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EXIFTOOL(1)	      User Contributed Perl Documentation	   EXIFTOOL(1)

       exiftool	- Read and write meta information in files

       exiftool	[OPTIONS] [-TAG...] [--TAG...] FILE...

       exiftool	[OPTIONS] -TAG[+-<]=[VALUE]... FILE...

       exiftool	[OPTIONS] -tagsFromFile	SRCFILE	[-SRCTAG[>DSTTAG]...] FILE...

       exiftool	[ -ver | -list[w|f|r|wf|g[NUM]|d|x] ]

       For specific examples, see the EXAMPLES sections	below.

       This documentation is displayed if exiftool is run without an input
       FILE when one is	expected.

       A command-line interface	to Image::ExifTool, used for reading and
       writing meta information	in a variety of	file types.  FILE is one or
       more source file	names, directory names,	or "-" for the standard	input.
       Metadata	is read	from source files and printed in readable form to the
       console (or written to output text files	with -w).

       To write	or delete metadata, tag	values are assigned using
       -TAG=[VALUE], and/or the	-geotag, -csv= or -json= options.  To copy or
       move metadata, the -tagsFromFile	feature	is used.  By default the
       original	files are preserved with "_original" appended to their names
       -- be sure to verify that the new files are OK before erasing the
       originals.  Once	in write mode, exiftool	will ignore any	read-specific

       Note:  If FILE is a directory name then only supported file types in
       the directory are processed (in write mode only writable	types are
       processed).  However, files may be specified by name, or	the -ext
       option may be used to force processing of files with any	extension.
       Hidden files in the directory are also processed.  Adding the -r	option
       causes subdirectories to	be processed recursively, but subdirectories
       with names beginning with "." are skipped unless	-r. is used.

       Below is	a list of file types and meta information formats currently
       supported by ExifTool (r	= read,	w = write, c = create):

	 File Types
	 360   r/w   | DPX   r	   | ITC   r	 | ODP	 r     | RIFF  r
	 3FR   r     | DR4   r/w/c | J2C   r	 | ODS	 r     | RSRC  r
	 3G2   r/w   | DSS   r	   | JNG   r/w	 | ODT	 r     | RTF   r
	 3GP   r/w   | DV    r	   | JP2   r/w	 | OFR	 r     | RW2   r/w
	 A     r     | DVB   r/w   | JPEG  r/w	 | OGG	 r     | RWL   r/w
	 AA    r     | DVR-MS r	   | JSON  r	 | OGV	 r     | RWZ   r
	 AAE   r     | DYLIB r	   | K25   r	 | ONP	 r     | RM    r
	 AAX   r/w   | EIP   r	   | KDC   r	 | OPUS	 r     | SEQ   r
	 ACR   r     | EPS   r/w   | KEY   r	 | ORF	 r/w   | SKETCH	r
	 AFM   r     | EPUB  r	   | LA	   r	 | OTF	 r     | SO    r
	 AI    r/w   | ERF   r/w   | LFP   r	 | PAC	 r     | SR2   r/w
	 AIFF  r     | EXE   r	   | LNK   r	 | PAGES r     | SRF   r
	 APE   r     | EXIF  r/w/c | LRV   r/w	 | PBM	 r/w   | SRW   r/w
	 ARQ   r/w   | EXR   r	   | M2TS  r	 | PCD	 r     | SVG   r
	 ARW   r/w   | EXV   r/w/c | M4A/V r/w	 | PCX	 r     | SWF   r
	 ASF   r     | F4A/V r/w   | MACOS r	 | PDB	 r     | THM   r/w
	 AVI   r     | FFF   r/w   | MAX   r	 | PDF	 r/w   | TIFF  r/w
	 AVIF  r/w   | FITS  r	   | MEF   r/w	 | PEF	 r/w   | TORRENT r
	 AZW   r     | FLA   r	   | MIE   r/w/c | PFA	 r     | TTC   r
	 BMP   r     | FLAC  r	   | MIFF  r	 | PFB	 r     | TTF   r
	 BPG   r     | FLIF  r/w   | MKA   r	 | PFM	 r     | TXT   r
	 BTF   r     | FLV   r	   | MKS   r	 | PGF	 r     | VCF   r
	 CHM   r     | FPF   r	   | MKV   r	 | PGM	 r/w   | VRD   r/w/c
	 COS   r     | FPX   r	   | MNG   r/w	 | PLIST r     | VSD   r
	 CR2   r/w   | GIF   r/w   | MOBI  r	 | PICT	 r     | WAV   r
	 CR3   r/w   | GPR   r/w   | MODD  r	 | PMP	 r     | WDP   r/w
	 CRM   r/w   | GZ    r	   | MOI   r	 | PNG	 r/w   | WEBP  r
	 CRW   r/w   | HDP   r/w   | MOS   r/w	 | PPM	 r/w   | WEBM  r
	 CS1   r/w   | HDR   r	   | MOV   r/w	 | PPT	 r     | WMA   r
	 CSV   r     | HEIC  r/w   | MP3   r	 | PPTX	 r     | WMV   r
	 CZI   r     | HEIF  r/w   | MP4   r/w	 | PS	 r/w   | WTV   r
	 DCM   r     | HTML  r	   | MPC   r	 | PSB	 r/w   | WV    r
	 DCP   r/w   | ICC   r/w/c | MPG   r	 | PSD	 r/w   | X3F   r/w
	 DCR   r     | ICS   r	   | MPO   r/w	 | PSP	 r     | XCF   r
	 DFONT r     | IDML  r	   | MQV   r/w	 | QTIF	 r/w   | XLS   r
	 DIVX  r     | IIQ   r/w   | MRW   r/w	 | R3D	 r     | XLSX  r
	 DJVU  r     | IND   r/w   | MXF   r	 | RA	 r     | XMP   r/w/c
	 DLL   r     | INSP  r/w   | NEF   r/w	 | RAF	 r/w   | ZIP   r
	 DNG   r/w   | INSV  r	   | NRW   r/w	 | RAM	 r     |
	 DOC   r     | INX   r	   | NUMBERS r	 | RAR	 r     |
	 DOCX  r     | ISO   r	   | O	   r	 | RAW	 r/w   |

