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FIND(1)			    General Commands Manual		       FIND(1)

NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-D debugopts] [-Olevel] [path...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches
       the directory tree rooted at each given file  name  by  evaluating  the
       given  expression  from left to right, according	to the rules of	prece-
       dence (see section OPERATORS), until the	outcome	 is  known  (the  left
       hand  side  is  false  for and operations, true for or),	at which point
       find moves on to	the next file name.

       If you are using	find in	an environment	where  security	 is  important
       (for  example  if  you  are  using  it  to  search directories that are
       writable	by other users), you should read the "Security Considerations"
       chapter	of  the	findutils documentation, which is called Finding Files
       and comes with findutils.   That	document also includes a lot more  de-
       tail  and  discussion  than this	manual page, so	you may	find it	a more
       useful source of	information.

OPTIONS
       The -H, -L and -P options control  the  treatment  of  symbolic	links.
       Command-line  arguments	following these	are taken to be	names of files
       or directories to be examined, up to the	 first	argument  that	begins
       with  `-', or the argument `(' or `!'.  That argument and any following
       arguments are taken to be the  expression  describing  what  is	to  be
       searched	 for.	If  no paths are given,	the current directory is used.
       If no expression	is given, the  expression  -print  is  used  (but  you
       should probably consider	using -print0 instead, anyway).

       This  manual  page  talks  about	 `options' within the expression list.
       These options control the behaviour of find but are  specified  immedi-
       ately after the last path name.	The five `real'	options	-H, -L,	-P, -D
       and -O must appear before the first path	name, if  at  all.   A	double
       dash -- can also	be used	to signal that any remaining arguments are not
       options (though ensuring	that all start points begin with  either  `./'
       or  `/'	is  generally  safer if	you use	wildcards in the list of start
       points).

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This  is  the  default  behaviour.
	      When find	examines or prints information a file, and the file is
	      a	symbolic link, the information used shall be  taken  from  the
	      properties of the	symbolic link itself.

       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find	examines or prints information
	      about files, the information used	shall be taken from the	 prop-
	      erties  of  the file to which the	link points, not from the link
	      itself (unless it	is a broken symbolic link or find is unable to
	      examine  the file	to which the link points).  Use	of this	option
	      implies -noleaf.	If you later use the -P	option,	 -noleaf  will
	      still  be	 in  effect.   If -L is	in effect and find discovers a
	      symbolic link to a subdirectory during its search, the subdirec-
	      tory pointed to by the symbolic link will	be searched.

	      When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will	always
	      match against the	type of	the file that a	symbolic  link	points
	      to rather	than the link itself (unless the symbolic link is bro-
	      ken).  Using -L causes the -lname	and -ilname predicates	always
	      to return	false.

       -H     Do  not  follow symbolic links, except while processing the com-
	      mand line	arguments.  When find examines or  prints  information
	      about  files, the	information used shall be taken	from the prop-
	      erties of	the symbolic link itself.   The	only exception to this
	      behaviour	is when	a file specified on the	command	line is	a sym-
	      bolic link, and the link can be resolved.	 For  that  situation,
	      the  information	used is	taken from whatever the	link points to
	      (that is,	the link is followed).	The information	about the link
	      itself  is used as a fallback if the file	pointed	to by the sym-
	      bolic link cannot	be examined.  If -H is in effect  and  one  of
	      the  paths specified on the command line is a symbolic link to a
	      directory, the contents  of  that	 directory  will  be  examined
	      (though of course	-maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If more than one	of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the oth-
       ers; the	last one appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since it
       is  the default,	the -P option should be	considered to be in effect un-
       less either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find	frequently stats files during the processing  of  the  command
       line itself, before any searching has begun.  These options also	affect
       how those arguments are processed.  Specifically, there are a number of
       tests  that  compare files listed on the	command	line against a file we
       are currently considering.  In each case, the  file  specified  on  the
       command	line  will  have been examined and some	of its properties will
       have been saved.	 If the	named file is in fact a	symbolic link, and the
       -P  option  is  in effect (or if	neither	-H nor -L were specified), the
       information used	for the	comparison will	be taken from  the  properties
       of  the symbolic	link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from	the properties
       of the file the link points to.	If find	cannot follow  the  link  (for
       example	because	it has insufficient privileges or the link points to a
       nonexistent file) the properties	of the link itself will	be used.

       When the	-H or -L options are in	effect,	any symbolic links  listed  as
       the  argument of	-newer will be dereferenced, and the timestamp will be
       taken from the file to which the	symbolic link points.  The  same  con-
       sideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.

       The  -follow  option has	a similar effect to -L,	though it takes	effect
       at the point where it appears (that is, if -L is	not used  but  -follow
       is, any symbolic	links appearing	after -follow on the command line will
       be dereferenced,	and those before it will not).

       -D debugoptions
	      Print diagnostic information; this can be	 helpful  to  diagnose
	      problems	with why find is not doing what	you want.  The list of
	      debug options should be comma separated.	Compatibility  of  the
	      debug  options  is not guaranteed	between	releases of findutils.
	      For a complete list of valid debug options, see  the  output  of
	      find -D help.  Valid debug options include

	      help   Explain the debugging options

	      tree   Show  the	expression  tree in its	original and optimised
		     form.

	      stat   Print messages as files are examined with	the  stat  and
		     lstat  system  calls.  The	find program tries to minimise
		     such calls.

	      opt    Prints diagnostic information relating to	the  optimisa-
		     tion of the expression tree; see the -O option.

	      rates  Prints a summary indicating how often each	predicate suc-
		     ceeded or failed.

       -Olevel
	      Enables query optimisation.   The	find program reorders tests to
	      speed up execution while preserving the overall effect; that is,
	      predicates with side effects are not reordered relative to  each
	      other.   The  optimisations performed at each optimisation level
	      are as follows.

	      0	     Equivalent	to optimisation	level 1.

	      1	     This is the default optimisation level and	corresponds to
		     the  traditional behaviour.  Expressions are reordered so
		     that tests	based only on the names	of files (for  example
		     -name and -regex) are performed first.

	      2	     Any  -type	 or -xtype tests are performed after any tests
		     based only	on the names of	files, but  before  any	 tests
		     that  require information from the	inode.	On many	modern
		     versions of Unix, file types are  returned	 by  readdir()
		     and so these predicates are faster	to evaluate than pred-
		     icates which need to stat the file	first.	If you use the
		     -fstype  FOO  predicate  and specify a filsystem type FOO
		     which is not known	(that is, present in  `/etc/mtab')  at
		     the  time	find  starts,  that predicate is equivalent to
		     -false.

	      3	     At	this optimisation level, the full cost-based query op-
		     timiser  is  enabled.   The order of tests	is modified so
		     that cheap	(i.e. fast) tests are performed	first and more
		     expensive ones are	performed later, if necessary.	Within
		     each cost band, predicates	are evaluated earlier or later
		     according	to  whether they are likely to succeed or not.
		     For -o, predicates	which are likely to succeed are	evalu-
		     ated  earlier, and	for -a,	predicates which are likely to
		     fail are evaluated	earlier.

