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EXPECT(1)		    General Commands Manual		     EXPECT(1)

NAME
       expect -	programmed dialogue with interactive programs, Version 5

SYNOPSIS
       expect [	-dDinN ] [ -c cmds ] [ [ -[f|b]	] cmdfile ] [ args ]

INTRODUCTION
       Expect  is a program that "talks" to other interactive programs accord-
       ing to a	script.	 Following the script, Expect knows what  can  be  ex-
       pected  from a program and what the correct response should be.	An in-
       terpreted language provides branching and high-level control structures
       to direct the dialogue.	In addition, the user can take control and in-
       teract directly	when  desired,	afterward  returning  control  to  the
       script.

       Expectk is a mixture of Expect and Tk.  It behaves just like Expect and
       Tk's wish.  Expect can also be used directly in	C  or  C++  (that  is,
       without Tcl).  See libexpect(3).

       The name	"Expect" comes from the	idea of	send/expect sequences popular-
       ized by uucp, kermit and	other modem control programs.  However	unlike
       uucp,  Expect is	generalized so that it can be run as a user-level com-
       mand with any program and task in mind.	Expect can  actually  talk  to
       several programs	at the same time.

       For example, here are some things Expect	can do:

	      o	  Cause	 your computer to dial you back, so that you can login
		  without paying for the call.

	      o	  Start	a game (e.g., rogue) and if the	optimal	 configuration
		  doesn't  appear, restart it (again and again)	until it does,
		  then hand over control to you.

	      o	  Run fsck, and	in response to its  questions,	answer	"yes",
		  "no"	or  give  control  back	to you,	based on predetermined
		  criteria.

	      o	  Connect to another network or	 BBS  (e.g.,  MCI  Mail,  Com-
		  puServe) and automatically retrieve your mail	so that	it ap-
		  pears	as if it was originally	sent to	your local system.

	      o	  Carry	environment variables, current directory, or any  kind
		  of information across	rlogin,	telnet,	tip, su, chgrp,	etc.

       There  are  a  variety  of  reasons  why	the shell cannot perform these
       tasks.  (Try, you'll see.)  All are possible with Expect.

       In general, Expect is useful for	running	any program which requires in-
       teraction  between  the program and the user.  All that is necessary is
       that the	interaction can	be characterized programmatically.  Expect can
       also give the user back control (without	halting	the program being con-
       trolled)	if desired.  Similarly,	the user can  return  control  to  the
       script at any time.

USAGE
       Expect  reads  cmdfile  for  a list of commands to execute.  Expect may
       also be invoked implicitly on systems which support the #! notation  by
       marking	the  script  executable,  and  making  the  first line in your
       script:

	   #!/usr/local/bin/expect -f

       Of course, the  path  must  accurately  describe	 where	Expect	lives.
       /usr/local/bin is just an example.

       The -c flag prefaces a command to be executed before any	in the script.
       The command should be quoted to prevent being broken up by  the	shell.
       This  option may	be used	multiple times.	 Multiple commands may be exe-
       cuted with a single -c by separating them  with	semicolons.   Commands
       are  executed  in the order they	appear.	 (When using Expectk, this op-
       tion is specified as -command.)

       The -d flag enables some	diagnostic output, which primarily reports in-
       ternal activity of commands such	as expect and interact.	 This flag has
       the same	effect as "exp_internal	1"  at	the  beginning	of  an	Expect
       script,	plus the version of Expect is printed.	(The strace command is
       useful for tracing statements, and the  trace  command  is  useful  for
       tracing	variable  assignments.)	  (When	 using Expectk,	this option is
       specified as -diag.)

       The -D flag enables an interactive debugger.  An	integer	 value	should
       follow.	 The  debugger will take control before	the next Tcl procedure
       if the value is non-zero	or if a	^C is pressed (or a breakpoint is hit,
       or  other appropriate debugger command appears in the script).  See the
       README file or SEE ALSO (below) for more	information on	the  debugger.
       (When using Expectk, this option	is specified as	-Debug.)

       The -f flag prefaces a file from	which to read commands from.  The flag
       itself is optional as it	is only	useful when using the #! notation (see
       above),	so  that  other	arguments may be supplied on the command line.
       (When using Expectk, this option	is specified as	-file.)

       By default, the command file is read into memory	and  executed  in  its
       entirety.   It  is  occasionally	 desirable to read files one line at a
       time.  For example, stdin is read this way.  In order  to  force	 arbi-
       trary  files  to	be handled this	way, use the -b	flag.  (When using Ex-
       pectk, this option is specified as -buffer.)  Note that stdio-buffering
       may still take place however this shouldn't cause problems when reading
       from a fifo or stdin.

       If the string "-" is supplied as	a filename, standard input is read in-
       stead.  (Use "./-" to read from a file actually named "-".)

       The  -i flag causes Expect to interactively prompt for commands instead
       of reading them from a file.  Prompting is terminated via the exit com-
       mand or upon EOF.  See interpreter (below) for more information.	 -i is
       assumed if neither a command file nor -c	is used.  (When	using Expectk,
       this option is specified	as -interactive.)

       --  may	be  used to delimit the	end of the options.  This is useful if
       you want	to pass	an option-like argument	to your	script without it  be-
       ing  interpreted	by Expect.  This can usefully be placed	in the #! line
       to prevent any flag-like	interpretation by Expect.   For	 example,  the
       following will leave the	original arguments (including the script name)
       in the variable argv.

	   #!/usr/local/bin/expect --

       Note that the usual getopt(3) and execve(2)  conventions	 must  be  ob-
       served when adding arguments to the #! line.

       The  file  $exp_library/expect.rc  is sourced automatically if present,
       unless the -N flag is used.  (When using	Expectk, this option is	speci-
       fied  as	 -NORC.)   Immediately	after  this,  the file ~/.expect.rc is
       sourced automatically, unless the -n flag is used.  If the  environment
       variable	DOTDIR is defined, it is treated as a directory	and .expect.rc
       is read from there.  (When using	Expectk, this option is	 specified  as
       -norc.)	This sourcing occurs only after	executing any -c flags.

       -v  causes  Expect  to  print its version number	and exit.  (The	corre-
       sponding	flag in	Expectk, which uses long flag names, is	-version.)

       Optional	args are constructed into a list and stored  in	 the  variable
       named argv.  argc is initialized	to the length of argv.

       argv0  is  defined to be	the name of the	script (or binary if no	script
       is used).  For example, the following prints out	the name of the	script
       and the first three arguments:

	   send_user "$argv0 [lrange $argv 0 2]\n"

COMMANDS
       Expect  uses  Tcl  (Tool	 Command Language).  Tcl provides control flow
       (e.g., if, for, break), expression evaluation and  several  other  fea-
       tures such as recursion,	procedure definition, etc.  Commands used here
       but not defined (e.g., set, if, exec) are Tcl  commands	(see  tcl(3)).
       Expect supports additional commands, described below.  Unless otherwise
       specified, commands return the empty string.

       Commands	are listed alphabetically so that they can be quickly located.
       However,	 new users may find it easier to start by reading the descrip-
       tions of	spawn, send, expect, and interact, in that order.

       Note that the best introduction to the language (both Expect  and  Tcl)
       is provided in the book "Exploring Expect" (see SEE ALSO	below).	 Exam-
       ples are	included in this man page but they are very limited since this
       man page	is meant primarily as reference	material.

       Note  that in the text of this man page,	"Expect" with an uppercase "E"
       refers to the Expect program  while  "expect"  with  a  lower-case  "e"
       refers to the expect command within the Expect program.)

       close [-slave] [-onexec 0|1] [-i	spawn_id]
	     closes  the  connection to	the current process.  Most interactive
	     programs will detect EOF on their stdin and exit; thus close usu-
	     ally  suffices to kill the	process	as well.  The -i flag declares
	     the process to close corresponding	to the named spawn_id.

	     Both expect and interact will detect when the current process ex-
	     its  and  implicitly do a close.  But if you kill the process by,
	     say, "exec	kill $pid", you	will need to explicitly	call close.

	     The -onexec flag determines whether the spawn id will  be	closed
	     in	 any new spawned processes or if the process is	overlayed.  To
	     leave a spawn id open, use	the value 0.  A	non-zero integer value
	     will force	the spawn closed (the default) in any new processes.

	     The  -slave  flag	closes the slave associated with the spawn id.
	     (See "spawn -pty".)  When the connection is closed, the slave  is
	     automatically closed as well if still open.

	     No	 matter	whether	the connection is closed implicitly or explic-
	     itly, you should call wait	to clear up the	 corresponding	kernel
	     process slot.  close does not call	wait since there is no guaran-
	     tee that closing a	process	connection will	cause it to exit.  See
	     wait below	for more info.

       debug [[-now] 0|1]
	     controls  a Tcl debugger allowing you to step through statements,
	     set breakpoints, etc.

	     With no arguments,	a 1 is returned	if the debugger	 is  not  run-
	     ning, otherwise a 0 is returned.

	     With  a  1	argument, the debugger is started.  With a 0 argument,
	     the debugger is stopped.  If a 1 argument is preceded by the -now
	     flag, the debugger	is started immediately (i.e., in the middle of
	     the debug command itself).	 Otherwise, the	 debugger  is  started
	     with the next Tcl statement.

	     The  debug	 command  does	not change any traps.  Compare this to
	     starting Expect with the -D flag (see above).

	     See the README file or SEE	ALSO (below) for more  information  on
	     the debugger.

       disconnect
	     disconnects  a  forked  process  from the terminal.  It continues
	     running in	the background.	 The process is	given its own  process
	     group (if possible).  Standard I/O	is redirected to /dev/null.

	     The  following  fragment  uses disconnect to continue running the
	     script in the background.

		 if {[fork]!=0}	exit
		 disconnect
		 . . .

