment	 vari-
	      able  POSIXLY_CORRECT  is	set, in	which case 512-byte blocks are
	      used.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for  information	 about
	      how unusual characters in	filenames are handled.

       -ok command ;
	      Like  -exec but ask the user first.  If the user agrees, run the
	      command.	Otherwise just return false.  If the command  is  run,
	      its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

	      The  response to the prompt is matched against a pair of regular
	      expressions to determine if it is	an affirmative or negative re-
	      sponse.	This regular expression	is obtained from the system if
	      the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment	variable is set, or  otherwise
	      from find's message translations.	 If the	system has no suitable
	      definition, find's own definition	 will  be  used.    In	either
	      case,  the  interpretation of the	regular	expression itself will
	      be affected by the environment variables	'LC_CTYPE'  (character
	      classes)	and  'LC_COLLATE'  (character  ranges  and equivalence
	      classes).

       -okdir command ;
	      Like -execdir but	ask the	user first in the same way as for -ok.
	      If  the  user does not agree, just return	false.	If the command
	      is run, its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

       -print True; print the full file	name on	the standard output,  followed
	      by  a  newline.	 If you	are piping the output of find into an-
	      other program and	there is the  faintest	possibility  that  the
	      files  which you are searching for might contain a newline, then
	      you should seriously consider using the -print0  option  instead
	      of  -print.   See	 the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information
	      about how	unusual	characters in filenames	are handled.

       -print0
	      True; print the full file	name on	the standard output,  followed
	      by  a  null  character  (instead	of  the	newline	character that
	      -print uses).  This allows file names that contain  newlines  or
	      other  types  of white space to be correctly interpreted by pro-
	      grams that process the find output.  This	option corresponds  to
	      the -0 option of xargs.

       -printf format
	      True;  print format on the standard output, interpreting `\' es-
	      capes and	`%' directives.	 Field widths and  precisions  can  be
	      specified	 as  with  the	`printf' C function.  Please note that
	      many of the fields are printed as	%s rather than	%d,  and  this
	      may  mean	 that flags don't work as you might expect.  This also
	      means that the `-' flag does work	(it forces fields to be	 left-
	      aligned).	  Unlike -print, -printf does not add a	newline	at the
	      end of the string.  The escapes and directives are:

	      \a     Alarm bell.

	      \b     Backspace.

	      \c     Stop printing from	this format immediately	and flush  the
		     output.

	      \f     Form feed.

	      \n     Newline.

	      \r     Carriage return.

	      \t     Horizontal	tab.

	      \v     Vertical tab.

	      \0     ASCII NUL.

	      \\     A literal backslash (`\').

	      \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

	      A	`\' character followed by any other character is treated as an
	      ordinary character, so they both are printed.

	      %%     A literal percent sign.

	      %a     File's last access	time in	the format returned by	the  C
		     `ctime' function.

	      %Ak    File's  last  access  time	 in the	format specified by k,
		     which is either `@' or a directive	for the	 C  `strftime'
		     function.	 The  possible	values for k are listed	below;
		     some of them might	not be available on all	 systems,  due
		     to	differences in `strftime' between systems.

		     @	    seconds  since Jan.	1, 1970, 00:00 GMT, with frac-
			    tional part.

		     Time fields:

		     H	    hour (00..23)

		     I	    hour (01..12)

		     k	    hour ( 0..23)

		     l	    hour ( 1..12)

		     M	    minute (00..59)

		     p	    locale's AM	or PM

		     r	    time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

		     S	    Second (00.00 .. 61.00).  There  is	 a  fractional
			    part.

		     T	    time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

		     +	    Date  and  time,  separated	 by  `+',  for example
			    `2004-04-28+22:22:05.0'.  This is a	GNU extension.
			    The	 time  is given	in the current timezone	(which
			    may	be affected  by	 setting  the  TZ  environment
			    variable).	 The  seconds  field  includes a frac-
			    tional part.

		     X	    locale's time representation (H:M:S)

		     Z	    time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time  zone
			    is determinable

		     Date fields:

		     a	    locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

		     A	    locale's  full weekday name, variable length (Sun-
			    day..Saturday)

		     b	    locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

		     B	    locale's full month	name, variable	length	(Janu-
			    ary..December)

		     c	    locale's  date  and	 time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST
			    1989).  The	format is the same as for ctime(3) and
			    so	to  preserve  compatibility  with that format,
			    there is no	fractional part	in the seconds field.

		     d	    day	of month (01..31)

		     D	    date (mm/dd/yy)

		     h	    same as b

		     j	    day	of year	(001..366)

		     m	    month (01..12)

		     U	    week number	of year	with Sunday as	first  day  of
			    week (00..53)

		     w	    day	of week	(0..6)

		     W	    week  number  of  year with	Monday as first	day of
			    week (00..53)

		     x	    locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

		     y	    last two digits of year (00..99)

		     Y	    year (1970...)

