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file(n)			     Tcl Built-In Commands		       file(n)

______________________________________________________________________________

NAME
       file - Manipulate file names and	attributes

SYNOPSIS
       file option name	?arg arg ...?
______________________________________________________________________________

DESCRIPTION
       This  command  provides	several	 operations  on	 a  file's name	or at-
       tributes.  Name is the name of a	file; if it starts with	a tilde,  then
       tilde substitution is done before executing the command (see the	manual
       entry for filename for details).	 Option	indicates what to do with  the
       file  name.   Any  unique  abbreviation	for option is acceptable.  The
       valid options are:

       file atime name ?time?
	      Returns a	decimal	string giving the time at which	file name  was
	      last  accessed.	If  time is specified, it is an	access time to
	      set for the file.	 The time is measured in  the  standard	 POSIX
	      fashion  as seconds from a fixed starting	time (often January 1,
	      1970).  If the file does not exist or its	access time cannot  be
	      queried or set then an error is generated.  On Windows, FAT file
	      systems do not support access time.

       file attributes name

       file attributes name ?option?

       file attributes name ?option value option value...?
	      This subcommand returns or sets platform specific	values associ-
	      ated  with a file. The first form	returns	a list of the platform
	      specific flags and their values. The  second  form  returns  the
	      value  for  the specific option. The third form sets one or more
	      of the values. The values	are as follows:

	      On Unix, -group gets or sets the group  name  for	 the  file.  A
	      group  id	 can  be  given	to the command,	but it returns a group
	      name. -owner gets	or sets	the user name  of  the	owner  of  the
	      file.  The  command returns the owner name, but the numerical id
	      can be passed when setting the owner. -permissions sets  or  re-
	      trieves  the  octal  code	that chmod(1) uses.  This command does
	      also has limited support for  setting  using  the	 symbolic  at-
	      tributes	for  chmod(1), of the form [ugo]?[[+-=][rwxst],[...]],
	      where multiple symbolic attributes can be	 separated  by	commas
	      (example:	 u+s,go-rw  add	 sticky	 bit for user, remove read and
	      write permissions	for group and other).  A simplified  ls	 style
	      string,  of  the	form rwxrwxrwx (must be	9 characters), is also
	      supported	(example: rwxr-xr-t is equivalent to 01755).  On  ver-
	      sions  of	 Unix supporting file flags, -readonly gives the value
	      or sets or clears	the readonly attribute of the file,  i.e.  the
	      user immutable flag uchg to chflags(1).

	      On  Windows,  -archive gives the value or	sets or	clears the ar-
	      chive attribute of the file. -hidden gives the value or sets  or
	      clears  the  hidden attribute of the file. -longname will	expand
	      each path	element	to its long version. This attribute cannot  be
	      set.  -readonly  gives  the value	or sets	or clears the readonly
	      attribute	of the file. -shortname	gives  a  string  where	 every
	      path  element  is	 replaced  with	its short (8.3)	version	of the
	      name. This attribute cannot be set. -system  gives  or  sets  or
	      clears the value of the system attribute of the file.

	      On  Mac  OS X and	Darwin,	-creator gives or sets the Finder cre-
	      ator type	of the file. -hidden gives or sets or clears the  hid-
	      den attribute of the file. -readonly gives or sets or clears the
	      readonly attribute of the	file. -rsrclength gives	the length  of
	      the resource fork	of the file, this attribute can	only be	set to
	      the value	0, which results in the	resource fork  being  stripped
	      off the file.

       file channels ?pattern?
	      If pattern is not	specified, returns a list of names of all reg-
	      istered open channels in this interpreter.  If pattern is	speci-
	      fied,  only those	names matching pattern are returned.  Matching
	      is determined using the same rules as for	string match.

       file copy ?-force? ?--? source target

       file copy ?-force? ?--? source ?source ...? targetDir
	      The first	form makes a copy of the file or directory source  un-
	      der  the	pathname  target.  If target is	an existing directory,
	      then the second form is used.  The second	form makes a copy  in-
	      side  targetDir  of  each	source file listed.  If	a directory is
	      specified	as a source, then the contents of the  directory  will
	      be recursively copied into targetDir. Existing files will	not be
	      overwritten unless the -force option is specified	(when Tcl will
	      also  attempt  to	 adjust	permissions on the destination file or
	      directory	if that	is necessary to	allow the  copy	 to  proceed).
	      When  copying  within  a	single filesystem, file	copy will copy
	      soft links (i.e.	the  links  themselves	are  copied,  not  the
	      things  they  point to).	Trying to overwrite a non-empty	direc-
	      tory, overwrite a	directory with a file,	or  overwrite  a  file
	      with  a  directory  will all result in errors even if -force was
	      specified.  Arguments are	 processed  in	the  order  specified,
	      halting  at  the	first  error,  if  any.	 A -- marks the	end of
	      switches;	the argument following the -- will  be	treated	 as  a
	      source even if it	starts with a -.