	     The following script reads	a password, and	then  runs  a  program
	     every  hour  that	demands	 a  password each time it is run.  The
	     script supplies the password so that you only  have  to  type  it
	     once.   (See  the stty command which demonstrates how to turn off
	     password echoing.)

		 send_user "password?\ "
		 expect_user -re "(.*)\n"
		 for {}	1 {} {
		     if	{[fork]!=0} {sleep 3600;continue}
		     disconnect
		     spawn priv_prog
		     expect Password:
		     send "$expect_out(1,string)\r"
		     . . .
		     exit
		 }

	     An	advantage to using  disconnect	over  the  shell  asynchronous
	     process  feature (&) is that Expect can save the terminal parame-
	     ters prior	to disconnection, and then later  apply	 them  to  new
	     ptys.   With  &, Expect does not have a chance to read the	termi-
	     nal's parameters since the	terminal is  already  disconnected  by
	     the time Expect receives control.

       exit [-opts] [status]
	     causes Expect to exit or otherwise	prepare	to do so.

	     The  -onexit  flag	causes the next	argument to be used as an exit
	     handler.  Without an argument, the	current	exit  handler  is  re-
	     turned.

	     The  -noexit flag causes Expect to	prepare	to exit	but stop short
	     of	actually returning control to the operating system.  The user-
	     defined exit handler is run as well as Expect's own internal han-
	     dlers.  No	further	Expect commands	should be executed.   This  is
	     useful  if	you are	running	Expect with other Tcl extensions.  The
	     current interpreter (and main window if in	 the  Tk  environment)
	     remain  so	 that  other Tcl extensions can	clean up.  If Expect's
	     exit is called again (however this	might occur), the handlers are
	     not rerun.

	     Upon  exiting,  all  connections to spawned processes are closed.
	     Closure will be detected as an EOF	by  spawned  processes.	  exit
	     takes  no other actions beyond what the normal _exit(2) procedure
	     does.  Thus, spawned processes that do not	check for EOF may con-
	     tinue  to	run.  (A variety of conditions are important to	deter-
	     mining, for example, what signals a spawned process will be sent,
	     but   these  are  system-dependent,  typically  documented	 under
	     exit(3).)	Spawned	processes that continue	to run will be	inher-
	     ited by init.

	     status  (or 0 if not specified) is	returned as the	exit status of
	     Expect.  exit is implicitly executed if the end of	the script  is
	     reached.

       exp_continue [-continue_timer]
	     The command exp_continue allows expect itself to continue execut-
	     ing rather	than  returning	 as  it	 normally  would.  By  default
	     exp_continue  resets  the timeout timer. The -continue_timer flag
	     prevents timer from being restarted. (See expect for more	infor-
	     mation.)

       exp_internal [-f	file] value
	     causes  further  commands to send diagnostic information internal
	     to	Expect to stderr if value is non-zero.	This  output  is  dis-
	     abled  if	value is 0.  The diagnostic information	includes every
	     character received, and every attempt made	to match  the  current
	     output against the	patterns.

	     If	the optional file is supplied, all normal and debugging	output
	     is	written	to that	file (regardless of the	value of value).   Any
	     previous diagnostic output	file is	closed.

	     The -info flag causes exp_internal	to return a description	of the
	     most recent non-info arguments given.

       exp_open	[args] [-i spawn_id]
	     returns a Tcl file	identifier that	corresponds  to	 the  original
	     spawn  id.	  The  file  identifier	can then be used as if it were
	     opened by Tcl's open command.  (The spawn id should no longer  be
	     used.  A wait should not be executed.

	     The  -leaveopen  flag leaves the spawn id open for	access through
	     Expect commands.  A wait must be executed on the spawn id.

       exp_pid [-i spawn_id]
	     returns the process id corresponding  to  the  currently  spawned
	     process.  If the -i flag is used, the pid returned	corresponds to
	     that of the given spawn id.

       exp_send
	     is	an alias for send.

       exp_send_error
	     is	an alias for send_error.

       exp_send_log
	     is	an alias for send_log.

       exp_send_tty
	     is	an alias for send_tty.

       exp_send_user
	     is	an alias for send_user.

       exp_version [[-exit] version]
	     is	useful for assuring that the script  is	 compatible  with  the
	     current version of	Expect.

	     With  no  arguments,  the	current	version	of Expect is returned.
	     This version may then be encoded in your script.  If you actually
	     know  that	you are	not using features of recent versions, you can
	     specify an	earlier	version.

	     Versions consist of three numbers separated by  dots.   First  is
	     the  major	number.	 Scripts written for versions of Expect	with a
	     different major number will almost	certainly not work.   exp_ver-
	     sion returns an error if the major	numbers	do not match.

	     Second is the minor number.  Scripts written for a	version	with a
	     greater minor number than the current  version  may  depend  upon
	     some new feature and might	not run.  exp_version returns an error
	     if	the major numbers  match,  but	the  script  minor  number  is
	     greater than that of the running Expect.

	     Third  is	a number that plays no part in the version comparison.
	     However, it is incremented	when the Expect	software  distribution
	     is	changed	in any way, such as by additional documentation	or op-
	     timization.  It is	reset to 0 upon	each new minor version.

	     With the -exit flag, Expect prints	an error and exits if the ver-
	     sion is out of date.

       expect [[-opts] pat1 body1] ... [-opts] patn [bodyn]
	     waits  until  one of the patterns matches the output of a spawned
	     process, a	specified time period has passed, or an	end-of-file is
	     seen.  If the final body is empty,	it may be omitted.

	     Patterns  from  the most recent expect_before command are implic-
	     itly used before any other	patterns.  Patterns from the most  re-
	     cent  expect_after	 command  are  implicitly used after any other
	     patterns.

	     If	the arguments to the entire expect statement require more than
	     one  line,	 all  the  arguments may be "braced" into one so as to
	     avoid terminating each line with a	backslash.  In this one	 case,
	     the usual Tcl substitutions will occur despite the	braces.

	     If	 a  pattern is the keyword eof,	the corresponding body is exe-
	     cuted upon	end-of-file.  If a pattern is the keyword timeout, the
	     corresponding  body is executed upon timeout.  If no timeout key-
	     word is used, an implicit null action is executed	upon  timeout.
	     The  default timeout period is 10 seconds but may be set, for ex-
	     ample to 30, by the command "set timeout 30".  An infinite	 time-
	     out  may be designated by the value -1.  If a pattern is the key-
	     word default, the corresponding  body  is	executed  upon	either
	     timeout or	end-of-file.

	     If	 a  pattern  matches, then the corresponding body is executed.
	     expect returns the	result of the body (or the empty string	if  no
	     pattern matched).	In the event that multiple patterns match, the
	     one appearing first is used to select a body.

	     Each time new output arrives, it is compared to each  pattern  in
	     the  order	 they are listed.  Thus, you may test for absence of a
	     match by making the last pattern something	guaranteed to  appear,
	     such  as  a  prompt.  In situations where there is	no prompt, you
	     must use timeout (just like you would  if	you  were  interacting
	     manually).

	     Patterns  are  specified in three ways.  By default, patterns are
	     specified as with Tcl's string match command.  (Such patterns are
	     also  similar  to C-shell regular expressions usually referred to
	     as	"glob" patterns).  The -gl flag	may may	 be  used  to  protect
	     patterns  that  might otherwise match expect flags	from doing so.
	     Any pattern beginning with	a "-" should be	 protected  this  way.
	     (All strings starting with	"-" are	reserved for future options.)

	     For example, the following	fragment looks for a successful	login.
	     (Note that	abort is presumed to be	a procedure defined  elsewhere
	     in	the script.)

		 expect	{
		     busy		{puts busy\n ; exp_continue}
		     failed		abort
		     "invalid password"	abort
		     timeout		abort
		     connected
		 }

	     Quotes  are  necessary  on	the fourth pattern since it contains a
	     space, which would	otherwise separate the pattern	from  the  ac-
	     tion.   Patterns  with  the same action (such as the 3rd and 4th)
	     require listing the actions again.	 This can be  avoid  by	 using
	     regexp-style  patterns  (see below).  More	information on forming
	     glob-style	patterns can be	found in the Tcl manual.

	     Regexp-style patterns follow the syntax defined by	 Tcl's	regexp
	     (short  for  "regular  expression") command.  regexp patterns are
	     introduced	with the  flag	-re.   The  previous  example  can  be
	     rewritten using a regexp as:

		 expect	{
		     busy	{puts busy\n ; exp_continue}
		     -re "failed|invalid password" abort
		     timeout	abort
		     connected
		 }

	     Both  types  of  patterns are "unanchored".  This means that pat-
	     terns do not have to match	the entire string, but can  begin  and
	     end  the match anywhere in	the string (as long as everything else
	     matches).	Use ^ to match the beginning of	a  string,  and	 $  to
	     match  the	 end.	Note  that if you do not wait for the end of a
	     string, your responses can	easily end up in  the  middle  of  the
	     string  as	they are echoed	from the spawned process.  While still
	     producing correct results,	the output can look unnatural.	 Thus,
	     use of $ is encouraged if you can exactly describe	the characters
	     at	the end	of a string.

	     Note that in many editors,	the ^ and $ match  the	beginning  and
	     end  of  lines  respectively. However, because expect is not line
	     oriented, these characters	match the beginning  and  end  of  the
	     data  (as opposed to lines) currently in the expect matching buf-
	     fer.  (Also, see the note below on	"system	indigestion.")

	     The -ex flag causes the pattern  to  be  matched  as  an  "exact"
	     string.   No  interpretation  of  *, ^, etc is made (although the
	     usual Tcl conventions must	still be  observed).   Exact  patterns
	     are always	unanchored.