	      The cost-based optimiser has a fixed  idea  of  how  likely  any
	      given  test  is to succeed.  In some cases the probability takes
	      account of the specific nature of	the test (for example, -type f
	      is  assumed  to  be  more	 likely	to succeed than	-type c).  The
	      cost-based optimiser is currently	being evaluated.   If it  does
	      not actually improve the performance of find, it will be removed
	      again.  Conversely, optimisations	that prove to be reliable, ro-
	      bust  and	 effective may be enabled at lower optimisation	levels
	      over time.  However, the default	behaviour  (i.e.  optimisation
	      level  1)	 will not be changed in	the 4.3.x release series.  The
	      findutils	test suite runs	all the	tests on find at each  optimi-
	      sation level and ensures that the	result is the same.

EXPRESSIONS
       The  expression	is  made up of options (which affect overall operation
       rather than the processing of a specific	file, and always return	true),
       tests  (which  return  a	 true or false value), and actions (which have
       side effects and	return a true or false value), all separated by	opera-
       tors.  -and is assumed where the	operator is omitted.

       If the expression contains no actions other than	-prune,	-print is per-
       formed on all files for which the expression is true.

   OPTIONS
       All options always return true.	 Except	 for  -daystart,  -follow  and
       -regextype, the options affect all tests, including tests specified be-
       fore the	option.	 This is because the options are  processed  when  the
       command	line  is parsed, while the tests don't do anything until files
       are examined.  The -daystart, -follow and -regextype options  are  dif-
       ferent  in  this	respect, and have an effect only on tests which	appear
       later in	the command line.  Therefore, for clarity, it is best to place
       them  at	 the  beginning	of the expression.  A warning is issued	if you
       don't do	this.

       -d     A	synonym	for -depth, for	compatibility  with  FreeBSD,  NetBSD,
	      MacOS X and OpenBSD.

       -daystart
	      Measure  times  (for  -amin,  -atime,  -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and
	      -mtime) from the beginning of today rather than  from  24	 hours
	      ago.   This  option only affects tests which appear later	on the
	      command line.

       -depth Process each directory's contents	before the  directory  itself.
	      The -delete action also implies -depth.

       -follow
	      Deprecated;  use	the  -L	 option	instead.  Dereference symbolic
	      links.  Implies -noleaf.	The -follow option affects only	 those
	      tests  which appear after	it on the command line.	 Unless	the -H
	      or -L option has been specified, the position of the -follow op-
	      tion  changes  the  behaviour of the -newer predicate; any files
	      listed as	the argument of	-newer will be	dereferenced  if  they
	      are symbolic links.  The same consideration applies to -newerXY,
	      -anewer and -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type predicate will	always
	      match  against  the type of the file that	a symbolic link	points
	      to rather	than the link itself.  Using -follow causes the	-lname
	      and -ilname predicates always to return false.

       -help, --help
	      Print a summary of the command-line usage	of find	and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
	      Normally,	 find will emit	an error message when it fails to stat
	      a	file.  If you give this	option and a file is  deleted  between
	      the  time	find reads the name of the file	from the directory and
	      the time it tries	to stat	the file, no error message will	be is-
	      sued.	This  also applies to files or directories whose names
	      are given	on the command line.  This option takes	effect at  the
	      time  the	 command  line	is  read,  which means that you	cannot
	      search one part of the filesystem	with this option on  and  part
	      of  it  with  this  option off (if you need to do	that, you will
	      need to issue two	find commands instead, one with	the option and
	      one without it).

       -maxdepth levels
	      Descend at most levels (a	non-negative integer) levels of	direc-
	      tories below the command line arguments.	-maxdepth 0
	       means only apply	the tests and actions to the command line  ar-
	      guments.

       -mindepth levels
	      Do  not apply any	tests or actions at levels less	than levels (a
	      non-negative integer).  -mindepth	1 means	process	all files  ex-
	      cept the command line arguments.

       -mount Don't  descend  directories  on other filesystems.  An alternate
	      name for -xdev, for compatibility	with some  other  versions  of
	      find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
	      Turns off	the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
	      Do  not  optimize	 by  assuming that directories contain 2 fewer
	      subdirectories than their	 hard  link  count.   This  option  is
	      needed  when  searching  filesystems that	do not follow the Unix
	      directory-link convention, such as CD-ROM	or MS-DOS  filesystems
	      or  AFS  volume  mount  points.  Each directory on a normal Unix
	      filesystem has at	least 2	hard links: its	name and its `.'   en-
	      try.  Additionally, its subdirectories (if any) each have	a `..'
	      entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining a	direc-
	      tory,  after  it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the di-
	      rectory's	link count, it knows that the rest of the  entries  in
	      the directory are	non-directories	(`leaf'	files in the directory
	      tree).  If only the files' names need to be examined,  there  is
	      no  need	to  stat  them;	 this  gives a significant increase in
	      search speed.

       -regextype type
	      Changes the regular expression syntax understood by  -regex  and
	      -iregex tests which occur	later on the command line.  Currently-
	      implemented types	are emacs (this	is  the	 default),  posix-awk,
	      posix-basic, posix-egrep and posix-extended.

       -version, --version
	      Print the	find version number and	exit.

       -warn, -nowarn
	      Turn  warning  messages on or off.  These	warnings apply only to
	      the command line usage, not to any conditions  that  find	 might
	      encounter	 when  it searches directories.	 The default behaviour
	      corresponds to -warn if standard input is	a tty, and to  -nowarn
	      otherwise.

       -xautofs
	      Don't descend directories	on autofs filesystems.

       -xdev  Don't descend directories	on other filesystems.

   TESTS
       Some  tests,  for  example -newerXY and -samefile, allow	comparison be-
       tween the file currently	being examined and some	reference file	speci-
       fied  on	 the command line.  When these tests are used, the interpreta-
       tion of the reference file is determined	by the options -H, -L  and  -P
       and any previous	-follow, but the reference file	is only	examined once,
       at the time the command line is parsed.	If the reference  file	cannot
       be examined (for	example, the stat(2) system call fails for it),	an er-
       ror message is issued, and find exits with a nonzero status.

       Numeric arguments can be	specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
	      File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
	      File was last accessed more recently than	file was modified.  If
	      file is a	symbolic link and the -H option	or the -L option is in
	      effect, the access time of the file it points to is always used.

       -atime n
	      File was last accessed n*24 hours	ago.  When  find  figures  out
	      how  many	 24-hour  periods  ago the file	was last accessed, any
	      fractional part is ignored, so to	match -atime +1, a file	has to
	      have been	accessed at least two days ago.

       -cmin n
	      File's status was	last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
	      File's status was	last changed more recently than	file was modi-
	      fied.  If	file is	a symbolic link	and the	-H option  or  the  -L
	      option  is  in  effect,  the  status-change  time	of the file it
	      points to	is always used.

       -ctime n
	      File's status was	last changed n*24 hours	ago.  See the comments
	      for -atime to understand how rounding affects the	interpretation
	      of file status change times.

       -empty File is empty and	is either a regular file or a directory.