	 Meta Information
	 EXIF		r/w/c  |  CIFF		 r/w  |	 Ricoh RMETA	r
	 GPS		r/w/c  |  AFCP		 r/w  |	 Picture Info	r
	 IPTC		r/w/c  |  Kodak	Meta	 r/w  |	 Adobe APP14	r
	 XMP		r/w/c  |  FotoStation	 r/w  |	 MPF		r
	 MakerNotes	r/w/c  |  PhotoMechanic	 r/w  |	 Stim		r
	 Photoshop IRB	r/w/c  |  JPEG 2000	 r    |	 DPX		r
	 ICC Profile	r/w/c  |  DICOM		 r    |	 APE		r
	 MIE		r/w/c  |  Flash		 r    |	 Vorbis		r
	 JFIF		r/w/c  |  FlashPix	 r    |	 SPIFF		r
	 Ducky APP12	r/w/c  |  QuickTime	 r    |	 DjVu		r
	 PDF		r/w/c  |  Matroska	 r    |	 M2TS		r
	 PNG		r/w/c  |  MXF		 r    |	 PE/COFF	r
	 Canon VRD	r/w/c  |  PrintIM	 r    |	 AVCHD		r
	 Nikon Capture	r/w/c  |  FLAC		 r    |	 ZIP		r
	 GeoTIFF	r/w/c  |  ID3		 r    |	 (and more)

       Case is not significant for any command-line option (including tag and
       group names), except for	single-character options when the
       corresponding upper-case	option exists.	Many single-character options
       have equivalent long-name versions (shown in brackets), and some
       options have inverses which are invoked with a leading double-dash.
       Unrecognized options are	interpreted as tag names (for this reason,
       multiple	single-character options may NOT be combined into one
       argument).  Contrary to standard	practice, options may appear after
       source file names on the	exiftool command line.

   Option Overview
       Tag operations

	 -TAG or --TAG			  Extract or exclude specified tag
	 -TAG[+-^]=[VALUE]		  Write	new value for tag
	 -TAG[+-]<=DATFILE		  Write	tag value from contents	of file
	 -TAG[+-]<SRCTAG		  Copy tag value (see -tagsFromFile)

	 -tagsFromFile SRCFILE		  Copy tag values from file
	 -x TAG	     (-exclude)		  Exclude specified tag

       Input-output text formatting

	 -args	     (-argFormat)	  Format metadata as exiftool arguments
	 -b	     (-binary)		  Output metadata in binary format
	 -c FMT	     (-coordFormat)	  Set format for GPS coordinates
	 -charset [[TYPE=]CHARSET]	  Specify encoding for special characters
	 -csv[[+]=CSVFILE]		  Export/import	tags in	CSV format
	 -csvDelim STR			  Set delimiter	for CSV	file
	 -d FMT	     (-dateFormat)	  Set format for date/time values
	 -D	     (-decimal)		  Show tag ID numbers in decimal
	 -E,-ex,-ec  (-escape(HTML|XML|C))Escape tag values for	HTML, XML or C
	 -f	     (-forcePrint)	  Force	printing of all	specified tags
	 -g[NUM...]  (-groupHeadings)	  Organize output by tag group
	 -G[NUM...]  (-groupNames)	  Print	group name for each tag
	 -h	     (-htmlFormat)	  Use HTML formatting for output
	 -H	     (-hex)		  Show tag ID numbers in hexadecimal
	 -htmlDump[OFFSET]		  Generate HTML-format binary dump
	 -j[[+]=JSONFILE] (-json)	  Export/import	tags in	JSON format
	 -l	     (-long)		  Use long 2-line output format
	 -L	     (-latin)		  Use Windows Latin1 encoding
	 -lang [LANG]			  Set current language
	 -listItem INDEX		  Extract specific item	from a list
	 -n	     (--printConv)	  No print conversion
	 -p FMTFILE  (-printFormat)	  Print	output in specified format
	 -php				  Export tags as a PHP Array
	 -s[NUM]     (-short)		  Short	output format
	 -S	     (-veryShort)	  Very short output format
	 -sep STR    (-separator)	  Set separator	string for list	items
	 -sort				  Sort output alphabetically
	 -struct			  Enable output	of structured information
	 -t	     (-tab)		  Output in tab-delimited list format
	 -T	     (-table)		  Output in tabular format
	 -v[NUM]     (-verbose)		  Print	verbose	messages
	 -w[+|!] EXT (-textOut)		  Write	(or overwrite!)	output text files
	 -W[+|!] FMT (-tagOut)		  Write	output text file for each tag
	 -Wext EXT   (-tagOutExt)	  Write	only specified file types with -W
	 -X	     (-xmlFormat)	  Use RDF/XML output format

       Processing control

	 -a	     (-duplicates)	  Allow	duplicate tags to be extracted
	 -e	     (--composite)	  Do not generate composite tags
	 -ee	     (-extractEmbedded)	  Extract information from embedded files
	 -ext[+] EXT (-extension)	  Process files	with specified extension
	 -F[OFFSET]  (-fixBase)		  Fix the base for maker notes offsets
	 -fast[NUM]			  Increase speed when extracting metadata
	 -fileOrder[NUM] [-]TAG		  Set file processing order
	 -i DIR	     (-ignore)		  Ignore specified directory name
	 -if[NUM] EXPR			  Conditionally	process	files
	 -m	     (-ignoreMinorErrors) Ignore minor errors and warnings
	 -o OUTFILE  (-out)		  Set output file or directory name
	 -overwrite_original		  Overwrite original by	renaming tmp file
	 -overwrite_original_in_place	  Overwrite original by	copying	tmp file
	 -P	     (-preserve)	  Preserve file	modification date/time
	 -password PASSWD		  Password for processing protected files
	 -progress[:[TITLE]]		  Show file progress count
	 -q	     (-quiet)		  Quiet	processing
	 -r[.]	     (-recurse)		  Recursively process subdirectories
	 -scanForXMP			  Brute	force XMP scan
	 -u	     (-unknown)		  Extract unknown tags
	 -U	     (-unknown2)	  Extract unknown binary tags too
	 -wm MODE    (-writeMode)	  Set mode for writing/creating	tags
	 -z	     (-zip)		  Read/write compressed	information