	      %b     The amount	of disk	space used for this file  in  512-byte
		     blocks. Since disk	space is allocated in multiples	of the
		     filesystem	 block	size  this  is	usually	 greater  than
		     %s/512,  but  it  can  also  be  smaller if the file is a
		     sparse file.

	      %c     File's last status	change time in the format returned  by
		     the C `ctime' function.

	      %Ck    File's last status	change time in the format specified by
		     k,	which is the same as for %A.

	      %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a
		     command line argument.

	      %D     The  device  number  on which the file exists (the	st_dev
		     field of struct stat), in decimal.

	      %f     File's name with any leading  directories	removed	 (only
		     the last element).

	      %F     Type  of the filesystem the file is on; this value	can be
		     used for -fstype.

	      %g     File's group name,	or numeric group ID if the  group  has
		     no	name.

	      %G     File's numeric group ID.

	      %h     Leading directories of file's name	(all but the last ele-
		     ment).  If	the file name contains no slashes (since it is
		     in	 the  current  directory)  the %h specifier expands to
		     ".".

	      %H     Command line argument under which file was	found.

	      %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

	      %k     The amount	of disk	space used for this file in 1K blocks.
		     Since  disk  space	 is  allocated	in  multiples  of  the
		     filesystem	 block	size  this  is	usually	 greater  than
		     %s/1024,  but  it	can  also  be smaller if the file is a
		     sparse file.

	      %l     Object of symbolic	link (empty string if file  is	not  a
		     symbolic link).

	      %m     File's  permission	bits (in octal).  This option uses the
		     `traditional' numbers  which  most	 Unix  implementations
		     use,  but	if  your particular implementation uses	an un-
		     usual ordering of octal permissions bits, you will	see  a
		     difference	 between  the  actual value of the file's mode
		     and the output of %m.   Normally you will want to have  a
		     leading  zero  on this number, and	to do this, you	should
		     use the # flag (as	in, for	example, `%#m').

	      %M     File's permissions	(in symbolic form, as for  ls).	  This
		     directive is supported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

	      %n     Number of hard links to file.

	      %p     File's name.

	      %P     File's  name  with	 the name of the command line argument
		     under which it was	found removed.

	      %s     File's size in bytes.

	      %S     File's  sparseness.   This	 is  calculated	  as   (BLOCK-
		     SIZE*st_blocks  / st_size).  The exact value you will get
		     for an ordinary file of a certain length is system-depen-
		     dent.   However,  normally	 sparse	files will have	values
		     less than 1.0, and	files which use	 indirect  blocks  may
		     have  a value which is greater than 1.0.	The value used
		     for BLOCKSIZE is system-dependent,	 but  is  usually  512
		     bytes.    If  the file size is zero, the value printed is
		     undefined.	 On systems which lack support for  st_blocks,
		     a file's sparseness is assumed to be 1.0.

	      %t     File's  last  modification	time in	the format returned by
		     the C `ctime' function.

	      %Tk    File's last modification time in the format specified  by
		     k,	which is the same as for %A.

	      %u     File's  user  name, or numeric user ID if the user	has no
		     name.

	      %U     File's numeric user ID.

	      %y     File's type (like in ls -l),  U=unknown  type  (shouldn't
		     happen)

	      %Y     File's  type  (like  %y),	plus  follow symlinks: L=loop,
		     N=nonexistent

	      A	`%' character followed by any other  character	is  discarded,
	      but  the other character is printed (don't rely on this, as fur-
	      ther format characters may be introduced).  A `%'	at the end  of
	      the format argument causes undefined behaviour since there is no
	      following	character.  In some locales, it	 may  hide  your  door
	      keys,  while  in	others	it  may	remove the final page from the
	      novel you	are reading.

	      The %m and %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but  the
	      other  directives	 do  not, even if they print numbers.  Numeric
	      directives that do not support these flags include G, U, b, D, k
	      and  n.  The `-' format flag is supported	and changes the	align-
	      ment of a	field from right-justified (which is the  default)  to
	      left-justified.