	     The  -nocase  flag	 causes	 uppercase characters of the output to
	     compare as	if they	were lowercase characters.  The	pattern	is not
	     affected.

	     While  reading  output,  more  than  2000 bytes can force earlier
	     bytes to be "forgotten".  This may	be changed with	 the  function
	     match_max.	 (Note that excessively	large values can slow down the
	     pattern matcher.)	If patlist is full_buffer,  the	 corresponding
	     body  is  executed	 if  match_max bytes have been received	and no
	     other patterns have matched.  Whether or not the full_buffer key-
	     word  is  used,  the  forgotten  characters  are  written	to ex-
	     pect_out(buffer).

	     If	patlist	is the keyword null, and nulls are  allowed  (via  the
	     remove_nulls  command),  the  corresponding body is executed if a
	     single ASCII 0 is matched.	 It is not possible to match  0	 bytes
	     via glob or regexp	patterns.

	     Upon matching a pattern (or eof or	full_buffer), any matching and
	     previously	 unmatched  output  is	saved  in  the	variable   ex-
	     pect_out(buffer).	 Up to 9 regexp	substring matches are saved in
	     the variables expect_out(1,string)	through	 expect_out(9,string).
	     If	 the  -indices flag is used before a pattern, the starting and
	     ending indices (in	a form suitable	for lrange) of the 10  strings
	     are   stored   in	 the  variables	 expect_out(X,start)  and  ex-
	     pect_out(X,end) where X is	a digit, corresponds to	the  substring
	     position  in  the	buffer.	 0 refers to strings which matched the
	     entire pattern and	is generated for glob patterns as well as reg-
	     exp  patterns.   For example, if a	process	has produced output of
	     "abcdefgh\n", the result of:

		 expect	"cd"

	     is	as if the following statements had executed:

		 set expect_out(0,string) cd
		 set expect_out(buffer)	abcd

	     and "efgh\n" is left in the output	buffer.	 If a process produced
	     the output	"abbbcabkkkka\n", the result of:

		 expect	-indices -re "b(b*).*(k+)"

	     is	as if the following statements had executed:

		 set expect_out(0,start) 1
		 set expect_out(0,end) 10
		 set expect_out(0,string) bbbcabkkkk
		 set expect_out(1,start) 2
		 set expect_out(1,end) 3
		 set expect_out(1,string) bb
		 set expect_out(2,start) 10
		 set expect_out(2,end) 10
		 set expect_out(2,string) k
		 set expect_out(buffer)	abbbcabkkkk

	     and "a\n" is left in the output buffer.  The pattern "*" (and -re
	     ".*") will	flush the output buffer	without	reading	any more  out-
	     put from the process.

	     Normally,	the matched output is discarded	from Expect's internal
	     buffers.  This may	be prevented by	prefixing a pattern  with  the
	     -notransfer  flag.	 This flag is especially useful	in experiment-
	     ing (and can be abbreviated to "-not" for convenience  while  ex-
	     perimenting).

	     The  spawn	 id  associated	 with  the  matching output (or	eof or
	     full_buffer) is stored in expect_out(spawn_id).

	     The -timeout flag causes the current expect command  to  use  the
	     following	value  as  a timeout instead of	using the value	of the
	     timeout variable.

	     By	default, patterns are matched against output from the  current
	     process,  however	the -i flag declares the output	from the named
	     spawn_id list be matched against any following  patterns  (up  to
	     the  next	-i).   The spawn_id list should	either be a whitespace
	     separated list of spawn_ids or a variable	referring  to  such  a
	     list of spawn_ids.

	     For example, the following	example	waits for "connected" from the
	     current process, or "busy", "failed" or "invalid  password"  from
	     the spawn_id named	by $proc2.

		 expect	{
		     -i	$proc2 busy {puts busy\n ; exp_continue}
		     -re "failed|invalid password" abort
		     timeout abort
		     connected
		 }

	     The  value	 of  the  global  variable any_spawn_id	may be used to
	     match patterns to any spawn_ids that are named with all other  -i
	     flags in the current expect command.  The spawn_id	from a -i flag
	     with no associated	pattern	(i.e., followed	immediately by another
	     -i)  is  made  available to any other patterns in the same	expect
	     command associated	with any_spawn_id.

	     The -i flag may also name a global	variable  in  which  case  the
	     variable is read for a list of spawn ids.	The variable is	reread
	     whenever it changes.  This	provides a way	of  changing  the  I/O
	     source  while  the	 command  is in	execution.  Spawn ids provided
	     this way are called "indirect" spawn ids.

	     Actions such as  break  and  continue  cause  control  structures
	     (i.e.,  for,  proc)  to  behave  in  the  usual way.  The command
	     exp_continue allows expect	itself to  continue  executing	rather
	     than returning as it normally would.

	     This  is  useful  for  avoiding explicit loops or repeated	expect
	     statements.  The following	example	is part	of a fragment to auto-
	     mate  rlogin.   The  exp_continue avoids having to	write a	second
	     expect statement (to look for the prompt  again)  if  the	rlogin
	     prompts for a password.

		 expect	{
		     Password: {
			 stty -echo
			 send_user "password (for $user) on $host: "
			 expect_user -re "(.*)\n"
			 send_user "\n"
			 send "$expect_out(1,string)\r"
			 stty echo
			 exp_continue
		     } incorrect {
			 send_user "invalid password or	account\n"
			 exit
		     } timeout {
			 send_user "connection to $host	timed out\n"
			 exit
		     } eof {
			 send_user \
			     "connection to host failed: $expect_out(buffer)"
			 exit
		     } -re $prompt
		 }

	     For  example,  the	 following fragment might help a user guide an
	     interaction that is already totally automated.  In	this case, the
	     terminal  is put into raw mode.  If the user presses "+", a vari-
	     able is incremented.  If "p" is pressed, several returns are sent
	     to	 the process, perhaps to poke it in some way, and "i" lets the
	     user interact with	the process, effectively stealing away control
	     from  the script.	In each	case, the exp_continue allows the cur-
	     rent expect to continue pattern matching after executing the cur-
	     rent action.

		 stty raw -echo
		 expect_after {
		     -i	$user_spawn_id
		     "p" {send "\r\r\r"; exp_continue}
		     "+" {incr foo; exp_continue}
		     "i" {interact; exp_continue}
		     "quit" exit
		 }

	     By	 default, exp_continue resets the timeout timer.  The timer is
	     not restarted, if exp_continue is called with the -continue_timer
	     flag.

       expect_after [expect_args]
	     works  identically	 to  the expect_before except that if patterns
	     from both expect and expect_after can match, the  expect  pattern
	     is	used.  See the expect_before command for more information.

       expect_background [expect_args]
	     takes  the	 same  arguments as expect, however it returns immedi-
	     ately.  Patterns are tested whenever new input arrives.  The pat-
	     tern timeout and default are meaningless to expect_background and
	     are silently discarded.  Otherwise, the expect_background command
	     uses  expect_before  and  expect_after  patterns just like	expect
	     does.

	     When expect_background actions are	 being	evaluated,  background
	     processing	for the	same spawn id is blocked.  Background process-
	     ing is unblocked when the	action	completes.   While  background
	     processing	is blocked, it is possible to do a (foreground)	expect
	     on	the same spawn id.

	     It	is not possible	to execute an  expect  while  an  expect_back-
	     ground is unblocked.  expect_background for a particular spawn id
	     is	deleted	by declaring a new  expect_background  with  the  same
	     spawn  id.	  Declaring  expect_background with no pattern removes
	     the given spawn id	from the ability  to  match  patterns  in  the
	     background.

       expect_before [expect_args]
	     takes  the	 same  arguments as expect, however it returns immedi-
	     ately.  Pattern-action pairs from the most	 recent	 expect_before
	     with  the same spawn id are implicitly added to any following ex-
	     pect commands.  If	a pattern matches, it is treated as if it  had
	     been  specified  in the expect command itself, and	the associated
	     body is executed in the context of	the expect command.   If  pat-
	     terns  from  both	expect_before  and  expect  can	match, the ex-
	     pect_before pattern is used.

	     If	no pattern is specified, the spawn id is not checked  for  any
	     patterns.

	     Unless  overridden	 by  a	-i  flag, expect_before	patterns match
	     against the spawn id defined at the time that  the	 expect_before
	     command was executed (not when its	pattern	is matched).

	     The  -info	flag causes expect_before to return the	current	speci-
	     fications of what patterns	it will	match.	By default, it reports
	     on	 the current spawn id.	An optional spawn id specification may
	     be	given for information on that spawn id.	 For example

		 expect_before -info -i	$proc

	     At	most one spawn id specification	may be given.  The flag	-indi-
	     rect  suppresses  direct  spawn  ids that come only from indirect
	     specifications.

	     Instead of	a spawn	id specification, the flag "-all"  will	 cause
	     "-info" to	report on all spawn ids.

	     The output	of the -info flag can be reused	as the argument	to ex-
	     pect_before.

       expect_tty [expect_args]
	     is	like expect but	it reads characters from /dev/tty  (i.e.  key-
	     strokes  from  the	 user).	  By  default, reading is performed in
	     cooked mode.  Thus, lines must end	with a return in order for ex-
	     pect  to  see  them.   This may be	changed	via stty (see the stty
	     command below).

       expect_user [expect_args]
	     is	like expect but	it reads  characters  from  stdin  (i.e.  key-
	     strokes  from  the	 user).	  By  default, reading is performed in
	     cooked mode.  Thus, lines must end	with a return in order for ex-
	     pect  to  see  them.   This may be	changed	via stty (see the stty
	     command below).

       fork  creates a new process.  The new process is	an exact copy  of  the
	     current  Expect  process.	 On success, fork returns 0 to the new
	     (child) process and returns the process ID	of the	child  process
	     to	the parent process.  On	failure	(invariably due	to lack	of re-
	     sources, e.g., swap space,	memory), fork returns -1 to the	parent
	     process, and no child process is created.