       Other options

	 -@ ARGFILE			  Read command-line arguments from file
	 -k	     (-pause)		  Pause	before terminating
	 -list[w|f|wf|g[NUM]|d|x]	  List various exiftool	capabilities
	 -ver				  Print	exiftool version number
	 --				  End of options

       Special features

	 -geotag TRKFILE		  Geotag images	from specified GPS log
	 -globalTimeShift SHIFT		  Shift	all formatted date/time	values
	 -use MODULE			  Add features from plug-in module


	 -delete_original[!]		  Delete "_original" backups
	 -restore_original		  Restore from "_original" backups

       Advanced	options

	 -api OPT[[^]=[VAL]]		  Set ExifTool API option
	 -common_args			  Define common	arguments
	 -config CFGFILE		  Specify configuration	file name
	 -echo[NUM] TEXT		  Echo text to stdout or stderr
	 -efile[NUM][!]	ERRFILE		  Save names of	files with errors
	 -execute[NUM]			  Execute multiple commands on one line
	 -srcfile FMT			  Process a different source file
	 -stay_open FLAG		  Keep reading -@ argfile even after EOF
	 -userParam PARAM[[^]=[VAL]]	  Set user parameter (API UserParam opt)

   Option Details
       Tag operations

       -TAG Extract information	for the	specified tag (eg. "-CreateDate").
	    Multiple tags may be specified in a	single command.	 A tag name is
	    the	handle by which	a piece	of information is referenced.  See
	    Image::ExifTool::TagNames for documentation	on available tag
	    names.  A tag name may include leading group names separated by
	    colons (eg.	"-EXIF:CreateDate", or "-Doc1:XMP:Creator"), and each
	    group name may be prefixed by a digit to specify family number
	    (eg.  "-1IPTC:City").  Use the -listg option to list available
	    group names	by family.

	    A special tag name of "All"	may be used to indicate	all meta
	    information	(ie. -All).  This is particularly useful when a	group
	    name is specified to extract all information in a group (but
	    beware that	unless the -a option is	also used, some	tags in	the
	    group may be suppressed by same-named tags in other	groups).  The
	    wildcard characters	"?" and	"*" may	be used	in a tag name to match
	    any	single character and zero or more characters respectively.
	    These may not be used in a group name, with	the exception that a
	    group name of "*" (or "All") may be	used to	extract	all instances
	    of a tag (as if -a was used).  Note	that arguments containing
	    wildcards must be quoted on	the command line of most systems to
	    prevent shell globbing.

	    A "#" may be appended to the tag name to disable the print
	    conversion on a per-tag basis (see the -n option).	This may also
	    be used when writing or copying tags.

	    If no tags are specified, all available information	is extracted
	    (as	if "-All" had been specified).

	    Note:  Descriptions, not tag names,	are shown by default when
	    extracting information.  Use the -s	option to see the tag names

	    Exclude specified tag from extracted information.  Same as the -x
	    option.  Group names and wildcards are permitted as	described
	    above for -TAG.  Once excluded from	the output, a tag may not be
	    re-included	by a subsequent	option.	 May also be used following a
	    -tagsFromFile option to exclude tags from being copied (when
	    redirecting	to another tag,	it is the source tag that should be
	    excluded), or to exclude groups from being deleted when deleting
	    all	information (eg. "-all=	--exif:all" deletes all	but EXIF
	    information).  But note that this will not exclude individual tags
	    from a group delete	(unless	a family 2 group is specified, see
	    note 4 below).  Instead, individual	tags may be recovered using
	    the	-tagsFromFile option (eg. "-all= -tagsfromfile @ -artist").

	    Write a new	value for the specified	tag (eg. "-comment=wow"), or
	    delete the tag if no VALUE is given	(eg. "-comment=").  "+=" and
	    "-=" are used to add or remove existing entries from a list, or to
	    shift date/time values (see and note 6
	    below for more details).  "+=" may also be used to increment
	    numerical values (or decrement if VALUE is negative), and "-=" may
	    be used to conditionally delete or replace a tag (see "WRITING
	    EXAMPLES" for examples).  "^=" is used to write an empty string
	    instead of deleting	the tag	when no	VALUE is given,	but otherwise
	    it is equivalent to	"=".

	    TAG	may contain one	or more	leading	family 0, 1, 2 or 7 group
	    names, prefixed by optional	family numbers,	and separated colons.
	    If no group	name is	specified, the tag is created in the preferred
	    group, and updated in any other location where a same-named	tag
	    already exists.  The preferred group is the	first group in the
	    following list where TAG is	valid: 1) EXIF,	2) IPTC, 3) XMP.