	      See  the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how un-
	      usual characters in filenames are	handled.

       -prune True; if the file	is a directory,	do not	descend	 into  it.  If
	      -depth  is  given,  false;  no  effect.  Because -delete implies
	      -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and -delete together.

       -quit  Exit immediately.	 No child processes will be left running,  but
	      no  more	paths specified	on the command line will be processed.
	      For example, find	/tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit will print only
	      /tmp/foo.	  Any command lines which have been built up with -ex-
	      ecdir ...	{} + will be invoked before  find  exits.    The  exit
	      status may or may	not be zero, depending on whether an error has
	      already occurred.

   UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many of the actions of find result in the printing of data which	is un-
       der the control of other	users.	This includes file names, sizes, modi-
       fication	times and so forth.  File names	are a potential	problem	 since
       they can	contain	any character except `\0' and `/'.  Unusual characters
       in file names can do unexpected and often undesirable  things  to  your
       terminal	 (for  example,	changing the settings of your function keys on
       some terminals).	 Unusual characters are	handled	differently by various
       actions,	as described below.

       -print0,	-fprint0
	      Always  print  the exact filename, unchanged, even if the	output
	      is going to a terminal.

       -ls, -fls
	      Unusual characters are always escaped.  White space,  backslash,
	      and  double  quote characters are	printed	using C-style escaping
	      (for example `\f', `\"').	 Other unusual characters are  printed
	      using  an	octal escape.  Other printable characters (for -ls and
	      -fls these are the characters between octal 041  and  0176)  are
	      printed as-is.

       -printf,	-fprintf
	      If  the  output is not going to a	terminal, it is	printed	as-is.
	      Otherwise, the result depends on which directive is in use.  The
	      directives %D, %F, %g, %G, %H, %Y, and %y	expand to values which
	      are not under control of files' owners, and so are  printed  as-
	      is.   The	directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s, %t,
	      %u and %U	have values which are under the	control	of files' own-
	      ers  but which cannot be used to send arbitrary data to the ter-
	      minal, and so these are printed as-is.  The directives  %f,  %h,
	      %l, %p and %P are	quoted.	 This quoting is performed in the same
	      way as for GNU ls.  This is not the same	quoting	 mechanism  as
	      the  one	used for -ls and -fls.	If you are able	to decide what
	      format to	use for	the output of find then	it is normally	better
	      to  use  `\0' as a terminator than to use	newline, as file names
	      can contain white	space and newline characters.  The setting  of
	      the  `LC_CTYPE'  environment variable is used to determine which
	      characters need to be quoted.

       -print, -fprint
	      Quoting is handled in the	same way as for	-printf	and  -fprintf.
	      If  you  are  using find in a script or in a situation where the
	      matched files might have arbitrary names,	 you  should  consider
	      using -print0 instead of -print.

       The  -ok	and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This may
       change in a future release.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
	      Force precedence.	 Since parentheses are special to  the	shell,
	      you  will	 normally need to quote	them.  Many of the examples in
	      this manual page use backslashes for this	purpose: `\(...\)' in-
	      stead of `(...)'.

       ! expr True  if	expr  is false.	 This character	will also usually need
	      protection from interpretation by	the shell.

       -not expr
	      Same as !	expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
	      Two expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an  implied
	      "and"; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is	false.

       expr1 -a	expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o	expr2
	      Or; expr2	is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
	      Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
	      List;  both  expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The value of
	      expr1 is discarded; the value of the list	is the value of	expr2.
	      The  comma operator can be useful	for searching for several dif-
	      ferent types of thing, but traversing the	 filesystem  hierarchy
	      only  once.  The -fprintf	action can be used to list the various
	      matched items into several different output files.

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
       For closest compliance to  the  POSIX  standard,	 you  should  set  the
       POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable.  The following options are	speci-
       fied in the POSIX standard (IEEE	Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition):

       -H     This option is supported.

       -L     This option is supported.

       -name  This option is supported,	but POSIX conformance depends  on  the
	      POSIX  conformance  of the system's fnmatch(3) library function.
	      As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (`*',	 `?'  or  `[]'
	      for  example) will match a leading `.', because IEEE PASC	inter-
	      pretation	126 requires this.   This is a	change	from  previous
	      versions of findutils.

       -type  Supported.    POSIX  specifies  `b', `c',	`d', `l', `p', `f' and
	      `s'.  GNU	find also supports `D',	representing a Door, where the
	      OS provides these.