	     Forked  processes exit via	the exit command, just like the	origi-
	     nal process.  Forked processes are	allowed	to write  to  the  log
	     files.  If	you do not disable debugging or	logging	in most	of the
	     processes,	the result can be confusing.

	     Some pty implementations may be confused by multiple readers  and
	     writers,  even  momentarily.   Thus,  it is safest	to fork	before
	     spawning processes.

       interact	[string1 body1]	... [stringn [bodyn]]
	     gives control of the current process to the user,	so  that  key-
	     strokes  are  sent	 to  the  current  process, and	the stdout and
	     stderr of the current process are returned.

	     String-body pairs may be specified	as arguments,  in  which  case
	     the  body	is  executed when the corresponding string is entered.
	     (By default, the string is	not  sent  to  the  current  process.)
	     The interpreter command is	assumed, if the	final body is missing.

	     If	 the  arguments	 to the	entire interact	statement require more
	     than one line, all	the arguments may be "braced" into one	so  as
	     to	 avoid	terminating  each  line	with a backslash.  In this one
	     case, the usual Tcl substitutions will occur despite the braces.

	     For example, the following	command	runs interact with the follow-
	     ing  string-body  pairs  defined:	 When ^Z is pressed, Expect is
	     suspended.	 (The -reset flag restores the terminal	modes.)	  When
	     ^A	 is  pressed,  the  user  sees "you typed a control-A" and the
	     process is	sent a ^A.  When $ is pressed, the user	sees the date.
	     When  ^C is pressed, Expect exits.	 If "foo" is entered, the user
	     sees "bar".  When ~~ is pressed, the Expect interpreter runs  in-
	     teractively.

		 set CTRLZ \032
		 interact {
		     -reset $CTRLZ {exec kill -STOP [pid]}
		     \001   {send_user "you typed a control-A\n";
			     send "\001"
			    }
		     $	    {send_user "The date is [clock format [clock seconds]]."}
		     \003   exit
		     foo    {send_user "bar"}
		     ~~
		 }

	     In	 string-body  pairs, strings are matched in the	order they are
	     listed as arguments.  Strings that	partially match	are  not  sent
	     to	 the  current process in anticipation of the remainder coming.
	     If	characters are then entered such that there can	no longer pos-
	     sibly be a	match, only the	part of	the string will	be sent	to the
	     process that cannot possibly begin	another	match.	Thus,  strings
	     that  are	substrings  of partial matches can match later,	if the
	     original strings that  was	 attempting  to	 be  match  ultimately
	     fails.

	     By	 default,  string  matching  is	exact with no wild cards.  (In
	     contrast, the expect command  uses	 glob-style  patterns  by  de-
	     fault.)   The -ex flag may	be used	to protect patterns that might
	     otherwise match interact flags from doing so.  Any	pattern	begin-
	     ning  with	 a  "-"	 should	be protected this way.	  (All strings
	     starting with "-" are reserved for	future options.)

	     The -re flag forces the string to be  interpreted	as  a  regexp-
	     style  pattern.   In this case, matching substrings are stored in
	     the variable interact_out similarly to the	way expect stores  its
	     output  in	 the  variable expect_out.  The	-indices flag is simi-
	     larly supported.

	     The pattern eof introduces	an action that is executed  upon  end-
	     of-file.  A separate eof pattern may also follow the -output flag
	     in	which case it is matched if an eof is detected	while  writing
	     output.   The  default  eof  action is "return", so that interact
	     simply returns upon any EOF.

	     The pattern timeout introduces a timeout (in seconds) and	action
	     that  is  executed	after no characters have been read for a given
	     time.  The	timeout	pattern	applies	to the most recently specified
	     process.	There  is  no  default	timeout.  The special variable
	     "timeout" (used by	the expect command)  has  no  affect  on  this
	     timeout.

	     For  example, the following statement could be used to autologout
	     users who have not	typed anything for an hour but who  still  get
	     frequent system messages:

		 interact -input $user_spawn_id	timeout	3600 return -output \
		     $spawn_id

	     If	 the  pattern  is the keyword null, and	nulls are allowed (via
	     the remove_nulls command),	the corresponding body is executed  if
	     a single ASCII 0 is matched.  It is not possible to match 0 bytes
	     via glob or regexp	patterns.

	     Prefacing a pattern with the flag -iwrite causes the variable in-
	     teract_out(spawn_id)  to be set to	the spawn_id which matched the
	     pattern (or eof).

	     Actions such as  break  and  continue  cause  control  structures
	     (i.e.,  for,  proc)  to  behave in	the usual way.	However	return
	     causes interact to	 return	 to  its  caller,  while  inter_return
	     causes interact to	cause a	return in its caller.  For example, if
	     "proc foo"	called interact	which then  executed  the  action  in-
	     ter_return,  proc foo would return.  (This	means that if interact
	     calls interpreter interactively typing return will	cause the  in-
	     teract to continue, while inter_return will cause the interact to
	     return to its caller.)

	     During interact, raw mode is used so that all characters  may  be
	     passed  to	 the current process.  If the current process does not
	     catch job control signals,	it will	stop if	sent a stop signal (by
	     default  ^Z).   To	restart	it, send a continue signal (such as by
	     "kill -CONT <pid>").  If you really want to  send	a  SIGSTOP  to
	     such a process (by	^Z), consider spawning csh first and then run-
	     ning your program.	 On the	other hand, if	you  want  to  send  a
	     SIGSTOP  to Expect	itself,	first call interpreter (perhaps	by us-
	     ing an escape character), and then	press ^Z.

	     String-body pairs can be used as a	shorthand for avoiding	having
	     to	enter the interpreter and execute commands interactively.  The
	     previous terminal mode is used while the body  of	a  string-body
	     pair is being executed.

	     For  speed,  actions  execute in raw mode by default.  The	-reset
	     flag resets the terminal to the mode it had before	 interact  was
	     executed (invariably, cooked mode).  Note that characters entered
	     when the mode is being switched may be lost (an unfortunate  fea-
	     ture of the terminal driver on some systems).  The	only reason to
	     use -reset	is if your action depends on running in	cooked mode.

	     The -echo flag sends characters that match	the following  pattern
	     back  to  the  process  that  generated them as each character is
	     read.  This may be	useful when the	user  needs  to	 see  feedback
	     from partially typed patterns.

	     If	 a  pattern is being echoed but	eventually fails to match, the
	     characters	are sent to  the  spawned  process.   If  the  spawned
	     process then echoes them, the user	will see the characters	twice.
	     -echo is probably only appropriate	in situations where  the  user
	     is	 unlikely  to not complete the pattern.	 For example, the fol-
	     lowing excerpt is from rftp, the recursive-ftp script, where  the
	     user is prompted to enter ~g, ~p, or ~l, to get, put, or list the
	     current directory recursively.  These are so far  away  from  the
	     normal ftp	commands, that the user	is unlikely to type ~ followed
	     by	anything else, except mistakenly, in which case, they'll prob-
	     ably just ignore the result anyway.

		 interact {
		     -echo ~g {getcurdirectory 1}
		     -echo ~l {getcurdirectory 0}
		     -echo ~p {putcurdirectory}
		 }

	     The -nobuffer flag	sends characters that match the	following pat-
	     tern on to	the output process as characters are read.

	     This is useful when you wish to let a program echo	back the  pat-
	     tern.   For example, the following	might be used to monitor where
	     a person is dialing (a Hayes-style	modem).	 Each  time  "atd"  is
	     seen the script logs the rest of the line.

		 proc lognumber	{} {
		     interact -nobuffer	-re "(.*)\r" return
		     puts $log "[clock format [clock seconds]]:	dialed $interact_out(1,string)"
		 }

		 interact -nobuffer "atd" lognumber

	     During interact, previous use of log_user is ignored.  In partic-
	     ular, interact will force its output to be	logged	(sent  to  the
	     standard  output)	since  it is presumed the user doesn't wish to
	     interact blindly.

	     The -o flag causes	any following key-body pairs to	be applied  to
	     the output	of the current process.	 This can be useful, for exam-
	     ple, when dealing with hosts that send unwanted characters	during
	     a telnet session.

	     By	 default,  interact  expects  the user to be writing stdin and
	     reading stdout of the Expect process itself.  The	-u  flag  (for
	     "user")  makes interact look for the user as the process named by
	     its argument (which must be a spawned id).

	     This allows two unrelated processes to be joined together without
	     using  an explicit	loop.  To aid in debugging, Expect diagnostics
	     always go to stderr (or stdout for	certain	logging	and  debugging
	     information).   For the same reason, the interpreter command will
	     read interactively	from stdin.

	     For example, the following	 fragment  creates  a  login  process.
	     Then  it dials the	user (not shown), and finally connects the two
	     together.	Of course, any process may be substituted  for	login.
	     A	shell,	for example, would allow the user to work without sup-
	     plying an account and password.

		 spawn login
		 set login $spawn_id
		 spawn tip modem
		 # dial	back out to user
		 # connect user	to login
		 interact -u $login

	     To	send output to multiple	processes, list	 each  spawn  id  list
	     prefaced  by  a  -output flag.  Input for a group of output spawn
	     ids may be	determined by a	spawn id list  prefaced	 by  a	-input
	     flag.   (Both  -input and -output may take	lists in the same form
	     as	the -i flag in the expect command, except that any_spawn_id is
	     not meaningful in interact.)  All following flags and strings (or
	     patterns) apply to	this input until another -input	flag  appears.
	     If	 no  -input  appears,  -output	implies	"-input	$user_spawn_id
	     -output".	(Similarly, with patterns that do  not	have  -input.)
	     If	 one  -input  is specified, it overrides $user_spawn_id.  If a
	     second -input is specified, it overrides  $spawn_id.   Additional
	     -input flags may be specified.