	    The	wildcards "*" and "?" may be used in tag names to assign the
	    same value to multiple tags.  When specified with wildcards,
	    "unsafe" tags are not written.  A tag name of "All"	is equivalent
	    to "*" (except that	it doesn't require quoting, while arguments
	    with wildcards do on systems with shell globbing), and is often
	    used when deleting all metadata (ie. "-All=") or an	entire group
	    (eg. "-XMP-dc:All=", see note 4 below).  Note that not all groups
	    are	deletable, and that the	JPEG APP14 "Adobe" group is not
	    removed by default with "-All=" because it may affect the
	    appearance of the image.  However, color space information is
	    removed, so	the colors may be affected (but	this may be avoided by
	    copying back the tags defined by the ColorSpaceTags	shortcut).
	    Use	the -listd option for a	complete list of deletable groups, and
	    see	note 5 below regarding the "APP" groups.  Also,	within an
	    image some groups may be contained within others, and these	groups
	    are	removed	if the containing group	is deleted:

	      JPEG Image:
	      -	Deleting EXIF or IFD0 also deletes ExifIFD, GlobParamIFD,
		GPS, IFD1, InteropIFD, MakerNotes, PrintIM and SubIFD.
	      -	Deleting ExifIFD also deletes InteropIFD and MakerNotes.
	      -	Deleting Photoshop also	deletes	IPTC.

	      TIFF Image:
	      -	Deleting EXIF only removes ExifIFD which also deletes
		InteropIFD and MakerNotes.


	    1) Many tag	values may be assigned in a single command.  If	two
	    assignments	affect the same	tag, the latter	takes precedence
	    (except for	list-type tags,	for which both values are written).

	    2) In general, MakerNotes tags are considered "Permanent", and may
	    be edited but not created or deleted individually.	This avoids
	    many potential problems, including the inevitable compatibility
	    problems with OEM software which may be very inflexible about the
	    information	it expects to find in the maker	notes.

	    3) Changes to PDF files by ExifTool	are reversible (by deleting
	    the	update with "-PDF-update:all=")	because	the original
	    information	is never actually deleted from the file.  So ExifTool
	    alone may not be used to securely edit metadata in PDF files.

	    4) Specifying "-GROUP:all="	deletes	the entire group as a block
	    only if a single family 0 or 1 group is specified.	Otherwise all
	    deletable tags in the specified group(s) are removed individually,
	    and	in this	case is	it possible to exclude individual tags from a
	    mass delete.  For example, "-time:all --Exif:Time:All" removes all
	    deletable Time tags	except those in	the EXIF.  This	difference
	    also applies if family 2 is	specified when deleting	all groups.
	    For	example, "-2all:all=" deletes tags individually, while
	    "-all:all="	deletes	entire blocks.

	    5) The "APP" group names ("APP0" through "APP15") are used to
	    delete JPEG	application segments which are not associated with
	    another deletable group.  For example, specifying "-APP14:All="
	    will NOT delete the	APP14 "Adobe" segment because this is
	    accomplished with "-Adobe:All".

	    6) When shifting a value, the shift	is applied to the original
	    value of the tag, overriding any other values previously assigned
	    to the tag on the same command line.  To shift a date/time value
	    and	copy it	to another tag in the same operation, use the
	    -globalTimeShift option.

	    Special feature:  Integer values may be specified in hexadecimal
	    with a leading "0x", and simple rational values may	be specified
	    as fractions.

       -TAG<=DATFILE or	-TAG<=FMT
	    Set	the value of a tag from	the contents of	file DATFILE.  The
	    file name may also be given	by a FMT string	where %d, %f and %e
	    represent the directory, file name and extension of	the original
	    FILE (see the -w option for	more details).	Note that quotes are
	    required around this argument to prevent shell redirection since
	    it contains	a "<" symbol.  If DATFILE/FMT is not provided, the
	    effect is the same as "-TAG=", and the tag is simply deleted.
	    "+<=" or "-<=" may also be used to add or delete specific list
	    entries, or	to shift date/time values.

       -tagsFromFile SRCFILE or	FMT
	    Copy tag values from SRCFILE to FILE.  Tag names on	the command
	    line after this option specify the tags to be copied, or excluded
	    from the copy.  Wildcards are permitted in these tag names.	 If no
	    tags are specified,	then all possible tags (see note 1 below) from
	    the	source file are	copied to same-named tags in the preferred
	    location of	the output file	(the same as specifying	"-all").  More
	    than one -tagsFromFile option may be used to copy tags from
	    multiple files.

	    By default,	this option will update	any existing and writable
	    same-named tags in the output FILE,	but will create	new tags only
	    in their preferred groups.	This allows some information to	be
	    automatically transferred to the appropriate group when copying
	    between images of different	formats. However, if a group name is
	    specified for a tag	then the information is	written	only to	this
	    group (unless redirected to	another	group, see below).  If "All"
	    is used as a group name, then the specified	tag(s) are written to
	    the	same family 1 group they had in	the source file	(ie. the same
	    specific location, like ExifIFD or XMP-dc).	 For example, the
	    common operation of	copying	all writable tags to the same specific
	    locations in the output FILE is achieved by	adding "-all:all".  A
	    different family may be specified by adding	a leading family
	    number to the group	name (eg. "-0all:all" preserves	the same
	    general location, like EXIF	or XMP).

	    SRCFILE may	be the same as FILE to move information	around within
	    a single file.  In this case, "@" may be used to represent the
	    source file	(ie. "-tagsFromFile @"), permitting this feature to be
	    used for batch processing multiple files.  Specified tags are then
	    copied from	each file in turn as it	is rewritten.  For advanced
	    batch use, the source file name may	also be	specified using	a FMT
	    string in which %d,	%f and %e represent the	directory, file	name
	    and	extension of FILE.  (eg. the current FILE would	be represented
	    by "%d%f.%e", with the same	effect as "@").	 See the -w option for
	    FMT	string examples.