       -ok    Supported.   Interpretation  of the response is according	to the
	      "yes" and	"no" patterns selected by  setting  the	 `LC_MESSAGES'
	      environment  variable.   When  the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment
	      variable is set, these patterns are taken	system's definition of
	      a	 positive  (yes)  or  negative (no) response. See the system's
	      documentation for	nl_langinfo(3),	in particular YESEXPR and  NO-
	      EXPR.    When `POSIXLY_CORRECT' is not set, the patterns are in-
	      stead taken from find's own message catalogue.

       -newer Supported.  If the file specified	is a symbolic link, it is  al-
	      ways  dereferenced.   This  is a change from previous behaviour,
	      which used to take the relevant time from	the symbolic link; see
	      the HISTORY section below.

       -perm  Supported.   If  the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable	is not
	      set, some	mode arguments (for example +a+x) which	are not	 valid
	      in POSIX are supported for backward-compatibility.

       Other predicates
	      The  predicates  -atime, -ctime, -depth, -group, -links, -mtime,
	      -nogroup,	-nouser, -print, -prune, -size,	-user  and  -xdev  are
	      all supported.

       The POSIX standard specifies parentheses	`(', `)', negation `!' and the
       `and' and `or' operators	( -a, -o).

       All other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are  extensions
       beyond  the POSIX standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique to
       GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that	find detects loops:

	      The find utility shall detect infinite loops; that is,  entering
	      a	 previously  visited directory that is an ancestor of the last
	      file encountered.	When it	detects	an infinite loop,  find	 shall
	      write  a	diagnostic  message to standard	error and shall	either
	      recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       GNU find	complies with these requirements.  The link count of  directo-
       ries which contain entries which	are hard links to an ancestor will of-
       ten be lower than they otherwise	should be.  This  can  mean  that  GNU
       find  will sometimes optimise away the visiting of a subdirectory which
       is actually a link to an	ancestor.  Since find does not actually	 enter
       such  a subdirectory, it	is allowed to avoid emitting a diagnostic mes-
       sage.  Although this behaviour may be somewhat  confusing,  it  is  un-
       likely  that  anybody  actually depends on this behaviour.  If the leaf
       optimisation has	been turned off	with -noleaf, the directory entry will
       always  be  examined and	the diagnostic message will be issued where it
       is appropriate.	Symbolic links cannot be used to create	filesystem cy-
       cles  as	 such, but if the -L option or the -follow option is in	use, a
       diagnostic message is issued when find encounters a  loop  of  symbolic
       links.  As with loops containing	hard links, the	leaf optimisation will
       often mean that find knows that it  doesn't  need  to  call  stat()  or
       chdir() on the symbolic link, so	this diagnostic	is frequently not nec-
       essary.

       The -d option is	supported for compatibility with various BSD  systems,
       but you should use the POSIX-compliant option -depth instead.

       The  POSIXLY_CORRECT environment	variable does not affect the behaviour
       of the -regex or	-iregex	tests because those tests aren't specified  in
       the POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       LANG   Provides	a default value	for the	internationalization variables
	      that are unset or	null.

       LC_ALL If set to	a non-empty string value, override the values  of  all
	      the other	internationalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE
	      The POSIX	standard specifies that	this variable affects the pat-
	      tern matching to be used for the -name option.   GNU  find  uses
	      the fnmatch(3) library function, and so support for `LC_COLLATE'
	      depends on the system library.	This variable also affects the
	      interpretation  of  the response to -ok; while the `LC_MESSAGES'
	      variable selects the actual pattern used to  interpret  the  re-
	      sponse  to -ok, the interpretation of any	bracket	expressions in
	      the pattern will be affected by `LC_COLLATE'.

       LC_CTYPE
	      This variable affects the	treatment of character classes used in
	      regular  expressions  and	 also with the -name test, if the sys-
	      tem's fnmatch(3) library function	supports this.	This  variable
	      also  affects the	interpretation of any character	classes	in the
	      regular expressions used to interpret the	response to the	prompt
	      issued  by  -ok.	 The `LC_CTYPE'	environment variable will also
	      affect which characters are considered to	 be  unprintable  when
	      filenames	are printed; see the section UNUSUAL FILENAMES.

       LC_MESSAGES
	      Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.
	      If the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, this  also
	      determines the interpretation of the response to the prompt made
	      by the -ok action.

       NLSPATH
	      Determines the location of the internationalisation message cat-
	      alogues.