       file delete ?-force? ?--? pathname ?pathname ...	?
	      Removes  the  file or directory specified	by each	pathname argu-
	      ment.  Non-empty directories will	be removed only	if the	-force
	      option  is  specified.   When  operating	on symbolic links, the
	      links themselves will be deleted,	not the	objects	they point to.
	      Trying to	delete a non-existent file is not considered an	error.
	      Trying to	delete a read-only file	will  cause  the  file	to  be
	      deleted,	even  if  the  -force  flags is	not specified.	If the
	      -force option is specified on a directory, Tcl will attempt both
	      to  change  permissions and move the current directory "pwd" out
	      of the given path	if that	is necessary to	allow the deletion  to
	      proceed.	 Arguments are processed in the	order specified, halt-
	      ing at the first error, if any.  A -- marks the end of switches;
	      the argument following the -- will be treated as a pathname even
	      if it starts with	a -.

       file dirname name
	      Returns a	name comprised of all of the path components  in  name
	      excluding	the last element.  If name is a	relative file name and
	      only contains one	path  element,	then  returns  ".".   If  name
	      refers to	a root directory, then the root	directory is returned.
	      For example,
		     file dirname c:/
	      returns c:/.

	      Note that	tilde substitution will	only be	 performed  if	it  is
	      necessary	to complete the	command. For example,
		     file dirname ~/src/foo.c
	      returns ~/src, whereas
		     file dirname ~
	      returns /home (or	something similar).

       file executable name
	      Returns 1	if file	name is	executable by the current user,	0 oth-
	      erwise.

       file exists name
	      Returns 1	if file	name exists and	the current  user  has	search
	      privileges for the directories leading to	it, 0 otherwise.

       file extension name
	      Returns  all  of	the characters in name after and including the
	      last dot in the last element of name.  If	there is no dot	in the
	      last element of name then	returns	the empty string.

       file isdirectory	name
	      Returns 1	if file	name is	a directory, 0 otherwise.

       file isfile name
	      Returns 1	if file	name is	a regular file,	0 otherwise.

       file join name ?name ...?
	      Takes  one  or more file names and combines them,	using the cor-
	      rect path	separator for the current platform.  If	 a  particular
	      name  is	relative,  then	it will	be joined to the previous file
	      name argument.  Otherwise, any earlier arguments	will  be  dis-
	      carded, and joining will proceed from the	current	argument.  For
	      example,
		     file join a b /foo	bar
	      returns /foo/bar.

	      Note that	any of the names can contain separators, and that  the
	      result  is always	canonical for the current platform: / for Unix
	      and Windows.

       file link ?-linktype? linkName ?target?
	      If only one argument is given, that argument is  assumed	to  be
	      linkName,	 and  this command returns the value of	the link given
	      by linkName (i.e.	the name  of  the  file	 it  points  to).   If
	      linkName	is not a link or its value cannot be read (as, for ex-
	      ample, seems to be the case with hard  links,  which  look  just
	      like ordinary files), then an error is returned.

	      If  2 arguments are given, then these are	assumed	to be linkName
	      and target. If linkName already exists, or if  target  does  not
	      exist,  an error will be returned.  Otherwise, Tcl creates a new
	      link called linkName which points	to the existing	filesystem ob-
	      ject  at	target	(which	is also	the returned value), where the
	      type of the link is platform-specific (on	Unix a	symbolic  link
	      will  be	the  default).	 This is useful	for the	case where the
	      user wishes to create a link in a	cross-platform way,  and  does
	      not care what type of link is created.

	      If  the user wishes to make a link of a specific type only, (and
	      signal an	error if for some reason that is not  possible),  then
	      the  optional -linktype argument should be given.	 Accepted val-
	      ues for -linktype	are "-symbolic"	and "-hard".

	      On Unix, symbolic	links can be made to relative paths, and those
	      paths must be relative to	the actual linkName's location (not to
	      the cwd),	but on all other platforms where  relative  links  are
	      not  supported,  target  paths will always be converted to abso-
	      lute, normalized form before the link is created (and  therefore
	      relative	paths  are  interpreted	as relative to the cwd).  Fur-
	      thermore,	"~user"	paths are always expanded  to  absolute	 form.
	      When  creating  links  on	filesystems that either	do not support
	      any links, or do not support the specific	type requested,	an er-
	      ror  message will	be returned.  In particular Windows 95,	98 and
	      ME do not	support	any links at present, but most Unix  platforms
	      support both symbolic and	hard links (the	latter for files only)
	      and Windows NT/2000/XP (on NTFS drives) support symbolic	direc-
	      tory links and hard file links.