       -executable
	      Matches files which are executable  and  directories  which  are
	      searchable  (in  a file name resolution sense).  This takes into
	      account access control lists  and	 other	permissions  artefacts
	      which  the  -perm	 test ignores.	This test makes	use of the ac-
	      cess(2) system call, and so can be fooled	by NFS	servers	 which
	      do UID mapping (or root-squashing), since	many systems implement
	      access(2)	in the client's	kernel and so cannot make use  of  the
	      UID  mapping  information	held on	the server.  Because this test
	      is based only on the result of the access(2) system call,	 there
	      is no guarantee that a file for which this test succeeds can ac-
	      tually be	executed.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
	      File is on a filesystem of  type	type.	The  valid  filesystem
	      types  vary among	different versions of Unix; an incomplete list
	      of filesystem types that are accepted on some version of Unix or
	      another  is:  ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs,	tmp, mfs, S51K,	S52K.  You can
	      use -printf with the %F directive	 to  see  the  types  of  your
	      filesystems.

       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
	      File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
	      Like  -lname,  but the match is case insensitive.	 If the	-L op-
	      tion or the -follow option is in effect, this test returns false
	      unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -iname pattern
	      Like -name, but the match	is case	insensitive.  For example, the
	      patterns `fo*' and `F??' match  the  file	 names	`Foo',	`FOO',
	      `foo',  `fOo', etc.   The	pattern	`*foo*`	will also match	a file
	      called '.foobar'.

       -inum n
	      File has inode number n.	It  is	normally  easier  to  use  the
	      -samefile	test instead.

       -ipath pattern
	      Like -path.  but the match is case insensitive.

       -iregex pattern
	      Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
	      See -ipath.    This alternative is less portable than -ipath.

       -links n
	      File has n links.

       -lname pattern
	      File  is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern pat-
	      tern.  The metacharacters	do not treat `/' or `.'	specially.  If
	      the  -L option or	the -follow option is in effect, this test re-
	      turns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -mmin n
	      File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
	      File's data was last modified n*24 hours ago.  See the  comments
	      for -atime to understand how rounding affects the	interpretation
	      of file modification times.

       -name pattern
	      Base of file name	(the path with	the  leading  directories  re-
	      moved)  matches  shell pattern pattern.  Because the leading di-
	      rectories	are removed, the file names  considered	 for  a	 match
	      with -name will never include a slash, so	`-name a/b' will never
	      match anything (you probably need	to use	-path  instead).   The
	      metacharacters  (`*', `?', and `[]') match a `.' at the start of
	      the base name (this is a change in findutils-4.2.2; see  section
	      STANDARDS	 CONFORMANCE  below).	To  ignore a directory and the
	      files under it, use -prune; see an example in the	description of
	      -path.   Braces are not recognised as being special, despite the
	      fact that	some shells including Bash imbue braces	with a special
	      meaning  in  shell patterns.  The	filename matching is performed
	      with the use of the fnmatch(3) library function.	 Don't	forget
	      to enclose the pattern in	quotes in order	to protect it from ex-
	      pansion by the shell.

       -newer file
	      File was modified	more recently than file.  If file  is  a  sym-
	      bolic  link and the -H option or the -L option is	in effect, the
	      modification time	of the file it points to is always used.

       -newerXY	reference
	      Compares the timestamp of	the current file with reference.   The
	      reference	 argument  is  normally	the name of a file (and	one of
	      its timestamps is	used for the comparison) but it	may also be  a
	      string  describing  an  absolute time.  X	and Y are placeholders
	      for other	letters, and these letters select which	time belonging
	      to how reference is used for the comparison.

	      a	  The access time of the file reference
	      B	  The birth time of the	file reference
	      c	  The inode status change time of reference
	      m	  The modification time	of the file reference
	      t	  reference is interpreted directly as a time

	      Some  combinations are invalid; for example, it is invalid for X
	      to be t.	Some combinations are not implemented on all  systems;
	      for example B is not supported on	all systems.  If an invalid or
	      unsupported combination of XY is specified, a  fatal  error  re-
	      sults.   Time specifications are interpreted as for the argument
	      to the -d	option of GNU date.  If	you try	to use the birth  time
	      of  a reference file, and	the birth time cannot be determined, a
	      fatal error message results.  If you specify a test which	refers
	      to  the  birth time of files being examined, this	test will fail
	      for any files where the birth time is unknown.

       -nogroup
	      No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

       -nouser
	      No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

       -path pattern
	      File name	matches	shell pattern pattern.	The metacharacters  do
	      not treat	`/' or `.' specially; so, for example,
			find . -path "./sr*sc"
	      will  print an entry for a directory called `./src/misc' (if one
	      exists).	To ignore a whole directory tree,  use	-prune	rather
	      than  checking every file	in the tree.  For example, to skip the
	      directory	`src/emacs' and	all files and  directories  under  it,
	      and  print the names of the other	files found, do	something like
	      this:
			find . -path ./src/emacs -prune	-o -print
	      Note that	the pattern match test applies to the whole file name,
	      starting from one	of the start points named on the command line.
	      It would only make sense to use an absolute path	name  here  if
	      the  relevant  start point is also an absolute path.  This means
	      that this	command	will never match anything:
			find bar -path /foo/bar/myfile -print
	      Find compares the	-path argument with the	concatenation of a di-
	      rectory  name  and  the  base  name  of the file it's examining.
	      Since the	concatenation will never end with a slash, -path argu-
	      ments  ending  in	 a  slash will match nothing (except perhaps a
	      start point specified on the command line).  The predicate -path
	      is  also	supported  by  HP-UX find and will be in a forthcoming
	      version of the POSIX standard.

       -perm mode
	      File's permission	bits are exactly  mode	(octal	or  symbolic).
	      Since  an	 exact match is	required, if you want to use this form
	      for symbolic modes, you may have to  specify  a  rather  complex
	      mode  string.   For  example  `-perm  g=w' will only match files
	      which have mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group  write  per-
	      mission is the only permission set).  It is more likely that you
	      will want	to use the `/' or `-' forms, for example `-perm	-g=w',
	      which matches any	file with group	write permission.  See the EX-
	      AMPLES section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
	      All of the permission bits mode are set for the file.   Symbolic
	      modes  are accepted in this form,	and this is usually the	way in
	      which would want to use them.  You must specify `u', `g' or  `o'
	      if  you use a symbolic mode.   See the EXAMPLES section for some
	      illustrative examples.

       -perm /mode
	      Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.   Symbolic
	      modes  are  accepted in this form.  You must specify `u',	`g' or
	      `o' if you use a symbolic	mode.  See the	EXAMPLES  section  for
	      some  illustrative  examples.  If	no permission bits in mode are
	      set, this	test matches any file (the idea	here is	to be  consis-
	      tent with	the behaviour of -perm -000).