       PATH   Affects  the directories which are searched to find the executa-
	      bles invoked by -exec, -execdir, -ok and -okdir.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
	      Determines the block size	used by	-ls and	-fls.  If POSIXLY_COR-
	      RECT  is set, blocks are units of	512 bytes.  Otherwise they are
	      units of 1024 bytes.

	      Setting this variable also turns off warning messages (that  is,
	      implies  -nowarn)	 by default, because POSIX requires that apart
	      from the output for -ok, all messages printed on stderr are  di-
	      agnostics	and must result	in a non-zero exit status.

	      When POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set, -perm +zzz is treated just like
	      -perm  /zzz  if  +zzz  is	 not  a	 valid	symbolic  mode.	  When
	      POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, such constructs are treated as an	error.

	      When  POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, the	response to the	prompt made by
	      the -ok action is	interpreted according to the system's  message
	      catalogue,  as opposed to	according to find's own	message	trans-
	      lations.

       TZ     Affects the time zone used for some of the  time-related	format
	      directives of -printf and	-fprintf.

EXAMPLES
       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.
       Note that this will work	incorrectly if there are  any  filenames  con-
       taining newlines, single	or double quotes, or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them,
       processing filenames in such a way that file or	directory  names  con-
       taining	single or double quotes, spaces	or newlines are	correctly han-
       dled.  The -name	test comes before the -type test  in  order  to	 avoid
       having to call stat(2) on every file.

       find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

       Runs  `file'  on	 every file in or below	the current directory.	Notice
       that the	braces are enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from
       interpretation as shell script punctuation.  The	semicolon is similarly
       protected by the	use of a backslash, though single  quotes  could  have
       been used in that case also.

       find / \
       \( -perm	-4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt %#m %u %p\n \) , \
       \( -size	+100M -fprintf /root/big.txt %-10s %p\n	\)

       Traverse	the filesystem just once, listing setuid files and directories
       into /root/suid.txt and large files into	/root/big.txt.

       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files	in your	home directory which have been modified	in the
       last  twenty-four  hours.  This command works this way because the time
       since each file was last	modified is divided by 24 hours	 and  any  re-
       mainder	is  discarded.	That means that	to match -mtime	0, a file will
       have to have a modification in the past which is	 less  than  24	 hours
       ago.

       find /sbin /usr/sbin -executable	\! -readable -print

       Search for files	which are executable but not readable.

       find . -perm 664

       Search  for files which have read and write permission for their	owner,
       and group, but which other users	can read  but  not  write  to.	 Files
       which  meet these criteria but have other permissions bits set (for ex-
       ample if	someone	can execute the	file) will not be matched.

       find . -perm -664

       Search for files	which have read	and write permission for  their	 owner
       and  group, and which other users can read, without regard to the pres-
       ence of any extra permission bits (for  example	the  executable	 bit).
       This will match a file which has	mode 0777, for example.

       find . -perm /222

       Search  for files which are writable by somebody	(their owner, or their
       group, or anybody else).

       find . -perm /220
       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
       find . -perm /u=w,g=w

       All three of these commands do the same thing, but the first  one  uses
       the  octal  representation  of the file mode, and the other two use the
       symbolic	form.  These commands all search for files which are  writable
       by  either  their  owner	 or  their  group.  The	files don't have to be
       writable	by both	the owner and group to be matched; either will do.

       find . -perm -220
       find . -perm -g+w,u+w

       Both these commands do the same	thing;	search	for  files  which  are
       writable	by both	their owner and	their group.

       find . -perm -444 -perm /222 ! -perm /111
       find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w ! -perm /a+x

       These  two  commands both search	for files that are readable for	every-
       body ( -perm -444 or -perm -a+r), have at least one  write  bit	set  (
       -perm  /222 or -perm /a+w) but are not executable for anybody ( ! -perm
       /111 and	! -perm	/a+x respectively).

       cd /source-dir
       find . -name .snapshot -prune -o	\( \! -name *~ -print0 \)|
       cpio -pmd0 /dest-dir

       This command copies the contents	of /source-dir to /dest-dir, but omits
       files  and directories named .snapshot (and anything in them).  It also
       omits files or directories whose	name ends in ~,	 but  not  their  con-
       tents.  The construct -prune -o \( ... -print0 \) is quite common.  The
       idea here is that the expression	before -prune matches things which are
       to  be  pruned.	However, the -prune action itself returns true,	so the
       following -o ensures that the right hand	side  is  evaluated  only  for
       those  directories  which didn't	get pruned (the	contents of the	pruned
       directories are not even	visited, so their  contents  are  irrelevant).
       The  expression on the right hand side of the -o	is in parentheses only
       for clarity.  It	emphasises that	the -print0 action  takes  place  only
       for  things  that  didn't have -prune applied to	them.  Because the de-
       fault `and' condition between tests binds more tightly than -o, this is
       the default anyway, but the parentheses help to show what is going on.