       file lstat name varName
	      Same  as	stat  option  (see below) except uses the lstat	kernel
	      call instead of stat.  This means	that if	name refers to a  sym-
	      bolic  link  the information returned in varName is for the link
	      rather than the file it refers to.  On systems that do not  sup-
	      port  symbolic links this	option behaves exactly the same	as the
	      stat option.

       file mkdir dir ?dir ...?
	      Creates each directory specified.	 For each pathname dir	speci-
	      fied,  this command will create all non-existing parent directo-
	      ries as well as dir itself.  If an existing directory is	speci-
	      fied,  then no action is taken and no error is returned.	Trying
	      to overwrite an existing file with a directory will result in an
	      error.   Arguments are processed in the order specified, halting
	      at the first error, if any.

       file mtime name ?time?
	      Returns a	decimal	string giving the time at which	file name  was
	      last  modified.  If time is specified, it	is a modification time
	      to set for the file (equivalent to Unix  touch).	 The  time  is
	      measured	in  the	standard POSIX fashion as seconds from a fixed
	      starting time (often January 1, 1970).  If the file does not ex-
	      ist  or its modified time	cannot be queried or set then an error
	      is generated.

       file nativename name
	      Returns the platform-specific name of the	file. This  is	useful
	      if  the  filename	is needed to pass to a platform-specific call,
	      such as to a subprocess via exec under Windows (see EXAMPLES be-
	      low).

       file normalize name
	      Returns  a  unique  normalized path representation for the file-
	      system object (file, directory, link, etc), whose	 string	 value
	      can be used as a unique identifier for it.  A normalized path is
	      an absolute path which has all "../" and "./" removed.  Also  it
	      is  one  which  is in the	"standard" format for the native plat-
	      form.  On	Unix, this means the segments leading up to  the  path
	      must  be	free of	symbolic links/aliases (but the	very last path
	      component	may be a symbolic link), and on	Windows	it also	 means
	      we  want	the  long form with that form's	case-dependence	(which
	      gives us a unique, case-dependent	path).	The one	exception con-
	      cerning  the  last link in the path is necessary,	because	Tcl or
	      the user may wish	to operate on the actual symbolic link	itself
	      (for  example file delete, file rename, file copy	are defined to
	      operate on symbolic links, not on	the  things  that  they	 point
	      to).

       file owned name
	      Returns  1  if  file name	is owned by the	current	user, 0	other-
	      wise.

       file pathtype name
	      Returns one  of  absolute,  relative,  volumerelative.  If  name
	      refers  to  a  specific file on a	specific volume, the path type
	      will be absolute.	If name	refers to a file relative to the  cur-
	      rent  working directory, then the	path type will be relative. If
	      name refers to a file relative to	the current working  directory
	      on  a  specified	volume,	 or  to	a specific file	on the current
	      working volume, then the path type is volumerelative.

       file readable name
	      Returns 1	if file	name is	readable by the	current	user, 0	other-
	      wise.

       file readlink name
	      Returns  the  value of the symbolic link given by	name (i.e. the
	      name of the file it points to).  If name is not a	symbolic  link
	      or its value cannot be read, then	an error is returned.  On sys-
	      tems that	do not support symbolic	links  this  option  is	 unde-
	      fined.

       file rename ?-force? ?--? source	target

       file rename ?-force? ?--? source	?source	...? targetDir
	      The first	form takes the file or directory specified by pathname
	      source and renames it to target, moving the file if the pathname
	      target  specifies	a name in a different directory.  If target is
	      an existing directory, then the second form is used.  The	second
	      form moves each source file or directory into the	directory tar-
	      getDir. Existing files will not be overwritten unless the	-force
	      option is	specified.  When operating inside a single filesystem,
	      Tcl will rename symbolic links rather than the things that  they
	      point  to.  Trying to overwrite a	non-empty directory, overwrite
	      a	directory with a file, or a file with a	directory will all re-
	      sult in errors.  Arguments are processed in the order specified,
	      halting at the first error, if any.   A  --  marks  the  end  of
	      switches;	 the  argument	following  the -- will be treated as a
	      source even if it	starts with a -.

       file rootname name
	      Returns all of the characters in name up to  but	not  including
	      the  last	 "."  character	in the last component of name.	If the
	      last component of	name does not  contain	a  dot,	 then  returns
	      name.

       file separator ?name?
	      If  no argument is given,	returns	the character which is used to
	      separate path segments for native	files on this platform.	 If  a
	      path is given, the filesystem responsible	for that path is asked
	      to return	its separator character.  If no	 file  system  accepts
	      name, an error is	generated.

       file size name
	      Returns  a decimal string	giving the size	of file	name in	bytes.
	      If the file does not exist or its	size cannot be queried then an
	      error is generated.