	    A powerful redirection feature allows a destination	tag to be
	    specified for each copied tag.  With this feature, information may
	    be written to a tag	with a different name or group.	 This is done
	    using "'-DSTTAG<SRCTAG'" or	"'-SRCTAG>DSTTAG'" on the command line
	    after -tagsFromFile, and causes the	value of SRCTAG	to be copied
	    from SRCFILE and written to	DSTTAG in FILE.	 Has no	effect unless
	    SRCTAG exists in SRCFILE.  Note that this argument must be quoted
	    to prevent shell redirection, and there is no "=" sign as when
	    assigning new values.  Source and/or destination tags may be
	    prefixed by	a group	name and/or suffixed by	"#".  Wildcards	are
	    allowed in both the	source and destination tag names.  A
	    destination	group and/or tag name of "All" or "*" writes to	the
	    same family	1 group	and/or tag name	as the source.	If no
	    destination	group is specified, the	information is written to the
	    preferred group.  Whitespace around	the ">"	or "<" is ignored. As
	    a convenience, "-tagsFromFile @" is	assumed	for any	redirected
	    tags which are specified without a prior -tagsFromFile option.
	    Copied tags	may also be added or deleted from a list with
	    arguments of the form "'-SRCTAG+<DSTTAG'" or "'-SRCTAG-<DSTTAG'"
	    (but see Note 5 below).

	    An extension of the	redirection feature allows strings involving
	    tag	names to be used on the	right hand side	of the "<" symbol with
	    the	syntax "'-DSTTAG<STR'",	where tag names	in STR are prefixed
	    with a "$" symbol.	See the	-p option and the "Advanced formatting
	    feature" section for more details about this syntax.  Strings
	    starting with a "="	sign must insert a single space	after the "<"
	    to avoid confusion with the	"<=" operator which sets the tag value
	    from the contents of a file.  A single space at the	start of the
	    string is removed if it exists, but	all other whitespace in	the
	    string is preserved.  See note 8 below about using the redirection
	    feature with list-type stags, shortcuts or when using wildcards in
	    tag	names.

	    See	"COPYING EXAMPLES" for examples	using -tagsFromFile.


	    1) Some tags (generally tags which may affect the appearance of
	    the	image) are considered "unsafe" to write, and are only copied
	    if specified explicitly (ie. no wildcards).	 See the tag name
	    documentation for more details about "unsafe" tags.

	    2) Be aware	of the difference between excluding a tag from being
	    copied (--TAG), and	deleting a tag (-TAG=).	 Excluding a tag
	    prevents it	from being copied to the destination image, but
	    deleting will remove a pre-existing	tag from the image.

	    3) The maker note information is copied as a block,	so it isn't
	    affected like other	information by subsequent tag assignments on
	    the	command	line, and individual makernote tags may	not be
	    excluded from a block copy.	 Also, since the PreviewImage
	    referenced from the	maker notes may	be rather large, it is not
	    copied, and	must be	transferred separately if desired.

	    4) The order of operations is to copy all specified	tags at	the
	    point of the -tagsFromFile option in the command line.  Any	tag
	    assignment to the right of the -tagsFromFile option	is made	after
	    all	tags are copied.  For example, new tag values are set in the
	    order One, Two, Three then Four with this command:

		exiftool -One=1	-tagsFromFile s.jpg -Two -Four=4 -Three	d.jpg

	    This is significant	in the case where an overlap exists between
	    the	copied and assigned tags because later operations may override
	    earlier ones.

	    5) The normal behaviour of copied tags differs from	that of
	    assigned tags for list-type	tags and conditional replacements
	    because each copy operation	on a tag overrides any previous
	    operations.	 While this avoids duplicate list items	when copying
	    groups of tags from	a file containing redundant information, it
	    also prevents values of different tags from	being copied into the
	    same list when this	is the intent.	So a -addTagsFromFile option
	    is provided	which allows copying of	multiple tags into the same
	    list.  eg)

		exiftool -addtagsfromfile @ '-subject<make' '-subject<model' ...

	    Similarly, -addTagsFromFile	must be	used when conditionally
	    replacing a	tag to prevent overriding earlier conditions.

	    Other than these differences, the -tagsFromFile and
	    -addTagsFromFile options are equivalent.

	    6) The -a option (allow duplicate tags) is always in effect	when
	    copying tags from SRCFILE, but the highest priority	tag is always
	    copied last	so it takes precedence.

	    7) Structured tags are copied by default when copying tags.	 See
	    the	-struct	option for details.

	    8) With the	redirection feature, copying a tag directly (ie.
	    "'-DSTTAG<SRCTAG'")	is not the same	as interpolating its value
	    inside a string (ie. "'-DSTTAG<$SRCTAG'") for list-type tags,
	    shortcut tags, tag names containing	wildcards, or UserParam
	    variables.	When copying directly, the values of each matching
	    source tag are copied individually to the destination tag (as if
	    they were separate assignments).  However, when interpolated
	    inside a string, list items	and the	values of shortcut tags	are
	    concatenated (with a separator set by the -sep option), and
	    wildcards are not allowed.	Also, UserParam	variables are
	    available only when	interpolated in	a string.  Another difference
	    is that a minor warning is generated if a tag doesn't exist	when
	    interpolating its value in a string	(with "$"), but	isn't when
	    copying the	tag directly.

	    Finally, the behaviour is different	when a destination tag or
	    group of "All" is used.  When copying directly, a destination
	    group and/or tag name of "All" writes to the same family 1 group
	    and/or tag name as the source.  But	when interpolated in a string,
	    the	identity of the	source tags are	lost and the value is written
	    to all possible groups/tags.  For example, the string form must be
	    used in the	following command since	the intent is to set the value
	    of all existing date/time tags from	"CreateDate":

		exiftool "-time:all<$createdate" -wm w FILE

       -x TAG (-exclude)
	    Exclude the	specified tag.	There may be multiple -x options.
	    This has the same effect as	--TAG on the command line.  See	the
	    --TAG documentation	above for a complete description.

       Input-output text formatting

       Note that trailing spaces are removed from extracted values for most
       output text formats.  The exceptions are	"-b", "-csv", "-j" and "-X".