       -perm +mode
	      Deprecated,  old way of searching	for files with any of the per-
	      mission bits in mode set.	 You should use	-perm  /mode  instead.
	      Trying to	use the	`+' syntax with	symbolic modes will yield sur-
	      prising results.	For example, `+u+x' is a valid	symbolic  mode
	      (equivalent to +u,+x, i.e. 0111) and will	therefore not be eval-
	      uated as -perm +mode but instead as  the	exact  mode  specifier
	      -perm  mode  and so it matches files with	exact permissions 0111
	      instead of files with any	execute	bit set.  If  you  found  this
	      paragraph	 confusing,  you're  not alone - just use -perm	/mode.
	      This form	of the -perm test  is  deprecated  because  the	 POSIX
	      specification  requires  the  interpretation of a	leading	`+' as
	      being part of a symbolic mode, and so we switched	to  using  `/'
	      instead.

       -readable
	      Matches  files  which are	readable.  This	takes into account ac-
	      cess control lists and other  permissions	 artefacts  which  the
	      -perm test ignores.  This	test makes use of the access(2)	system
	      call, and	so can be fooled by NFS	servers	which do  UID  mapping
	      (or  root-squashing),  since many	systems	implement access(2) in
	      the client's kernel and so cannot	make use of  the  UID  mapping
	      information held on the server.

       -regex pattern
	      File  name  matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match
	      on the whole path, not a search.	For example, to	match  a  file
	      named `./fubar3',	you can	use the	regular	expression `.*bar.' or
	      `.*b.*3',	but not	`f.*r3'.  The regular  expressions  understood
	      by  find	are by default Emacs Regular Expressions, but this can
	      be changed with the -regextype option.

       -samefile name
	      File refers to the same inode as name.   When -L is  in  effect,
	      this can include symbolic	links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
	      File uses	n units	of space.  The following suffixes can be used:

	      `b'    for  512-byte blocks (this	is the default if no suffix is
		     used)

	      `c'    for bytes

	      `w'    for two-byte words

	      `k'    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)

	      `M'    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

	      `G'    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824	bytes)

	      The size does not	count  indirect	 blocks,  but  it  does	 count
	      blocks in	sparse files that are not actually allocated.  Bear in
	      mind that	the `%k' and `%b' format specifiers of -printf	handle
	      sparse   files  differently.   The  `b'  suffix  always  denotes
	      512-byte blocks and never	1 Kilobyte blocks, which is  different
	      to the behaviour of -ls.

       -true  Always true.

       -type c
	      File is of type c:

	      b	     block (buffered) special

	      c	     character (unbuffered) special

	      d	     directory

	      p	     named pipe	(FIFO)

	      f	     regular file

	      l	     symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option	or the
		     -follow option is in effect, unless the symbolic link  is
		     broken.  If you want to search for	symbolic links when -L
		     is	in effect, use -xtype.

	      s	     socket

	      D	     door (Solaris)

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is	n.

       -used n
	      File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
	      File is owned by user uname (numeric user	ID allowed).

       -wholename pattern
	      See -path.    This alternative is	less portable than -path.

       -writable
	      Matches files which are writable.	 This takes into  account  ac-
	      cess  control  lists  and	 other permissions artefacts which the
	      -perm test ignores.  This	test makes use of the access(2)	system
	      call,  and  so can be fooled by NFS servers which	do UID mapping
	      (or root-squashing), since many systems implement	 access(2)  in
	      the  client's  kernel  and so cannot make	use of the UID mapping
	      information held on the server.

       -xtype c
	      The same as -type	unless the file	is a symbolic link.  For  sym-
	      bolic  links:  if	the -H or -P option was	specified, true	if the
	      file is a	link to	a file of type c; if the -L  option  has  been
	      given,  true  if	c is `l'.  In other words, for symbolic	links,
	      -xtype checks the	type of	the file that -type does not check.

       -context	pattern
	      (SELinux only) Security context of the file  matches  glob  pat-
	      tern.

   ACTIONS
       -delete
	      Delete files; true if removal succeeded.	If the removal failed,
	      an error message is issued.  If -delete fails, find's exit  sta-
	      tus  will	be nonzero (when it eventually exits).	Use of -delete
	      automatically turns on the `-depth' option.

	      Warnings:	Don't forget that the find command line	 is  evaluated
	      as an expression,	so putting -delete first will make find	try to
	      delete everything	below the starting points you specified.  When
	      testing  a  find	command	line that you later intend to use with
	      -delete, you should explicitly specify -depth in order to	 avoid
	      later  surprises.	  Because  -delete  implies -depth, you	cannot
	      usefully use -prune and -delete together.

       -exec command ;
	      Execute command; true if 0 status	is  returned.	All  following
	      arguments	to find	are taken to be	arguments to the command until
	      an argument consisting of	`;' is encountered.  The  string  `{}'
	      is  replaced by the current file name being processed everywhere
	      it occurs	in the arguments to the	command, not just in arguments
	      where  it	 is alone, as in some versions of find.	 Both of these
	      constructions might need to be escaped (with a `\') or quoted to
	      protect them from	expansion by the shell.	 See the EXAMPLES sec-
	      tion for examples	of the use of the -exec	option.	 The specified
	      command  is run once for each matched file.  The command is exe-
	      cuted in the starting directory.	 There are  unavoidable	 secu-
	      rity  problems  surrounding  use of the -exec action; you	should
	      use the -execdir option instead.

       -exec command {}	+
	      This variant of the -exec	action runs the	specified  command  on
	      the  selected  files, but	the command line is built by appending
	      each selected file name at the end; the total number of  invoca-
	      tions  of	 the  command  will  be	 much  less than the number of
	      matched files.  The command line is built	in much	the  same  way
	      that  xargs builds its command lines.  Only one instance of `{}'
	      is allowed within	the command.  The command is executed  in  the
	      starting directory.

       -execdir	command	;

       -execdir	command	{} +
	      Like  -exec, but the specified command is	run from the subdirec-
	      tory containing the matched file,	which is not normally the  di-
	      rectory  in  which  you  started	find.  This a much more	secure
	      method for invoking commands, as it avoids race conditions  dur-
	      ing  resolution  of the paths to the matched files.  As with the
	      -exec action, the	`+' form of -execdir will build	a command line
	      to  process more than one	matched	file, but any given invocation
	      of command will only list	files that exist in the	same subdirec-
	      tory.   If  you use this option, you must	ensure that your $PATH
	      environment variable does	not reference `.'; otherwise,  an  at-
	      tacker  can  run	any commands they like by leaving an appropri-
	      ately-named file in a directory in which you will	run  -execdir.
	      The  same	 applies to having entries in $PATH which are empty or
	      which are	not absolute directory names.

       -fls file
	      True; like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output  file
	      is  always created, even if the predicate	is never matched.  See
	      the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for	information about how  unusual
	      characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint file
	      True; print the full file	name into file file.  If file does not
	      exist when find is run, it is created; if	it does	exist,	it  is
	      truncated.   The	file names `/dev/stdout' and `/dev/stderr' are
	      handled specially; they refer to the standard output  and	 stan-
	      dard error output, respectively.	The output file	is always cre-
	      ated, even if the	predicate is never matched.  See  the  UNUSUAL
	      FILENAMES	 section  for information about	how unusual characters
	      in filenames are handled.