	     The  two  implied input processes default to having their outputs
	     specified as $spawn_id and	$user_spawn_id	(in  reverse).	 If  a
	     -input  flag  appears  with no -output flag, characters from that
	     process are discarded.

	     The -i flag introduces a replacement  for	the  current  spawn_id
	     when  no  other  -input or	-output	flags are used.	 A -i flag im-
	     plies a -o	flag.

	     It	is possible to change the processes that are being  interacted
	     with  by  using  indirect spawn ids.  (Indirect spawn ids are de-
	     scribed in	the section on the expect  command.)   Indirect	 spawn
	     ids may be	specified with the -i, -u, -input, or -output flags.

       interpreter  [args]
	     causes  the  user to be interactively prompted for	Expect and Tcl
	     commands.	The result of each command is printed.

	     Actions such as  break  and  continue  cause  control  structures
	     (i.e.,  for,  proc)  to  behave in	the usual way.	However	return
	     causes interpreter	to return to its  caller,  while  inter_return
	     causes interpreter	to cause a return in its caller.  For example,
	     if	"proc foo" called interpreter which then executed  the	action
	     inter_return,  proc  foo  would return.  Any other	command	causes
	     interpreter to continue prompting for new commands.

	     By	default, the prompt contains two integers.  The	first  integer
	     describes the depth of the	evaluation stack (i.e.,	how many times
	     Tcl_Eval has been called).	 The second integer is the Tcl history
	     identifier.  The prompt can be set	by defining a procedure	called
	     "prompt1" whose return value  becomes  the	 next  prompt.	 If  a
	     statement	has  open  quotes, parens, braces, or brackets,	a sec-
	     ondary prompt (by default "+> ") is  issued  upon	newline.   The
	     secondary	prompt	may  be	 set  by  defining  a procedure	called
	     "prompt2".

	     During interpreter, cooked	mode is	used, even if the  its	caller
	     was using raw mode.

	     If	 stdin is closed, interpreter will return unless the -eof flag
	     is	used, in which case the	subsequent argument is invoked.

       log_file	[args] [[-a] file]
	     If	a filename is provided,	log_file will record a	transcript  of
	     the session (beginning at that point) in the file.	 log_file will
	     stop recording if no argument is given.  Any previous log file is
	     closed.

	     Instead  of  a filename, a	Tcl file identifier may	be provided by
	     using the -open or	-leaveopen flags.   This  is  similar  to  the
	     spawn command.  (See spawn	for more info.)

	     The -a flag forces	output to be logged that was suppressed	by the
	     log_user command.

	     By	default, the log_file command appends to old files rather than
	     truncating	 them,	for the	convenience of being able to turn log-
	     ging off and on multiple  times  in  one  session.	  To  truncate
	     files, use	the -noappend flag.

	     The  -info	 flag  causes  log_file	to return a description	of the
	     most recent non-info arguments given.

       log_user	-info|0|1
	     By	default, the send/expect dialogue is logged to stdout  (and  a
	     logfile  if open).	 The logging to	stdout is disabled by the com-
	     mand "log_user 0" and reenabled by	"log_user 1".  Logging to  the
	     logfile is	unchanged.

	     The  -info	 flag  causes  log_user	to return a description	of the
	     most recent non-info arguments given.

       match_max [-d] [-i spawn_id] [size]
	     defines the size of the buffer (in	bytes) used internally by  ex-
	     pect.  With no size argument, the current size is returned.

	     With  the -d flag,	the default size is set.  (The initial default
	     is	2000.)	With the -i flag, the size is set for the named	 spawn
	     id, otherwise it is set for the current process.

       overlay [-# spawn_id] [-# spawn_id] [...] program [args]
	     executes  program	args  in  place	of the current Expect program,
	     which terminates.	A bare hyphen  argument	 forces	 a  hyphen  in
	     front  of	the  command  name  as	if  it was a login shell.  All
	     spawn_ids are closed except for those named as arguments.	 These
	     are mapped	onto the named file identifiers.

	     Spawn_ids	are  mapped to file identifiers	for the	new program to
	     inherit.  For example, the	following line runs chess  and	allows
	     it	to be controlled by the	current	process	- say, a chess master.

		 overlay -0 $spawn_id -1 $spawn_id -2 $spawn_id	chess

	     This is more efficient than "interact -u",	however, it sacrifices
	     the ability to do programmed interaction since the	Expect process
	     is	no longer in control.

	     Note that no controlling terminal is provided.  Thus, if you dis-
	     connect or	remap standard input, programs	that  do  job  control
	     (shells, login, etc) will not function properly.

       parity [-d] [-i spawn_id] [value]
	     defines  whether  parity  should be retained or stripped from the
	     output of	spawned	 processes.   If  value	 is  zero,  parity  is
	     stripped,	otherwise it is	not stripped.  With no value argument,
	     the current value is returned.

	     With the -d flag, the default parity value	is set.	 (The  initial
	     default  is  1, i.e., parity is not stripped.)  With the -i flag,
	     the parity	value is set for the named spawn id, otherwise	it  is
	     set for the current process.

       remove_nulls [-d] [-i spawn_id] [value]
	     defines  whether nulls are	retained or removed from the output of
	     spawned processes before pattern matching or storing in the vari-
	     able  expect_out  or  interact_out.  If value is 1, nulls are re-
	     moved.  If	value is 0, nulls are not removed.  With no value  ar-
	     gument, the current value is returned.

	     With the -d flag, the default value is set.  (The initial default
	     is	1, i.e., nulls are removed.)  With the -i flag,	the  value  is
	     set  for  the named spawn id, otherwise it	is set for the current
	     process.

	     Whether or	not nulls are removed, Expect will record  null	 bytes
	     to	the log	and stdout.

       send [-flags] string
	     Sends string to the current process.  For example,	the command

		 send "hello world\r"

	     sends the characters, h e l l o <blank> w o r l d <return>	to the
	     current process.  (Tcl includes  a	 printf-like  command  (called
	     format) which can build arbitrarily complex strings.)

	     Characters	 are  sent  immediately	 although  programs with line-
	     buffered input will not read the characters until a return	 char-
	     acter is sent.  A return character	is denoted "\r".

	     The  --  flag  forces  the	 next  argument	to be interpreted as a
	     string rather than	a flag.	 Any string can	be  preceded  by  "--"
	     whether  or  not  it actually looks like a	flag.  This provides a
	     reliable mechanism	to  specify  variable  strings	without	 being
	     tripped  up  by  those  that  accidentally	look like flags.  (All
	     strings starting with "-" are reserved for	future options.)

	     The -i flag declares  that	 the  string  be  sent	to  the	 named
	     spawn_id.	 If the	spawn_id is user_spawn_id, and the terminal is
	     in	raw mode, newlines in the string are translated	to return-new-
	     line  sequences  so  that	they  appear as	if the terminal	was in
	     cooked mode.  The -raw flag disables this translation.

	     The -null flag sends null characters (0 bytes).  By default,  one
	     null  is  sent.   An integer may follow the -null to indicate how
	     many nulls	to send.

	     The -break	flag generates a break	condition.   This  only	 makes
	     sense  if	the  spawn id refers to	a tty device opened via	"spawn
	     -open".  If you have spawned a process such as  tip,  you	should
	     use tip's convention for generating a break.

	     The  -s  flag  forces  output to be sent "slowly",	thus avoid the
	     common situation where a computer outtypes	an input  buffer  that
	     was designed for a	human who would	never outtype the same buffer.
	     This  output  is  controlled  by  the  value  of	the   variable
	     "send_slow" which takes a two element list.  The first element is
	     an	integer	that describes the number of bytes to send atomically.
	     The  second element is a real number that describes the number of
	     seconds by	which the atomic sends must be separated.   For	 exam-
	     ple,  "set	 send_slow  {10	 .001}"	 would force "send -s" to send
	     strings with 1 millisecond	in between each	10 characters sent.

	     The -h flag forces	output to be sent (somewhat) like a human  ac-
	     tually  typing.  Human-like delays	appear between the characters.
	     (The algorithm is based upon a Weibull distribution, with modifi-
	     cations  to  suit	this  particular application.)	This output is
	     controlled	by the value of	the variable "send_human" which	 takes
	     a five element list.  The first two elements are average interar-
	     rival time	of characters in seconds.  The first is	 used  by  de-
	     fault.   The second is used at word endings, to simulate the sub-
	     tle pauses	that occasionally  occur  at  such  transitions.   The
	     third  parameter  is  a  measure of variability where .1 is quite
	     variable, 1 is reasonably variable, and 10	is  quite  invariable.
	     The extremes are 0	to infinity.  The last two parameters are, re-
	     spectively, a minimum and maximum interarrival time.  The minimum
	     and  maximum  are used last and "clip" the	final time.  The ulti-
	     mate average can be quite different from the given	average	if the
	     minimum and maximum clip enough values.

	     As	 an example, the following command emulates a fast and consis-
	     tent typist:

		 set send_human	{.1 .3 1 .05 2}
		 send -h "I'm hungry.  Let's do	lunch."

	     while the following might be more suitable	after a	hangover:

		 set send_human	{.4 .4 .2 .5 100}
		 send -h "Goodd	party lash night!"

	     Note that errors are not simulated, although you can set up error
	     correction	 situations yourself by	embedding mistakes and correc-
	     tions in a	send argument.