       -args (-argFormat)
	    Output information in the form of exiftool arguments, suitable for
	    use	with the -@ option when	writing.  May be combined with the -G
	    option to include group names.  This feature may be	used to
	    effectively	copy tags between images, but allows the metadata to
	    be altered by editing the intermediate file	("out.args" in this

		exiftool -args -G1 --filename --directory src.jpg > out.args
		exiftool -@ out.args -sep ", " dst.jpg

	    Note:  Be careful when copying information with this technique
	    since it is	easy to	write tags which are normally considered
	    "unsafe".  For instance, the FileName and Directory	tags are
	    excluded in	the example above to avoid renaming and	moving the
	    destination	file.  Also note that the second command above will
	    produce warning messages for any tags which	are not	writable.

	    As well, the -sep option should be used as in the second command
	    above to maintain separate list items when writing metadata	back
	    to image files, and	the -struct option may be used when extracting
	    to preserve	structured XMP information.

       -b (-binary)
	    Output requested metadata in binary	format without tag names or
	    descriptions.  This	option is mainly used for extracting embedded
	    images or other binary data, but it	may also be useful for some
	    text strings since control characters (such	as newlines) are not
	    replaced by	'.' as they are	in the default output.	By default,
	    list items are separated by	a newline when extracted with the -b
	    option, but	this may be changed (see the -sep option for details).
	    May	be combined with "-j", "-php" or "-X" to extract binary	data
	    in JSON, PHP or XML	format,	but note that "unsafe" tags must be
	    specified explicitly to be extracted as binary in these formats.

       -c FMT (-coordFormat)
	    Set	the print format for GPS coordinates.  FMT uses	the same
	    syntax as a	"printf" format	string.	 The specifiers	correspond to
	    degrees, minutes and seconds in that order,	but minutes and
	    seconds are	optional.  For example,	the following table gives the
	    output for the same	coordinate using various formats:

			FMT		     Output
		-------------------    ------------------
		"%d deg	%d' %.2f"\"    54 deg 59' 22.80"  (default for reading)
		"%d %d %.8f"	       54 59 22.80000000  (default for copying)
		"%d deg	%.4f min"      54 deg 59.3800 min
		"%.6f degrees"	       54.989667 degrees


	    1) To avoid	loss of	precision, the default coordinate format is
	    different when copying tags	using the -tagsFromFile	option.

	    2) If the hemisphere is known, a reference direction (N, S,	E or
	    W) is appended to each printed coordinate, but adding a "+"	to the
	    format specifier (eg. "%+.6f") prints a signed coordinate instead.

	    3) This print formatting may be disabled with the -n option	to
	    extract coordinates	as signed decimal degrees.

       -charset	[[TYPE=]CHARSET]
	    If TYPE is "ExifTool" or not specified, this option	sets the
	    ExifTool character encoding	for output tag values when reading and
	    input values when writing, with a default of "UTF8".  If no
	    CHARSET is given, a	list of	available character sets is returned.
	    Valid CHARSET values are:

		CHARSET	    Alias(es)	     Description
		----------  ---------------  ----------------------------------
		UTF8	    cp65001, UTF-8   UTF-8 characters (default)
		Latin	    cp1252, Latin1   Windows Latin1 (West European)
		Latin2	    cp1250	     Windows Latin2 (Central European)
		Cyrillic    cp1251, Russian  Windows Cyrillic
		Greek	    cp1253	     Windows Greek
		Turkish	    cp1254	     Windows Turkish
		Hebrew	    cp1255	     Windows Hebrew
		Arabic	    cp1256	     Windows Arabic
		Baltic	    cp1257	     Windows Baltic
		Vietnam	    cp1258	     Windows Vietnamese
		Thai	    cp874	     Windows Thai
		DOSLatinUS  cp437	     DOS Latin US
		DOSLatin1   cp850	     DOS Latin1
		DOSCyrillic cp866	     DOS Cyrillic
		MacRoman    cp10000, Roman   Macintosh Roman
		MacLatin2   cp10029	     Macintosh Latin2 (Central Europe)
		MacCyrillic cp10007	     Macintosh Cyrillic
		MacGreek    cp10006	     Macintosh Greek
		MacTurkish  cp10081	     Macintosh Turkish
		MacRomanian cp10010	     Macintosh Romanian
		MacIceland  cp10079	     Macintosh Icelandic
		MacCroatian cp10082	     Macintosh Croatian

	    TYPE may be	"FileName" to specify the encoding of file names on
	    the	command	line (ie. FILE arguments).  In Windows,	this triggers
	    use	of wide-character i/o routines,	thus providing support for
	    Unicode file names.	 See the "WINDOWS UNICODE FILE NAMES" section
	    below for details.

	    Other values of TYPE listed	below are used to specify the internal
	    encoding of	various	meta information formats.

		TYPE	   Description					Default
		---------  -------------------------------------------	-------
		EXIF	   Internal encoding of	EXIF "ASCII" strings	(none)
		ID3	   Internal encoding of	ID3v1 information	Latin
		IPTC	   Internal IPTC encoding to assume when	Latin
			    IPTC:CodedCharacterSet is not defined
		Photoshop  Internal encoding of	Photoshop IRB strings	Latin
		QuickTime  Internal encoding of	QuickTime strings	MacRoman
		RIFF	   Internal encoding of	RIFF strings		0

	    See	<> for	more information about
	    coded character sets, and the Image::ExifTool Options for more
	    details about the -charset settings.