       find repo/ -exec	test -d	{}/.svn	-o -d {}/.git -o -d {}/CVS ; \
       -print -prune

       Given  the following directory of projects and their associated SCM ad-
       ministrative directories, perform an efficient search for the projects'
       roots:

       repo/project1/CVS
       repo/gnu/project2/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/src/.svn
       repo/project4/.git

       In  this	 example, -prune prevents unnecessary descent into directories
       that have already  been	discovered  (for  example  we  do  not	search
       project3/src  because we	already	found project3/.svn), but ensures sib-
       ling directories	(project2 and project3)	are found.

EXIT STATUS
       find exits with status 0	 if  all  files	 are  processed	 successfully,
       greater than 0 if errors	occur.	 This is deliberately a	very broad de-
       scription, but if the return value is non-zero, you should not rely  on
       the correctness of the results of find.

SEE ALSO
       locate(1),  locatedb(5),	 updatedb(1),  xargs(1), chmod(1), fnmatch(3),
       regex(7), stat(2), lstat(2), ls(1), printf(3),  strftime(3),  ctime(3),
       Finding Files (on-line in Info, or printed).

HISTORY
       As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or	`[]' for exam-
       ple) used in filename patterns will match a leading `.',	 because  IEEE
       POSIX interpretation 126	requires this.

       The syntax -perm	+MODE was deprecated in	findutils-4.2.21, in favour of
       -perm /MODE.  As	of findutils-4.3.3, -perm /000 now matches  all	 files
       instead of none.

       Nanosecond-resolution timestamps	were implemented in findutils-4.3.3.

       As of findutils-4.3.11, the -delete action sets find's exit status to a
       nonzero value when it fails.  However, find will	not exit  immediately.
       Previously,  find's  exit  status  was  unaffected  by  the  failure of
       -delete.

       Feature		      Added in	 Also occurs in
       -newerXY		      4.3.3	 BSD
       -D		      4.3.1
       -O		      4.3.1
       -readable	      4.3.0
       -writable	      4.3.0
       -executable	      4.3.0
       -regextype	      4.2.24
       -exec ... +	      4.2.12	 POSIX
       -execdir		      4.2.12	 BSD

       -okdir		      4.2.12
       -samefile	      4.2.11
       -H		      4.2.5	 POSIX
       -L		      4.2.5	 POSIX
       -P		      4.2.5	 BSD
       -delete		      4.2.3
       -quit		      4.2.3
       -d		      4.2.3	 BSD
       -wholename	      4.2.0
       -iwholename	      4.2.0
       -ignore_readdir_race   4.2.0
       -fls		      4.0
       -ilname		      3.8
       -iname		      3.8
       -ipath		      3.8
       -iregex		      3.8

NON-BUGS
       $ find .	-name *.c -print
       find: paths must	precede	expression
       Usage: find [-H]	[-L] [-P] [-Olevel] [-D	help|tree|search|stat|rates|opt|exec] [path...]	[expression]

       This happens because *.c	has been expanded by the  shell	 resulting  in
       find actually receiving a command line like this:

       find . -name bigram.c code.c frcode.c locate.c -print

       That  command  is of course not going to	work.  Instead of doing	things
       this way, you should enclose the	pattern	in quotes or escape the	 wild-
       card:
       $ find .	-name \*.c -print

BUGS
       There  are  security  problems inherent in the behaviour	that the POSIX
       standard	specifies for find, which therefore cannot be fixed.  For  ex-
       ample,  the -exec action	is inherently insecure,	and -execdir should be
       used instead.  Please see Finding Files for more	information.

       The environment variable	LC_COLLATE has no effect on the	-ok action.

       The best	way to report a	bug  is	 to  use  the  form  at	 http://savan-
       nah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.   The	 reason	 for  this is that you
       will then be able to track progress in fixing the problem.   Other com-
       ments  about  find(1) and about the findutils package in	general	can be
       sent to the bug-findutils mailing list.	To join	the list,  send	 email
       to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.

								       FIND(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | EXPRESSIONS | STANDARDS CONFORMANCE | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | EXAMPLES | EXIT STATUS | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | NON-BUGS | BUGS

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