	     The flags for sending null	characters, for	 sending  breaks,  for
	     forcing  slow  output and for human-style output are mutually ex-
	     clusive. Only the one specified last will be  used.  Furthermore,
	     no	 string	 argument  can be specified with the flags for sending
	     null characters or	breaks.

	     It	is a good idea to precede the first send to a  process	by  an
	     expect.   expect  will  wait for the process to start, while send
	     cannot.  In particular, if	the first send	completes  before  the
	     process  starts running, you run the risk of having your data ig-
	     nored.  In	situations where interactive programs offer no initial
	     prompt, you can precede send by a delay as	in:

		 # To avoid giving hackers hints on how	to break in,
		 # this	system does not	prompt for an external password.
		 # Wait	for 5 seconds for exec to complete
		 spawn telnet very.secure.gov
		 sleep 5
		 send password\r

	     exp_send  is an alias for send.  If you are using Expectk or some
	     other variant of Expect in	the Tk environment, send is defined by
	     Tk	 for  an entirely different purpose.  exp_send is provided for
	     compatibility between environments.  Similar aliases are provided
	     for other Expect's	other send commands.

       send_error [-flags] string
	     is	 like  send,  except  that the output is sent to stderr	rather
	     than the current process.

       send_log	[--] string
	     is	like send, except that the string is only sent to the log file
	     (see  log_file.)	The  arguments	are  ignored if	no log file is
	     open.

       send_tty	[-flags] string
	     is	like send, except that the output is sent to  /dev/tty	rather
	     than the current process.

       send_user [-flags] string
	     is	 like  send,  except  that the output is sent to stdout	rather
	     than the current process.

       sleep seconds
	     causes the	script to sleep	for the	given number of	seconds.  Sec-
	     onds  may	be a decimal number.  Interrupts (and Tk events	if you
	     are using Expectk)	are processed while Expect sleeps.

       spawn [args] program [args]
	     creates a new process running program args.   Its	stdin,	stdout
	     and  stderr are connected to Expect, so that they may be read and
	     written by	other Expect commands.	The connection	is  broken  by
	     close  or	if  the	 process itself	closes any of the file identi-
	     fiers.

	     When a process is started by spawn, the variable spawn_id is  set
	     to	a descriptor referring to that process.	 The process described
	     by	spawn_id is considered the current process.  spawn_id  may  be
	     read or written, in effect	providing job control.

	     user_spawn_id  is a global	variable containing a descriptor which
	     refers to the user.  For example, when spawn_id is	 set  to  this
	     value, expect behaves like	expect_user.

	     error_spawn_id is a global	variable containing a descriptor which
	     refers to the standard error.  For	example, when spawn_id is  set
	     to	this value, send behaves like send_error.

	     tty_spawn_id  is  a global	variable containing a descriptor which
	     refers to /dev/tty.  If /dev/tty does not exist  (such  as	 in  a
	     cron,  at,	 or  batch  script), then tty_spawn_id is not defined.
	     This may be tested	as:

		 if {[info vars	tty_spawn_id]} {
		     # /dev/tty	exists
		 } else	{
		     # /dev/tty	doesn't	exist
		     # probably	in cron, batch,	or at script
		 }

	     spawn returns the UNIX process id.	 If no process is  spawned,  0
	     is	 returned.   The  variable spawn_out(slave,name) is set	to the
	     name of the pty slave device.

	     By	default, spawn echoes the command  name	 and  arguments.   The
	     -noecho flag stops	spawn from doing this.

	     The  -console  flag causes	console	output to be redirected	to the
	     spawned process.  This is not supported on	all systems.

	     Internally, spawn uses a pty, initialized the  same  way  as  the
	     user's tty.  This is further initialized so that all settings are
	     "sane" (according to stty(1)).  If	the variable stty_init is  de-
	     fined,  it	 is interpreted	in the style of	stty arguments as fur-
	     ther configuration.  For example, "set stty_init raw" will	 cause
	     further  spawned  processes's  terminals  to  start  in raw mode.
	     -nottycopy	skips the initialization  based	 on  the  user's  tty.
	     -nottyinit	skips the "sane" initialization.

	     Normally,	spawn  takes  little  time  to execute.	 If you	notice
	     spawn taking a significant	amount of time,	it is probably encoun-
	     tering  ptys  that	are wedged.  A number of tests are run on ptys
	     to	avoid entanglements with errant	 processes.   (These  take  10
	     seconds  per wedged pty.)	Running	Expect with the	-d option will
	     show if Expect is encountering many ptys in odd states.   If  you
	     cannot  kill the processes	to which these ptys are	attached, your
	     only recourse may be to reboot.

	     If	program	cannot be spawned successfully because	exec(2)	 fails
	     (e.g.  when  program doesn't exist), an error message will	be re-
	     turned by the next	interact or expect command as if  program  had
	     run and produced the error	message	as output.  This behavior is a
	     natural consequence of the	implementation of spawn.   Internally,
	     spawn forks, after	which the spawned process has no way to	commu-
	     nicate with the original Expect process except  by	 communication
	     via the spawn_id.

	     The  -open	 flag  causes the next argument	to be interpreted as a
	     Tcl file identifier (i.e.,	returned by open.)  The	spawn  id  can
	     then  be used as if it were a spawned process.  (The file identi-
	     fier should no longer be used.)  This lets	you treat raw devices,
	     files, and	pipelines as spawned processes without using a pty.  0
	     is	returned to indicate there is no associated process.  When the
	     connection	 to  the spawned process is closed, so is the Tcl file
	     identifier.  The -leaveopen flag is similar to -open except  that
	     -leaveopen	 causes	the file identifier to be left open even after
	     the spawn id is closed.

	     The -pty flag causes a pty	to be opened but no  process  spawned.
	     0	is  returned  to  indicate  there  is  no  associated process.
	     Spawn_id is set as	usual.

	     The variable spawn_out(slave,fd) is set to	a file identifier cor-
	     responding	 to  the  pty  slave.	It  can	be closed using	"close
	     -slave".

	     The -ignore flag names a signal to	 be  ignored  in  the  spawned
	     process.	Otherwise,  signals get	the default behavior.  Signals
	     are named as in the trap command, except  that  each  signal  re-
	     quires a separate flag.

       strace level
	     causes  following statements to be	printed	before being executed.
	     (Tcl's trace command traces variables.)  level indicates how  far
	     down in the call stack to trace.  For example, the	following com-
	     mand runs Expect while tracing the	first 4	levels of  calls,  but
	     none below	that.

		 expect	-c "strace 4" script.exp

	     The  -info	flag causes strace to return a description of the most
	     recent non-info arguments given.

       stty args
	     changes terminal modes similarly to the external stty command.

	     By	default, the controlling terminal is accessed.	 Other	termi-
	     nals can be accessed by appending "< /dev/tty..." to the command.
	     (Note that	the arguments should not be grouped into a single  ar-
	     gument.)

	     Requests  for  status return it as	the result of the command.  If
	     no	status is requested and	the controlling	terminal is  accessed,
	     the  previous  status of the raw and echo attributes are returned
	     in	a form which can later be used by the command.

	     For example, the arguments	raw or -cooked put the	terminal  into
	     raw  mode.	  The  arguments  -raw or cooked put the terminal into
	     cooked mode.  The arguments echo and -echo	put the	terminal  into
	     echo and noecho mode respectively.

	     The  following  example  illustrates  how	to temporarily disable
	     echoing.  This could be used in  otherwise-automatic  scripts  to
	     avoid  embedding passwords	in them.  (See more discussion on this
	     under EXPECT HINTS	below.)

		 stty -echo
		 send_user "Password: "
		 expect_user -re "(.*)\n"
		 set password $expect_out(1,string)
		 stty echo

       system args
	     gives args	to sh(1) as input, just	as if it had been typed	 as  a
	     command  from  a  terminal.   Expect waits	until the shell	termi-
	     nates.  The return	status from sh is handled the  same  way  that
	     exec handles its return status.

	     In	 contrast  to  exec  which  redirects  stdin and stdout	to the
	     script, system performs no	redirection (other than	that indicated
	     by	 the  string  itself).	 Thus,	it is possible to use programs
	     which must	talk directly to /dev/tty.  For	the same  reason,  the
	     results of	system are not recorded	in the log.

       timestamp [args]
	     returns  a	 timestamp.   With no arguments, the number of seconds
	     since the epoch is	returned.

	     The -format flag introduces a string which	is returned  but  with
	     substitutions  made  according  to	 the POSIX rules for strftime.
	     For example %a is replaced	by an abbreviated weekday name	(i.e.,
	     Sat).  Others are:
		 %a	 abbreviated weekday name
		 %A	 full weekday name
		 %b	 abbreviated month name
		 %B	 full month name
		 %c	 date-time as in: Wed Oct  6 11:45:56 1993
		 %d	 day of	the month (01-31)
		 %H	 hour (00-23)
		 %I	 hour (01-12)
		 %j	 day (001-366)
		 %m	 month (01-12)
		 %M	 minute	(00-59)
		 %p	 am or pm
		 %S	 second	(00-61)
		 %u	 day (1-7, Monday is first day of week)
		 %U	 week (00-53, first Sunday is first day	of week	one)
		 %V	 week (01-53, ISO 8601 style)
		 %w	 day (0-6)
		 %W	 week (00-53, first Monday is first day	of week	one)
		 %x	 date-time as in: Wed Oct  6 1993
		 %X	 time as in: 23:59:59
		 %y	 year (00-99)
		 %Y	 year as in: 1993
		 %Z	 timezone (or nothing if not determinable)
		 %%	 a bare	percent	sign

	     Other  %  specifications are undefined.  Other characters will be
	     passed through untouched.	Only the C locale is supported.