	    Export information in CSV format, or import	information if CSVFILE
	    is specified.  When	importing, the CSV file	must be	in exactly the
	    same format	as the exported	file.  The first row of	the CSVFILE
	    must be the	ExifTool tag names (with optional group	names) for
	    each column	of the file, and values	must be	separated by commas.
	    A special "SourceFile" column specifies the	files associated with
	    each row of	information (and a SourceFile of "*" may be used to
	    define default tags	to be imported for all files which are
	    combined with any tags specified for the specific SourceFile
	    processed).	The -csvDelim option may be used to change the
	    input/output field delimiter if something other than a comma is

	    The	following examples demonstrate basic use of the	-csv option:

		# generate CSV file with common	tags from all images in	a directory
		exiftool -common -csv dir > out.csv

		# update metadata for all images in a directory	from CSV file
		exiftool -csv=a.csv dir

	    Empty values are ignored when importing (unless the	-f option is
	    used and the API MissingTagValue is	set to an empty	string,	in
	    which case the tag is deleted).  Also, FileName and	Directory
	    columns are	ignored	if they	exist (ie. ExifTool will not attempt
	    to write these tags	with a CSV import).  To	force a	tag to be
	    deleted, use the -f	option and set the value to "-"	in the CSV
	    file (or to	the MissingTagValue if this API	option was used).
	    Multiple databases may be imported in a single command.

	    When exporting a CSV file, the -g or -G option adds	group names to
	    the	tag headings.  If the -a option	is used	to allow duplicate tag
	    names, the duplicate tags are only included	in the CSV output if
	    the	column headings	are unique.  Adding the	-G4 option ensures a
	    unique column heading for each tag.	 The -b	option may be added to
	    output binary data,	encoded	in base64 if necessary (indicated by
	    ASCII "base64:" as the first 7 bytes of the	value).	 Values	may
	    also be encoded in base64 if the -charset option is	used and the
	    value contains invalid characters.

	    When exporting specific tags, the CSV columns are arranged in the
	    same order as the specified	tags provided the column headings
	    exactly match the specified	tag names, otherwise the columns are
	    sorted in alphabetical order.

	    When importing from	a CSV file, only files specified on the
	    command line are processed.	 Any extra entries in the CSV file are

	    List-type tags are stored as simple	strings	in a CSV file, but the
	    -sep option	may be used to split them back into separate items
	    when importing.

	    Special feature:  -csv+=CSVFILE may	be used	to add items to
	    existing lists.  This affects only list-type tags.	Also applies
	    to the -j option.

	    Note that this option is fundamentally different than all other
	    output format options because it requires information from all
	    input files	to be buffered in memory before	the output is written.
	    This may result in excessive memory	usage when processing a	very
	    large number of files with a single	command.  Also,	it makes this
	    option incompatible	with the -w option.  When processing a large
	    number of files, it	is recommended to either use the JSON (-j) or
	    XML	(-X) output format, or use -p to generate a fixed-column CSV
	    file instead of using the -csv option.

       -csvDelim STR
	    Set	the delimiter for separating CSV entries for CSV file
	    input/output via the -csv option.  STR may contain "\t", "\n",
	    "\r" and "\\" to represent TAB, LF,	CR and '\' respectively.  A
	    double quote is not	allowed	in the delimiter.  Default is ','.

       -d FMT (-dateFormat)
	    Set	the format for date/time tag values.  The FMT string may
	    contain formatting codes beginning with a percent character	("%")
	    to represent the various components	of a date/time value.  The
	    specifics of the FMT syntax	are system dependent --	consult	the
	    "strftime" man page	on your	system for details.  The default
	    format is equivalent to "%Y:%m:%d %H:%M:%S".  This option has no
	    effect on date-only	or time-only tags and ignores timezone
	    information	if present.  Only one -d option	may be used per
	    command.  Requires POSIX::strptime or Time::Piece for the
	    inversion conversion when writing.

       -D (-decimal)
	    Show tag ID	number in decimal when extracting information.

       -E, -ex,	-ec (-escapeHTML, -escapeXML, -escapeC)
	    Escape characters in output	tag values for HTML (-E), XML (-ex) or
	    C (-ec).  For HTML,	all characters with Unicode code points	above
	    U+007F are escaped as well as the following	5 characters: &
	    (&amp;) ' (&#39;) "	(&quot;) > (&gt;) and <	(&lt;).	 For XML, only
	    these 5 characters are escaped.  The -E option is implied with -h,
	    and	-ex is implied with -X.	 For C,	all control characters and the
	    backslash are escaped.  The	inverse	conversion is applied when
	    writing tags.

       -f (-forcePrint)
	    Force printing of tags even	if their values	are not	found.	This
	    option only	applies	when specific tags are requested on the
	    command line (ie. not with wildcards or by "-all").	 With this
	    option, a dash ("-") is printed for	the value of any missing tag,
	    but	the dash may be	changed	via the	API MissingTagValue option.
	    May	also be	used to	add a 'flags' attribute	to the -listx output,
	    or to allow	tags to	be deleted when	writing	with the -csv=CSVFILE

       -g[NUM][:NUM...]	(-groupHeadings)
	    Organize output by tag group.  NUM specifies a group family
	    number, and	may be 0 (general location), 1 (specific location), 2
	    (category),	3 (document number), 4 (instance number), 5 (metadata
	    path), 6 (EXIF/TIFF	format)	or 7 (tag ID).	-g0 is assumed if a
	    family number is not specified.  May be combined with other
	    options to add group names to the output.  Multiple	families may
	    be specified by separating them with colons.  By default the
	    resulting group name is simplified by removing any leading "Main:"
	    and	collapsing adjacent identical group names, but this can	be
	    avoided by placing a colon before the first	family number (eg.
	    -g:3:1).  Use the -listg option to list group names	for a
	    specified family.  The SavePath and	SaveFormat API options are
	    automatically enabled if the respective family 5 or	6 group	names
	    are	requested.  See	the API	GetGroup documentation for more

       -G[NUM][:NUM...]	(-groupNames)
	    Same as -g but print group name for	each tag.  -G0 is assumed if
	    NUM	is not specified.  May be combined with	a number of other
	    options to add group names to the output.  Note that NUM may be
	    added wherever -G is mentioned in the documentation.  See the -g
	    option above for details.

       -h (-htmlFormat)
	    Use	HTML table formatting for output.  Implies the -E option.  The
	    formatting options -D, -H, -g, -G, -l and -s may be	used in
	    combination	with -h	to influence the HTML format.