       file split name
	      Returns  a  list whose elements are the path components in name.
	      The first	element	of the list will have the same	path  type  as
	      name.   All  other  elements  will be relative.  Path separators
	      will be discarded	unless they are	needed to ensure that an  ele-
	      ment is unambiguously relative.  For example, under Unix
		     file split	/foo/~bar/baz
	      returns  /  foo  ./~bar  baz  to ensure that later commands that
	      use the third component do not attempt to	perform	tilde  substi-
	      tution.

       file stat  name varName
	      Invokes  the  stat  kernel  call	on name, and uses the variable
	      given by varName to hold information returned  from  the	kernel
	      call.   VarName is treated as an array variable, and the follow-
	      ing elements of that variable are	set: atime, ctime,  dev,  gid,
	      ino,  mode,  mtime, nlink, size, type, uid.  Each	element	except
	      type is a	decimal	string with the	 value	of  the	 corresponding
	      field  from  the stat return structure; see the manual entry for
	      stat for details on the meanings of the values.  The  type  ele-
	      ment gives the type of the file in the same form returned	by the
	      command file type.  This command returns an empty	string.

       file system name
	      Returns a	list of	one or two elements, the first of which	is the
	      name  of	the filesystem to use for the file, and	the second, if
	      given, an	arbitrary string representing the  filesystem-specific
	      nature  or  type	of  the	location within	that filesystem.  If a
	      filesystem only supports one type	of file,  the  second  element
	      may  not be supplied.  For example the native files have a first
	      element "native",	and a second element which  when  given	 is  a
	      platform-specific	type name for the file's system	(e.g.  "NTFS",
	      "FAT", on	Windows).  A generic virtual file system might	return
	      the  list	 "vfs  ftp"  to	 represent a file on a remote ftp site
	      mounted as a virtual  filesystem	through	 an  extension	called
	      "vfs".   If the file does	not belong to any filesystem, an error
	      is generated.

       file tail name
	      Returns all of the characters in the last	 filesystem  component
	      of  name.	  Any trailing directory separator in name is ignored.
	      If name contains no separators then returns name.	 So, file tail
	      a/b, file	tail a/b/ and file tail	b all return b.

       file type name
	      Returns a	string giving the type of file name, which will	be one
	      of file, directory, characterSpecial, blockSpecial, fifo,	 link,
	      or socket.

       file volumes
	      Returns the absolute paths to the	volumes	mounted	on the system,
	      as a proper Tcl list.  Without any virtual  filesystems  mounted
	      as  root	volumes,  on UNIX, the command will always return "/",
	      since all	filesystems are	locally	mounted.  On Windows, it  will
	      return  a	 list of the available local drives (e.g.  "a:/	c:/").
	      If any virtual filesystem	has mounted additional	volumes,  they
	      will be in the returned list.

       file writable name
	      Returns 1	if file	name is	writable by the	current	user, 0	other-
	      wise.

PORTABILITY ISSUES
       Unix
	      These commands always operate using  the	real  user  and	 group
	      identifiers, not the effective ones.

EXAMPLES
       This  procedure	shows  how  to search for C files in a given directory
       that have a correspondingly-named object	file in	the current directory:
	      proc findMatchingCFiles {dir} {
		 set files {}
		 switch	$::tcl_platform(platform) {
		    windows {
		       set ext .obj
		    }
		    unix {
		       set ext .o
		    }
		 }
		 foreach file [glob -nocomplain	-directory $dir	*.c] {
		    set	objectFile [file tail [file rootname $file]]$ext
		    if {[file exists $objectFile]} {
		       lappend files $file
		    }
		 }
		 return	$files
	      }

       Rename a	file and leave a symbolic link pointing	from the old  location
       to the new place:
	      set oldName foobar.txt
	      set newName foo/bar.txt
	      #	Make sure that where we're going to move to exists...
	      if {![file isdirectory [file dirname $newName]]} {
		 file mkdir [file dirname $newName]
	      }
	      file rename $oldName $newName
	      file link	-symbolic $oldName $newName

       On  Windows,  a file can	be "started" easily enough (equivalent to dou-
       ble-clicking on it in the Explorer interface) but the  name  passed  to
       the operating system must be in native format:
	      exec {*}[auto_execok start] {} [file nativename ~/example.txt]

SEE ALSO
       filename(n),  open(n),  close(n),  eof(n),  gets(n),  tell(n), seek(n),
       fblocked(n), flush(n)

KEYWORDS
       attributes, copy	files, delete  files,  directory,  file,  move	files,
       name, rename files, stat

Tcl				      8.3			       file(n)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | PORTABILITY ISSUES | EXAMPLES | SEE ALSO | KEYWORDS

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