	     The -seconds flag introduces a number of seconds since the	 epoch
	     to	be used	as a source from which to format.  Otherwise, the cur-
	     rent time is used.

	     The -gmt flag forces timestamp output to use  the	GMT  timezone.
	     With no flag, the local timezone is used.

       trap [[command] signals]
	     causes  the  given	 command to be executed	upon future receipt of
	     any of the	given signals.	The command is executed	in the	global
	     scope.   If command is absent, the	signal action is returned.  If
	     command is	the string SIG_IGN, the	signals	are ignored.  If  com-
	     mand  is the string SIG_DFL, the signals are result to the	system
	     default.  signals is either a single signal or a list of signals.
	     Signals  may be specified numerically or symbolically as per sig-
	     nal(3).  The "SIG"	prefix may be omitted.

	     With no arguments (or the argument	 -number),  trap  returns  the
	     signal number of the trap command currently being executed.

	     The  -code	 flag  uses the	return code of the command in place of
	     whatever code Tcl was about to return when	the command originally
	     started running.

	     The -interp flag causes the command to be evaluated using the in-
	     terpreter active at the time the command started  running	rather
	     than when the trap	was declared.

	     The  -name	flag causes the	trap command to	return the signal name
	     of	the trap command currently being executed.

	     The -max flag causes the trap command to return the largest  sig-
	     nal number	that can be set.

	     For  example,  the	command	"trap {send_user "Ouch!"} SIGINT" will
	     print "Ouch!"  each time the user presses ^C.

	     By	default, SIGINT	(which can usually be  generated  by  pressing
	     ^C) and SIGTERM cause Expect to exit.  This is due	to the follow-
	     ing trap, created by default when Expect starts.

		 trap exit {SIGINT SIGTERM}

	     If	you use	the -D flag to start the debugger, SIGINT is redefined
	     to	 start the interactive debugger.  This is due to the following
	     trap:

		 trap {exp_debug 1} SIGINT

	     The debugger trap can be changed by setting the environment vari-
	     able EXPECT_DEBUG_INIT to a new trap command.

	     You  can,	of  course, override both of these just	by adding trap
	     commands to your script.  In particular, if  you  have  your  own
	     "trap  exit  SIGINT", this	will override the debugger trap.  This
	     is	useful if you want to prevent users from getting to the	debug-
	     ger at all.

	     If	 you  want to define your own trap on SIGINT but still trap to
	     the debugger when it is running, use:

		 if {![exp_debug]} {trap mystuff SIGINT}

	     Alternatively, you	can trap to the	debugger using some other sig-
	     nal.

	     trap  will	not let	you override the action	for SIGALRM as this is
	     used internally to	Expect.	 The disconnect	command	 sets  SIGALRM
	     to	 SIG_IGN  (ignore).  You can reenable this as long as you dis-
	     able it during subsequent spawn commands.

	     See signal(3) for more info.

       wait [args]
	     delays until a spawned process (or	the current process if none is
	     named) terminates.

	     wait normally returns a list of four integers.  The first integer
	     is	the pid	of the process that was	waited upon.  The second inte-
	     ger is the	corresponding spawn id.	 The third integer is -1 if an
	     operating system error occurred, or 0 otherwise.	If  the	 third
	     integer  was  0, the fourth integer is the	status returned	by the
	     spawned process.  If the third integer was	-1, the	fourth integer
	     is	 the  value  of	errno set by the operating system.  The	global
	     variable errorCode	is also	set.

	     Additional	elements may appear at the end	of  the	 return	 value
	     from  wait.   An optional fifth element identifies	a class	of in-
	     formation.	 Currently, the	only possible value for	 this  element
	     is	 CHILDKILLED in	which case the next two	values are the C-style
	     signal name and a short textual description.

	     The -i flag declares the process to  wait	corresponding  to  the
	     named  spawn_id  (NOT the process id).  Inside a SIGCHLD handler,
	     it	is possible to wait for	any spawned process by using the spawn
	     id	-1.

	     The  -nowait  flag	causes the wait	to return immediately with the
	     indication	of a successful	wait.  When the	process	exits (later),
	     it	 will automatically disappear without the need for an explicit
	     wait.

	     The wait command may also be used wait for	a forked process using
	     the  arguments  "-i  -1".	Unlike its use with spawned processes,
	     this command can be executed at any time.	There  is  no  control
	     over  which  process is reaped.  However, the return value	can be
	     checked for the process id.

LIBRARIES
       Expect automatically knows about	 two  built-in	libraries  for	Expect
       scripts.	  These	 are defined by	the directories	named in the variables
       exp_library and exp_exec_library.  Both are meant  to  contain  utility
       files that can be used by other scripts.

       exp_library  contains architecture-independent files.  exp_exec_library
       contains	architecture-dependent files.  Depending on your system,  both
       directories   may   be  totally	empty.	 The  existence	 of  the  file
       $exp_exec_library/cat-buffers describes whether your  /bin/cat  buffers
       by default.

PRETTY-PRINTING
       A  vgrind  definition  is available for pretty-printing Expect scripts.
       Assuming	the vgrind definition supplied with the	Expect distribution is
       correctly installed, you	can use	it as:

	   vgrind -lexpect file

EXAMPLES
       It  many	 not  be  apparent how to put everything together that the man
       page describes.	I encourage you	to read	and try	out  the  examples  in
       the  example  directory	of  the	Expect distribution.  Some of them are
       real programs.  Others are simply illustrative of  certain  techniques,
       and  of	course,	a couple are just quick	hacks.	The INSTALL file has a
       quick overview of these programs.

       The Expect papers (see SEE ALSO)	are also useful.   While  some	papers
       use  syntax corresponding to earlier versions of	Expect,	the accompany-
       ing rationales are still	valid and go into a lot	more detail than  this
       man page.

CAVEATS
       Extensions  may collide with Expect's command names.  For example, send
       is defined by Tk	for an entirely	different purpose.  For	 this  reason,
       most of the Expect commands are also available as "exp_XXXX".  Commands
       and variables beginning with "exp", "inter", "spawn", and "timeout"  do
       not have	aliases.  Use the extended command names if you	need this com-
       patibility between environments.

       Expect takes a rather liberal view of scoping.	In  particular,	 vari-
       ables  read  by	commands specific to the Expect	program	will be	sought
       first from the local scope, and if not found, in	the global scope.  For
       example,	this obviates the need to place	"global	timeout" in every pro-
       cedure you write	that uses expect.  On the other	hand, variables	 writ-
       ten  are	 always	in the local scope (unless a "global" command has been
       issued).	 The most common problem this causes is	when spawn is executed
       in  a  procedure.  Outside the procedure, spawn_id no longer exists, so
       the spawned process is no longer	accessible simply because of  scoping.
       Add a "global spawn_id" to such a procedure.

       If  you	cannot	enable the multispawning capability (i.e., your	system
       supports	neither	select (BSD *.*), poll (SVR>2),	nor something  equiva-
       lent),  Expect will only	be able	to control a single process at a time.
       In this case, do	not attempt to set spawn_id, nor  should  you  execute
       processes  via  exec  while a spawned process is	running.  Furthermore,
       you will	not be able to expect from multiple processes  (including  the
       user as one) at the same	time.

       Terminal	 parameters can	have a big effect on scripts.  For example, if
       a script	is written to look for echoing,	it will	misbehave  if  echoing
       is turned off.  For this	reason,	Expect forces sane terminal parameters
       by default.  Unfortunately, this	can make things	unpleasant  for	 other
       programs.   As  an example, the emacs shell wants to change the "usual"
       mappings: newlines get mapped to	newlines  instead  of  carriage-return
       newlines,  and  echoing	is  disabled.  This allows one to use emacs to
       edit the	input line.  Unfortunately, Expect cannot possibly guess this.

       You can request that Expect not override	its default setting of	termi-
       nal  parameters,	but you	must then be very careful when writing scripts
       for such	environments.  In the case  of	emacs,	avoid  depending  upon
       things like echoing and end-of-line mappings.

       The commands that accepted arguments braced into	a single list (the ex-
       pect variants and interact) use a heuristic to decide if	 the  list  is
       actually	one argument or	many.  The heuristic can fail only in the case
       when the	list actually does represent a single argument which has  mul-
       tiple  embedded \n's with non-whitespace	characters between them.  This
       seems sufficiently improbable, however the argument "-nobrace"  can  be
       used  to	 force	a  single argument to be handled as a single argument.
       This could conceivably be  used	with  machine-generated	 Expect	 code.
       Similarly,  -brace  forces  a  single argument to be handle as multiple
       patterns/actions.

BUGS
       It was really tempting to name the program  "sex"  (for	either	"Smart
       EXec"  or  "Send-EXpect"),  but good sense (or perhaps just Puritanism)
       prevailed.

       On some systems,	when a shell is	spawned, it complains about not	 being
       able  to	 access	the tty	but runs anyway.  This means your system has a
       mechanism for gaining the controlling  tty  that	 Expect	 doesn't  know
       about.	Please	find out what it is, and send this information back to
       me.

       Ultrix 4.1 (at least the	latest versions	around here)  considers	 time-
       outs of above 1000000 to	be equivalent to 0.

       Digital	UNIX  4.0A  (and  probably other versions) refuses to allocate
       ptys if you define a SIGCHLD handler.  See grantpt page for more	info.

       IRIX 6.0	does not handle	pty permissions	correctly so  that  if	Expect
       attempts	 to  allocate a	pty previously used by someone else, it	fails.
       Upgrade to IRIX 6.1.