       -fprint0	file
	      True; like -print0 but write to file like	-fprint.   The	output
	      file  is always created, even if the predicate is	never matched.
	      See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES	section	for information	about how  un-
	      usual characters in filenames are	handled.

       -fprintf	file format
	      True;  like  -printf but write to	file like -fprint.  The	output
	      file is always created, even if the predicate is never  matched.
	      See  the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how un-
	      usual characters in filenames are	handled.

       -ls    True; list current file in ls -dils format on  standard  output.
	      The  block counts	are of 1K blocks, unless the environment vari-
	      able POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which case 512-byte  blocks  are
	      used.   See  the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about
	      how unusual characters in	filenames are handled.

       -ok command ;
	      Like -exec but ask the user first.  If the user agrees, run  the
	      command.	 Otherwise  just return	false.	If the command is run,
	      its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

	      The response to the prompt is matched against a pair of  regular
	      expressions to determine if it is	an affirmative or negative re-
	      sponse.  This regular expression is obtained from	the system  if
	      the  `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, or otherwise
	      from find's message translations.	 If the	system has no suitable
	      definition,  find's  own	definition  will  be used.   In	either
	      case, the	interpretation of the regular expression  itself  will
	      be  affected  by the environment variables 'LC_CTYPE' (character
	      classes) and  'LC_COLLATE'  (character  ranges  and  equivalence
	      classes).

       -okdir command ;
	      Like -execdir but	ask the	user first in the same way as for -ok.
	      If the user does not agree, just return false.  If  the  command
	      is run, its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

       -print True;  print the full file name on the standard output, followed
	      by a newline.   If you are piping	the output of  find  into  an-
	      other  program  and  there  is the faintest possibility that the
	      files which you are searching for	might contain a	newline,  then
	      you  should  seriously consider using the	-print0	option instead
	      of -print.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES  section  for  information
	      about how	unusual	characters in filenames	are handled.

       -print0
	      True;  print the full file name on the standard output, followed
	      by a null	character  (instead  of	 the  newline  character  that
	      -print  uses).   This allows file	names that contain newlines or
	      other types of white space to be correctly interpreted  by  pro-
	      grams  that process the find output.  This option	corresponds to
	      the -0 option of xargs.

       -printf format
	      True; print format on the	standard output, interpreting `\'  es-
	      capes  and  `%'  directives.  Field widths and precisions	can be
	      specified	as with	the `printf' C	function.   Please  note  that
	      many  of	the  fields are	printed	as %s rather than %d, and this
	      may mean that flags don't	work as	you might expect.   This  also
	      means  that the `-' flag does work (it forces fields to be left-
	      aligned).	 Unlike	-print,	-printf	does not add a newline at  the
	      end of the string.  The escapes and directives are:

	      \a     Alarm bell.

	      \b     Backspace.

	      \c     Stop  printing from this format immediately and flush the
		     output.

	      \f     Form feed.

	      \n     Newline.

	      \r     Carriage return.

	      \t     Horizontal	tab.

	      \v     Vertical tab.

	      \0     ASCII NUL.

	      \\     A literal backslash (`\').

	      \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

	      A	`\' character followed by any other character is treated as an
	      ordinary character, so they both are printed.

	      %%     A literal percent sign.

	      %a     File's  last  access time in the format returned by the C
		     `ctime' function.

	      %Ak    File's last access	time in	the  format  specified	by  k,
		     which  is	either `@' or a	directive for the C `strftime'
		     function.	The possible values for	k  are	listed	below;
		     some  of  them might not be available on all systems, due
		     to	differences in `strftime' between systems.

		     @	    seconds since Jan. 1, 1970,	00:00 GMT, with	 frac-
			    tional part.

		     Time fields:

		     H	    hour (00..23)

		     I	    hour (01..12)

		     k	    hour ( 0..23)

		     l	    hour ( 1..12)

		     M	    minute (00..59)

		     p	    locale's AM	or PM

		     r	    time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

		     S	    Second  (00.00  ..	61.00).	 There is a fractional
			    part.

		     T	    time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

		     +	    Date and  time,  separated	by  `+',  for  example
			    `2004-04-28+22:22:05.0'.  This is a	GNU extension.
			    The	time is	given in the current  timezone	(which
			    may	 be  affected  by  setting  the	TZ environment
			    variable).	The seconds  field  includes  a	 frac-
			    tional part.

		     X	    locale's time representation (H:M:S)

		     Z	    time  zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone
			    is determinable

		     Date fields:

		     a	    locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

		     A	    locale's full weekday name,	variable length	 (Sun-
			    day..Saturday)

		     b	    locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

		     B	    locale's  full  month name,	variable length	(Janu-
			    ary..December)

		     c	    locale's date and time (Sat	Nov  04	 12:02:33  EST
			    1989).  The	format is the same as for ctime(3) and
			    so to preserve  compatibility  with	 that  format,
			    there is no	fractional part	in the seconds field.

		     d	    day	of month (01..31)

		     D	    date (mm/dd/yy)

		     h	    same as b

		     j	    day	of year	(001..366)

		     m	    month (01..12)

		     U	    week  number  of  year with	Sunday as first	day of
			    week (00..53)

		     w	    day	of week	(0..6)

		     W	    week number	of year	with Monday as	first  day  of
			    week (00..53)

		     x	    locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

		     y	    last two digits of year (00..99)

		     Y	    year (1970...)

	      %b     The  amount  of disk space	used for this file in 512-byte
		     blocks. Since disk	space is allocated in multiples	of the
		     filesystem	 block	size  this  is	usually	 greater  than
		     %s/512, but it can	also be	 smaller  if  the  file	 is  a
		     sparse file.

	      %c     File's  last status change	time in	the format returned by
		     the C `ctime' function.

	      %Ck    File's last status	change time in the format specified by
		     k,	which is the same as for %A.

	      %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a
		     command line argument.

	      %D     The device	number on which	the file  exists  (the	st_dev
		     field of struct stat), in decimal.

	      %f     File's  name  with	 any leading directories removed (only
		     the last element).

	      %F     Type of the filesystem the	file is	on; this value can  be
		     used for -fstype.

	      %g     File's  group  name, or numeric group ID if the group has
		     no	name.

	      %G     File's numeric group ID.

	      %h     Leading directories of file's name	(all but the last ele-
		     ment).  If	the file name contains no slashes (since it is
		     in	the current directory) the  %h	specifier  expands  to
		     ".".

	      %H     Command line argument under which file was	found.

	      %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

	      %k     The amount	of disk	space used for this file in 1K blocks.
		     Since  disk  space	 is  allocated	in  multiples  of  the
		     filesystem	 block	size  this  is	usually	 greater  than
		     %s/1024, but it can also be smaller  if  the  file	 is  a
		     sparse file.

	      %l     Object  of	 symbolic  link	(empty string if file is not a
		     symbolic link).

	      %m     File's permission bits (in	octal).	 This option uses  the
		     `traditional'  numbers  which  most  Unix implementations
		     use, but if your particular implementation	 uses  an  un-
		     usual  ordering of	octal permissions bits,	you will see a
		     difference	between	the actual value of  the  file's  mode
		     and  the output of	%m.   Normally you will	want to	have a
		     leading zero on this number, and to do this,  you	should
		     use the # flag (as	in, for	example, `%#m').

	      %M     File's  permissions  (in symbolic form, as	for ls).  This
		     directive is supported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

	      %n     Number of hard links to file.

	      %p     File's name.

	      %P     File's name with the name of the  command	line  argument
		     under which it was	found removed.

	      %s     File's size in bytes.

	      %S     File's   sparseness.    This  is  calculated  as  (BLOCK-
		     SIZE*st_blocks / st_size).	 The exact value you will  get
		     for an ordinary file of a certain length is system-depen-
		     dent.  However, normally sparse files  will  have	values
		     less  than	 1.0,  and files which use indirect blocks may
		     have a value which	is greater than	1.0.   The value  used
		     for  BLOCKSIZE  is	 system-dependent,  but	is usually 512
		     bytes.   If the file size is zero,	the value  printed  is
		     undefined.	  On systems which lack	support	for st_blocks,
		     a file's sparseness is assumed to be 1.0.

	      %t     File's last modification time in the format  returned  by
		     the C `ctime' function.

	      %Tk    File's  last modification time in the format specified by
		     k,	which is the same as for %A.

	      %u     File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user  has  no
		     name.

	      %U     File's numeric user ID.

	      %y     File's  type  (like  in ls	-l), U=unknown type (shouldn't
		     happen)

	      %Y     File's type (like	%y),  plus  follow  symlinks:  L=loop,
		     N=nonexistent

	      %Z     (SELinux only) file's security context.

	      %{ %[ %(
		     Reserved for future use.

	      A	 `%'  character	 followed by any other character is discarded,
	      but the other character is printed (don't	rely on	this, as  fur-
	      ther  format characters may be introduced).  A `%' at the	end of
	      the format argument causes undefined behaviour since there is no
	      following	 character.   In  some	locales, it may	hide your door
	      keys, while in others it may remove  the	final  page  from  the
	      novel you	are reading.

	      The  %m and %d directives	support	the # ,	0 and +	flags, but the
	      other directives do not, even if they  print  numbers.   Numeric
	      directives that do not support these flags include G, U, b, D, k
	      and n.  The `-' format flag is supported and changes the	align-
	      ment  of	a field	from right-justified (which is the default) to
	      left-justified.

	      See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES	section	for information	about how  un-
	      usual characters in filenames are	handled.

       -prune True;  if	 the  file  is a directory, do not descend into	it. If
	      -depth is	given, false;  no  effect.   Because  -delete  implies
	      -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and -delete together.

       -quit  Exit  immediately.  No child processes will be left running, but
	      no more paths specified on the command line will	be  processed.
	      For example, find	/tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit will print only
	      /tmp/foo.	 Any command lines which have been built up with  -ex-
	      ecdir  ...  {}  +	 will be invoked before	find exits.   The exit
	      status may or may	not be zero, depending on whether an error has
	      already occurred.

   UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many of the actions of find result in the printing of data which	is un-
       der the control of other	users.	This includes file names, sizes, modi-
       fication	 times and so forth.  File names are a potential problem since
       they can	contain	any character except `\0' and `/'.  Unusual characters
       in  file	 names	can do unexpected and often undesirable	things to your
       terminal	(for example, changing the settings of your function  keys  on
       some terminals).	 Unusual characters are	handled	differently by various
       actions,	as described below.

       -print0,	-fprint0
	      Always print the exact filename, unchanged, even if  the	output
	      is going to a terminal.

       -ls, -fls
	      Unusual  characters are always escaped.  White space, backslash,
	      and double quote characters are printed using  C-style  escaping
	      (for  example `\f', `\"').  Other	unusual	characters are printed
	      using an octal escape.  Other printable characters (for -ls  and
	      -fls  these  are	the characters between octal 041 and 0176) are
	      printed as-is.

       -printf,	-fprintf
	      If the output is not going to a terminal,	it is  printed	as-is.
	      Otherwise, the result depends on which directive is in use.  The
	      directives %D, %F, %g, %G, %H, %Y, and %y	expand to values which
	      are  not	under control of files'	owners,	and so are printed as-
	      is.  The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s,  %t,
	      %u and %U	have values which are under the	control	of files' own-
	      ers but which cannot be used to send arbitrary data to the  ter-
	      minal,  and  so these are	printed	as-is.	The directives %f, %h,
	      %l, %p and %P are	quoted.	 This quoting is performed in the same
	      way  as  for  GNU	ls.  This is not the same quoting mechanism as
	      the one used for -ls and -fls.  If you are able to  decide  what
	      format  to use for the output of find then it is normally	better
	      to use `\0' as a terminator than to use newline, as  file	 names
	      can  contain white space and newline characters.	The setting of
	      the `LC_CTYPE' environment variable is used to  determine	 which
	      characters need to be quoted.

       -print, -fprint
	      Quoting  is handled in the same way as for -printf and -fprintf.
	      If you are using find in a script	or in a	 situation  where  the
	      matched  files  might  have arbitrary names, you should consider
	      using -print0 instead of -print.

       The -ok and -okdir actions print	the current filename as-is.  This  may
       change in a future release.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
	      Force  precedence.   Since parentheses are special to the	shell,
	      you will normally	need to	quote them.  Many of the  examples  in
	      this manual page use backslashes for this	purpose: `\(...\)' in-
	      stead of `(...)'.

       ! expr True if expr is false.  This character will  also	 usually  need
	      protection from interpretation by	the shell.

       -not expr
	      Same as !	expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
	      Two  expressions in a row	are taken to be	joined with an implied
	      "and"; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is	false.

       expr1 -a	expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o	expr2
	      Or; expr2	is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
	      Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
	      List; both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.	The  value  of
	      expr1 is discarded; the value of the list	is the value of	expr2.
	      The comma	operator can be	useful for searching for several  dif-
	      ferent  types  of	thing, but traversing the filesystem hierarchy
	      only once.  The -fprintf action can be used to list the  various
	      matched items into several different output files.

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
       For  closest  compliance	 to  the  POSIX	 standard,  you	should set the
       POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable.  The following options are	speci-
       fied in the POSIX standard (IEEE	Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition):

       -H     This option is supported.

       -L     This option is supported.

       -name  This  option  is supported, but POSIX conformance	depends	on the
	      POSIX conformance	of the system's	fnmatch(3)  library  function.
	      As  of  findutils-4.2.2,	shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]'
	      for example) will	match a	leading	`.', because IEEE PASC	inter-
	      pretation	 126  requires	this.	This is	a change from previous
	      versions of findutils.

       -type  Supported.   POSIX specifies `b',	`c', `d', `l',	`p',  `f'  and
	      `s'.  GNU	find also supports `D',	representing a Door, where the
	      OS provides these.