       Telnet (verified	only under SunOS 4.1.2)	hangs  if  TERM	 is  not  set.
       This  is	 a problem under cron, at and in cgi scripts, which do not de-
       fine TERM.  Thus, you must set it explicitly - to what type is  usually
       irrelevant.   It	just has to be set to something!  The following	proba-
       bly suffices for	most cases.

	   set env(TERM) vt100

       Tip (verified only under	BSDI BSD/OS 3.1	i386) hangs if SHELL and  HOME
       are  not	 set.	This  is  a problem under cron,	at and in cgi scripts,
       which do	not define these environment variables.	 Thus,	you  must  set
       them  explicitly	 - to what type	is usually irrelevant.	It just	has to
       be set to something!  The following probably suffices for most cases.

	   set env(SHELL) /bin/sh
	   set env(HOME) /usr/local/bin

       Some implementations of ptys are	designed so  that  the	kernel	throws
       away  any unread	output after 10	to 15 seconds (actual number is	imple-
       mentation-dependent) after the process has closed the file  descriptor.
       Thus Expect programs such as

	   spawn date
	   sleep 20
	   expect

       will  fail.   To	 avoid this, invoke non-interactive programs with exec
       rather than spawn.  While such situations are conceivable, in  practice
       I  have	never  encountered  a situation	in which the final output of a
       truly interactive program would be lost due to this behavior.

       On the other hand, Cray UNICOS ptys throw away any unread output	 imme-
       diately	after  the process has closed the file descriptor.  I have re-
       ported this to Cray and they are	working	on a fix.

       Sometimes a delay is required between a prompt and a response, such  as
       when  a	tty interface is changing UART settings	or matching baud rates
       by looking for start/stop bits.	Usually, all this  is  require	is  to
       sleep  for  a second or two.  A more robust technique is	to retry until
       the hardware is ready to	receive	input.	 The  following	 example  uses
       both strategies:

	   send	"speed 9600\r";
	   sleep 1
	   expect {
	       timeout {send "\r"; exp_continue}
	       $prompt
	   }

       trap  -code  will  not  work  with any command that sits	in Tcl's event
       loop, such as sleep.  The problem is that in the	event loop,  Tcl  dis-
       cards  the  return codes	from async event handlers.  A workaround is to
       set a flag in the trap code.  Then check	the flag immediately after the
       command (i.e., sleep).

       The  expect_background  command	ignores	 -timeout arguments and	has no
       concept of timeouts in general.

EXPECT HINTS
       There are a couple of things about Expect that  may  be	non-intuitive.
       This  section attempts to address some of these things with a couple of
       suggestions.

       A common	expect problem is how to recognize shell prompts.  Since these
       are  customized differently by differently people and different shells,
       portably	automating rlogin can be difficult without knowing the prompt.
       A reasonable convention is to have users	store a	regular	expression de-
       scribing	their prompt (in particular, the end of	it) in the environment
       variable	 EXPECT_PROMPT.	  Code like the	following can be used.	If EX-
       PECT_PROMPT doesn't exist, the code still has a good  chance  of	 func-
       tioning correctly.

	   set prompt "(%|#|\\$) $"	     ;#	default	prompt
	   catch {set prompt $env(EXPECT_PROMPT)}

	   expect -re $prompt

       I  encourage you	to write expect	patterns that include the end of what-
       ever you	expect to see.	This avoids the	 possibility  of  answering  a
       question	 before	 seeing	 the entire thing.  In addition, while you may
       well be able to answer questions	before seeing them  entirely,  if  you
       answer  early,  your answer may appear echoed back in the middle	of the
       question.  In other words, the resulting	dialogue will be  correct  but
       look scrambled.

       Most  prompts  include  a space character at the	end.  For example, the
       prompt from ftp is 'f', 't', 'p',  '>'  and  <blank>.   To  match  this
       prompt,	you must account for each of these characters.	It is a	common
       mistake not to include the blank.  Put the blank	in explicitly.

       If you use a pattern of the form	X*, the	* will match  all  the	output
       received	from the end of	X to the last thing received.  This sounds in-
       tuitive but can be somewhat confusing because the  phrase  "last	 thing
       received"  can  vary  depending	upon the speed of the computer and the
       processing of I/O both by the kernel and	the device driver.

       In particular, humans tend to  see  program  output  arriving  in  huge
       chunks  (atomically)  when  in reality most programs produce output one
       line at a time.	Assuming this is the case, the * in the	pattern	of the
       previous	 paragraph  may	 only  match  the end of the current line even
       though there seems to be	more, because at the time of  the  match  that
       was all the output that had been	received.

       expect  has no way of knowing that further output is coming unless your
       pattern specifically accounts for it.

       Even depending on line-oriented buffering is unwise.  Not only do  pro-
       grams  rarely  make  promises  about the	type of	buffering they do, but
       system indigestion can break output lines up so	that  lines  break  at
       seemingly random	places.	 Thus, if you can express the last few charac-
       ters of a prompt	when writing patterns, it is wise to do	so.

       If you are waiting for a	pattern	in the last output of  a  program  and
       the  program  emits something else instead, you will not	be able	to de-
       tect that with the timeout keyword.  The	reason is that expect will not
       timeout	-  instead  it	will get an eof	indication.  Use that instead.
       Even better, use	both.  That way	if that	line is	ever moved around, you
       won't have to edit the line itself.

       Newlines	 are  usually converted	to carriage return, linefeed sequences
       when output by the terminal driver.  Thus, if you want a	 pattern  that
       explicitly  matches  the	 two lines, from, say, printf("foo\nbar"), you
       should use the pattern "foo\r\nbar".

       A similar translation occurs  when  reading  from  the  user,  via  ex-
       pect_user.   In this case, when you press return, it will be translated
       to a newline.  If Expect	then passes that to a program which  sets  its
       terminal	 to raw	mode (like telnet), there is going to be a problem, as
       the program expects a true return.  (Some programs are actually forgiv-
       ing  in that they will automatically translate newlines to returns, but
       most don't.)  Unfortunately, there is no	way to find out	that a program
       put its terminal	into raw mode.

       Rather  than  manually replacing	newlines with returns, the solution is
       to use the command "stty	raw", which will stop the translation.	 Note,
       however,	 that  this means that you will	no longer get the cooked line-
       editing features.

       interact	implicitly sets	your terminal to raw mode so this problem will
       not arise then.

       It is often useful to store passwords (or other private information) in
       Expect scripts.	This is	not recommended	since anything that is	stored
       on a computer is	susceptible to being accessed by anyone.  Thus,	inter-
       actively	prompting for passwords	from a script is a smarter  idea  than
       embedding them literally.  Nonetheless, sometimes such embedding	is the
       only possibility.

       Unfortunately, the UNIX file system  has	 no  direct  way  of  creating
       scripts	which  are  executable	but unreadable.	 Systems which support
       setgid shell scripts may	indirectly simulate this as follows:

       Create the Expect script	(that contains	the  secret  data)  as	usual.
       Make  its permissions be	750 (-rwxr-x---) and owned by a	trusted	group,
       i.e., a group which is allowed to read it.  If necessary, create	a  new
       group for this purpose.	Next, create a /bin/sh script with permissions
       2751 (-rwxr-s--x) owned by the same group as before.

       The result is a script which may	be  executed  (and  read)  by  anyone.
       When invoked, it	runs the Expect	script.

SEE ALSO
       Tcl(3), libexpect(3)
       "Exploring  Expect: A Tcl-Based Toolkit for Automating Interactive Pro-
       grams" by Don Libes, pp.	602, ISBN 1-56592-090-2,  O'Reilly  and	 Asso-
       ciates, 1995.
       "expect:	 Curing	 Those	Uncontrollable	Fits  of Interactivity"	by Don
       Libes, Proceedings of the Summer	1990 USENIX Conference,	Anaheim, Cali-
       fornia, June 11-15, 1990.
       "Using  expect  to  Automate System Administration Tasks" by Don	Libes,
       Proceedings of the 1990 USENIX Large Installation  Systems  Administra-
       tion Conference,	Colorado Springs, Colorado, October 17-19, 1990.
       "Tcl:  An  Embeddable Command Language" by John Ousterhout, Proceedings
       of the Winter 1990 USENIX Conference, Washington, D.C., January	22-26,
       1990.
       "expect:	 Scripts  for  Controlling Interactive Programs" by Don	Libes,
       Computing Systems, Vol. 4, No. 2, University of California Press	 Jour-
       nals, November 1991.
       "Regression  Testing  and Conformance Testing Interactive Programs", by
       Don Libes, Proceedings  of  the	Summer	1992  USENIX  Conference,  pp.
       135-144,	San Antonio, TX, June 12-15, 1992.
       "Kibitz	-  Connecting  Multiple	Interactive Programs Together",	by Don
       Libes, Software - Practice & Experience,	John Wiley & Sons,  West  Sus-
       sex, England, Vol. 23, No. 5, May, 1993.
       "A  Debugger  for  Tcl  Applications", by Don Libes, Proceedings	of the
       1993 Tcl/Tk Workshop, Berkeley, CA, June	10-11, 1993.

AUTHOR
       Don Libes, National Institute of	Standards and Technology

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
       Thanks to John Ousterhout for Tcl, and Scott Paisley  for  inspiration.
       Thanks to Rob Savoye for	Expect's autoconfiguration code.

       The  HISTORY  file documents much of the	evolution of expect.  It makes
       interesting reading and might give you further insight  to  this	 soft-
       ware.   Thanks  to the people mentioned in it who sent me bug fixes and
       gave other assistance.

       Design and implementation of Expect was paid for	in part	 by  the  U.S.
       government  and	is therefore in	the public domain.  However the	author
       and NIST	would like credit if this program and  documentation  or  por-
       tions of	them are used.

			       29 December 1994			     EXPECT(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | INTRODUCTION | USAGE | COMMANDS | LIBRARIES | PRETTY-PRINTING | EXAMPLES | CAVEATS | BUGS | EXPECT HINTS | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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