       -ok    Supported.  Interpretation of the	response is according  to  the
	      "yes"  and  "no"	patterns selected by setting the `LC_MESSAGES'
	      environment variable.  When  the	`POSIXLY_CORRECT'  environment
	      variable is set, these patterns are taken	system's definition of
	      a	positive (yes) or negative (no)	 response.  See	 the  system's
	      documentation  for nl_langinfo(3), in particular YESEXPR and NO-
	      EXPR.    When `POSIXLY_CORRECT' is not set, the patterns are in-
	      stead taken from find's own message catalogue.

       -newer Supported.   If the file specified is a symbolic link, it	is al-
	      ways dereferenced.  This is a change  from  previous  behaviour,
	      which used to take the relevant time from	the symbolic link; see
	      the HISTORY section below.

       -perm  Supported.  If the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable  is  not
	      set,  some mode arguments	(for example +a+x) which are not valid
	      in POSIX are supported for backward-compatibility.

       Other predicates
	      The predicates -atime, -ctime, -depth, -group,  -links,  -mtime,
	      -nogroup,	 -nouser,  -print,  -prune,  -size,  -user  and	 -xdev
	      `-atime',	 `-ctime',  `-depth',  `-group',  `-links',  `-mtime',
	      `-nogroup',  `-nouser',  `-perm',	 `-print',  `-prune', `-size',
	      `-user' and `-xdev', are all supported.

       The POSIX standard specifies parentheses	`(', `)', negation `!' and the
       `and' and `or' operators	( -a, -o).

       All  other options, predicates, expressions and so forth	are extensions
       beyond the POSIX	standard.  Many	of these extensions are	not unique  to
       GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that	find detects loops:

	      The  find	utility	shall detect infinite loops; that is, entering
	      a	previously visited directory that is an	ancestor of  the  last
	      file  encountered.  When it detects an infinite loop, find shall
	      write a diagnostic message to standard error  and	 shall	either
	      recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       GNU  find complies with these requirements.  The	link count of directo-
       ries which contain entries which	are hard links to an ancestor will of-
       ten  be	lower  than  they otherwise should be.	This can mean that GNU
       find will sometimes optimise away the visiting of a subdirectory	 which
       is  actually a link to an ancestor.  Since find does not	actually enter
       such a subdirectory, it is allowed to avoid emitting a diagnostic  mes-
       sage.   Although	 this  behaviour  may be somewhat confusing, it	is un-
       likely that anybody actually depends on this behaviour.	 If  the  leaf
       optimisation has	been turned off	with -noleaf, the directory entry will
       always be examined and the diagnostic message will be issued  where  it
       is appropriate.	Symbolic links cannot be used to create	filesystem cy-
       cles as such, but if the	-L option or the -follow option	is in  use,  a
       diagnostic  message  is	issued when find encounters a loop of symbolic
       links.  As with loops containing	hard links, the	leaf optimisation will
       often  mean  that  find	knows  that  it	doesn't	need to	call stat() or
       chdir() on the symbolic link, so	this diagnostic	is frequently not nec-
       essary.

       The  -d option is supported for compatibility with various BSD systems,
       but you should use the POSIX-compliant option -depth instead.

       The POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable	does not affect	the  behaviour
       of  the -regex or -iregex tests because those tests aren't specified in
       the POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       LANG   Provides a default value for the internationalization  variables
	      that are unset or	null.

       LC_ALL If  set  to a non-empty string value, override the values	of all
	      the other	internationalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE
	      The POSIX	standard specifies that	this variable affects the pat-
	      tern  matching  to be used for the -name option.	 GNU find uses
	      the fnmatch(3) library function, and so support for `LC_COLLATE'
	      depends on the system library.	This variable also affects the
	      interpretation of	the response to	-ok; while  the	 `LC_MESSAGES'
	      variable	selects	 the  actual pattern used to interpret the re-
	      sponse to	-ok, the interpretation	of any bracket expressions  in
	      the pattern will be affected by `LC_COLLATE'.

       LC_CTYPE
	      This variable affects the	treatment of character classes used in
	      regular expressions and also with	the -name test,	 if  the  sys-
	      tem's  fnmatch(3)	library	function supports this.	 This variable
	      also affects the interpretation of any character classes in  the
	      regular expressions used to interpret the	response to the	prompt
	      issued by	-ok.  The `LC_CTYPE' environment  variable  will  also
	      affect  which  characters	 are considered	to be unprintable when
	      filenames	are printed; see the section UNUSUAL FILENAMES.

       LC_MESSAGES
	      Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.
	      If  the `POSIXLY_CORRECT'	environment variable is	set, this also
	      determines the interpretation of the response to the prompt made
	      by the -ok action.

       NLSPATH
	      Determines the location of the internationalisation message cat-
	      alogues.

       PATH   Affects the directories which are	searched to find the  executa-
	      bles invoked by -exec, -execdir, -ok and -okdir.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
	      Determines the block size	used by	-ls and	-fls.  If POSIXLY_COR-
	      RECT is set, blocks are units of 512 bytes.  Otherwise they  are
	      units of 1024 bytes.

	      Setting  this variable also turns	off warning messages (that is,
	      implies -nowarn) by default, because POSIX requires  that	 apart
	      from  the	output for -ok,	all messages printed on	stderr are di-
	      agnostics	and must result	in a non-zero exit status.

	      When POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set, -perm +zzz is treated just like
	      -perm  /zzz  if  +zzz  is	 not  a	 valid	symbolic  mode.	  When
	      POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, such constructs are treated as an	error.

	      When POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, the response	to the prompt made  by
	      the  -ok action is interpreted according to the system's message
	      catalogue, as opposed to according to find's own message	trans-
	      lations.

       TZ     Affects  the  time zone used for some of the time-related	format
	      directives of -printf and	-fprintf.

BINARIES
       The findutils source distribution contains  two	different  implementa-
       tions  of  find.	 The older implementation descends the file system re-
       cursively, while	the newer one uses  fts(3).   Both  are	 normally  in-
       stalled.

       If  the option --without-fts was	passed to configure, the recursive im-
       plementation is installed as find and the fts-based  implementation  is
       installed  as  ftsfind.	Otherwise, the fts-based implementation	is in-
       stalled as find	and  the  recursive  implementation  is	 installed  as
       oldfind.

EXAMPLES
       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.
       Note that this will work	incorrectly if there are  any  filenames  con-
       taining newlines, single	or double quotes, or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them,
       processing filenames in such a way that file or	directory  names  con-
       taining	single or double quotes, spaces	or newlines are	correctly han-
       dled.  The -name	test comes before the -type test  in  order  to	 avoid
       having to call stat(2) on every file.

       find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

       Runs  `file'  on	 every file in or below	the current directory.	Notice
       that the	braces are enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from
       interpretation as shell script punctuation.  The	semicolon is similarly
       protected by the	use of a backslash, though single  quotes  could  have
       been used in that case also.

       find / \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt '%#m %u %p\n' \) ,	\
       \( -size	+100M -fprintf /root/big.txt '%-10s %p\n' \)

       Traverse	the filesystem just once, listing setuid files and directories
       into /root/suid.txt and large files into	/root/big.txt.

       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files	in your	home directory which have been modified	in the
       last  twenty-four  hours.  This command works this way because the time
       since each file was last	modified is divided by 24 hours	 and  any  re-
       mainder	is  discarded.	That means that	to match -mtime	0, a file will
       have to have a modification in the past which is	 less  than  24	 hours
       ago.

       find /sbin /usr/sbin -executable	\! -readable -print

       Search for files	which are executable but not readable.

       find . -perm 664

       Search  for files which have read and write permission for their	owner,
       and group, but which other users	can read  but  not  write  to.	 Files
       which  meet these criteria but have other permissions bits set (for ex-
       ample if	someone	can execute the	file) will not be matched.

       find . -perm -664

       Search for files	which have read	and write permission for  their	 owner
       and  group, and which other users can read, without regard to the pres-
       ence of any extra permission bits (for  example	the  executable	 bit).
       This will match a file which has	mode 0777, for example.

       find . -perm /222

       Search  for files which are writable by somebody	(their owner, or their
       group, or anybody else).

       find . -perm /220
       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
       find . -perm /u=w,g=w

       All three of these commands do the same thing, but the first  one  uses
       the  octal  representation  of the file mode, and the other two use the
       symbolic	form.  These commands all search for files which are  writable
       by  either  their  owner	 or  their  group.  The	files don't have to be
       writable	by both	the owner and group to be matched; either will do.

       find . -perm -220
       find . -perm -g+w,u+w

       Both these commands do the same	thing;	search	for  files  which  are
       writable	by both	their owner and	their group.

       find . -perm -444 -perm /222 ! -perm /111
       find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w ! -perm /a+x

       These  two  commands both search	for files that are readable for	every-
       body ( -perm -444 or -perm -a+r), have at least one  write  bit	set  (
       -perm  /222 or -perm /a+w) but are not executable for anybody ( ! -perm
       /111 and	! -perm	/a+x respectively).

       cd /source-dir
       find . -name .snapshot -prune -o	\( \! -name *~ -print0 \)|
       cpio -pmd0 /dest-dir

       This command copies the contents	of /source-dir to /dest-dir, but omits
       files  and directories named .snapshot (and anything in them).  It also
       omits files or directories whose	name ends in ~,	 but  not  their  con-
       tents.  The construct -prune -o \( ... -print0 \) is quite common.  The
       idea here is that the expression	before -prune matches things which are
       to  be  pruned.	However, the -prune action itself returns true,	so the
       following -o ensures that the right hand	side  is  evaluated  only  for
       those  directories  which didn't	get pruned (the	contents of the	pruned
       directories are not even	visited, so their  contents  are  irrelevant).
       The  expression on the right hand side of the -o	is in parentheses only
       for clarity.  It	emphasises that	the -print0 action  takes  place  only
       for  things  that  didn't have -prune applied to	them.  Because the de-
       fault `and' condition between tests binds more tightly than -o, this is
       the default anyway, but the parentheses help to show what is going on.

       find repo/ -exec	test -d	{}/.svn	\; -or \
       -exec test -d {}/.git \;	-or -exec test -d {}/CVS \; \
       -print -prune

       Given  the following directory of projects and their associated SCM ad-
       ministrative directories, perform an efficient search for the projects'
       roots:

       repo/project1/CVS
       repo/gnu/project2/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/src/.svn
       repo/project4/.git

       In  this	 example, -prune prevents unnecessary descent into directories
       that have already  been	discovered  (for  example  we  do  not	search
       project3/src  because we	already	found project3/.svn), but ensures sib-
       ling directories	(project2 and project3)	are found.

EXIT STATUS
       find exits with status 0	 if  all  files	 are  processed	 successfully,
       greater than 0 if errors	occur.	 This is deliberately a	very broad de-
       scription, but if the return value is non-zero, you should not rely  on
       the correctness of the results of find.

SEE ALSO
       locate(1),  locatedb(5),	 updatedb(1),  xargs(1), chmod(1), fnmatch(3),
       regex(7), stat(2), lstat(2), ls(1), printf(3),  strftime(3),  ctime(3),
       Finding Files (on-line in Info, or printed).

HISTORY
       As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or	`[]' for exam-
       ple) used in filename patterns will match a leading `.',	 because  IEEE
       POSIX interpretation 126	requires this.

       The syntax -perm	+MODE was deprecated in	findutils-4.2.21, in favour of
       -perm /MODE.  As	of findutils-4.3.3, -perm /000 now matches  all	 files
       instead of none.

       Nanosecond-resolution timestamps	were implemented in findutils-4.3.3.

       As of findutils-4.3.11, the -delete action sets find's exit status to a
       nonzero value when it fails.  However, find will	not exit  immediately.
       Previously,  find's  exit  status  was  unaffected  by  the  failure of
       -delete.

       Feature		      Added in	 Also occurs in
       -newerXY		      4.3.3	 BSD
       -D		      4.3.1
       -O		      4.3.1
       -readable	      4.3.0
       -writable	      4.3.0
       -executable	      4.3.0
       -regextype	      4.2.24
       -exec ... +	      4.2.12	 POSIX
       -execdir		      4.2.12	 BSD
       -okdir		      4.2.12
       -samefile	      4.2.11
       -H		      4.2.5	 POSIX
       -L		      4.2.5	 POSIX
       -P		      4.2.5	 BSD
       -delete		      4.2.3
       -quit		      4.2.3

       -d		      4.2.3	 BSD
       -wholename	      4.2.0
       -iwholename	      4.2.0
       -ignore_readdir_race   4.2.0
       -fls		      4.0
       -ilname		      3.8
       -iname		      3.8
       -ipath		      3.8
       -iregex		      3.8

NON-BUGS
       $ find .	-name *.c -print
       find: paths must	precede	expression
       Usage: find [-H]	[-L] [-P] [-Olevel] [-D	help|tree|search|stat|rates|opt|exec] [path...]	[expression]

       This happens because *.c	has been expanded by the  shell	 resulting  in
       find actually receiving a command line like this:

       find . -name bigram.c code.c frcode.c locate.c -print

       That  command  is of course not going to	work.  Instead of doing	things
       this way, you should enclose the	pattern	in quotes or escape the	 wild-
       card:
       $ find .	-name '*.c' -print
       $ find .	-name \*.c -print

BUGS
       There  are  security  problems inherent in the behaviour	that the POSIX
       standard	specifies for find, which therefore cannot be fixed.  For  ex-
       ample,  the -exec action	is inherently insecure,	and -execdir should be
       used instead.  Please see Finding Files for more	information.

       The environment variable	LC_COLLATE has no effect on the	-ok action.

       The best	way to report a	bug  is	 to  use  the  form  at	 http://savan-
       nah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.   The	 reason	 for  this is that you
       will then be able to track progress in fixing the problem.   Other com-
       ments  about  find(1) and about the findutils package in	general	can be
       sent to the bug-findutils mailing list.	To join	the list,  send	 email
       to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.

								       FIND(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | EXPRESSIONS | STANDARDS CONFORMANCE | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | BINARIES | EXAMPLES | EXIT STATUS | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | NON-BUGS | BUGS

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