       -H (-hex)
	    Show tag ID	number in hexadecimal when extracting information.

	    Generate a dynamic web page	containing a hex dump of the EXIF
	    information.  This can be a	very powerful tool for low-level
	    analysis of	EXIF information.  The -htmlDump option	is also
	    invoked if the -v and -h options are used together.	 The verbose
	    level controls the maximum length of the blocks dumped.  An	OFFSET
	    may	be given to specify the	base for displayed offsets.  If	not
	    provided, the EXIF/TIFF base offset	is used.  Use -htmlDump0 for
	    absolute offsets.  Currently only EXIF/TIFF	and JPEG information
	    is dumped, but the -u option can be	used to	give a raw hex dump of
	    other file formats.

       -j[[+]=JSONFILE]	(-json)
	    Use	JSON (JavaScript Object	Notation) formatting for console
	    output, or import JSON file	if JSONFILE is specified.  This	option
	    may	be combined with -g to organize	the output into	objects	by
	    group, or -G to add	group names to each tag.  List-type tags with
	    multiple items are output as JSON arrays unless -sep is used.  By
	    default XMP	structures are flattened into individual tags in the
	    JSON output, but the original structure may	be preserved with the
	    -struct option (this also causes all list-type XMP tags to be
	    output as JSON arrays, otherwise single-item lists would be	output
	    as simple strings).	 The -a	option is implied if the -g or -G
	    options are	used, otherwise	it is ignored and tags with identical
	    JSON names are suppressed. (-g4 may	be used	to ensure that all
	    tags have unique JSON names.)  Adding the -D or -H option changes
	    tag	values to JSON objects with "val" and "id" fields, and adding
	    -l adds a "desc" field, and	a "num"	field if the numerical value
	    is different from the converted "val".  The	-b option may be added
	    to output binary data, encoded in base64 if	necessary (indicated
	    by ASCII "base64:" as the first 7 bytes of the value), and -t may
	    be added to	include	tag table information (see -t for details).
	    The	JSON output is UTF-8 regardless	of any -L or -charset option
	    setting, but the UTF-8 validation is disabled if a character set
	    other than UTF-8 is	specified.

	    If JSONFILE	is specified, the file is imported and the tag
	    definitions	from the file are used to set tag values on a per-file
	    basis.  The	special	"SourceFile" entry in each JSON	object
	    associates the information with a specific target file.  An	object
	    with a missing SourceFile or a SourceFile of "*" defines default
	    tags for all target	files which are	combined with any tags
	    specified for the specific SourceFile processed.  The imported
	    JSON file must have	the same format	as the exported	JSON files
	    with the exception that the	-g option is not compatible with the
	    import file	format (use -G instead).  Additionally,	tag names in
	    the	input JSON file	may be suffixed	with a "#" to disable print

	    Unlike CSV import, empty values are	not ignored, and will cause an
	    empty value	to be written if supported by the specific metadata
	    type.  Tags	are deleted by using the -f option and setting the tag
	    value to "-" (or to	the MissingTagValue setting if this API	option
	    was	used).	Importing with -j+=JSONFILE causes new values to be
	    added to existing lists.

       -l (-long)
	    Use	long 2-line Canon-style	output format.	Adds a description and
	    unconverted	value (if it is	different from the converted value) to
	    the	XML, JSON or PHP output	when -X, -j or -php is used.  May also
	    be combined	with -listf, -listr or -listwf to add descriptions of
	    the	file types.

       -L (-latin)
	    Use	Windows	Latin1 encoding	(cp1252) for output tag	values instead
	    of the default UTF-8.  When	writing, -L specifies that input text
	    values are Latin1 instead of UTF-8.	 Equivalent to "-charset

       -lang [LANG]
	    Set	current	language for tag descriptions and converted values.
	    LANG is "de", "fr",	"ja", etc.  Use	-lang with no other arguments
	    to get a list of available languages.  The default language	is
	    "en" if -lang is not specified.  Note that tag/group names are
	    always English, independent	of the -lang setting, and translation
	    of warning/error messages has not yet been implemented.  May also
	    be combined	with -listx to output descriptions in one language

	    By default,	ExifTool uses UTF-8 encoding for special characters,
	    but	the the	-L or -charset option may be used to invoke other
	    encodings.	Note that ExifTool uses	Unicode::LineBreak if
	    available to help preserve the column alignment of the plain text
	    output for languages with a	variable-width character set.

	    Currently, the language support is not complete, but users are
	    welcome to help improve this by submitting their own translations.
	    To submit a	translation, follow these steps	(you must have Perl
	    installed for this):

	    1. Download	and unpack the latest Image-ExifTool full

	    2. 'cd' into the Image-ExifTool directory.

	    3. Run this	command	to make	an XML file of the desired tags	(eg.

	       ./exiftool -listx -exif:all > out.xml

	    4. Copy this text into a file called '' in	the exiftool

		push @INC, 'lib';
		require	Image::ExifTool::TagInfoXML;
		my $file = shift or die	"Expected XML file name\n";
		$Image::ExifTool::TagInfoXML::makeMissing = shift;

	    5. Run the '' script to Import the	XML file, generating
	    the	'MISSING' entries for your language (eg. Russian):

	       perl out.xml ru

	    6. Edit the	generated language module
	    lib/Image/ExifTool/Lang/, and search and replace all
	    'MISSING' strings in the file with your translations.

	    7. Email the module	('' in this example) to philharvey66 at

	    8. Thank you!!

       -listItem INDEX
	    For	list-type tags,	this causes only the item with the specified
	    index to be	extracted.  INDEX is 0 for the first item in the list.
	    Negative indices may also be used to reference items from the end
	    of the list.  Has no effect	on single-valued tags.	Also applies
	    to tag values when copying from a tag, and in -if conditions.

       -n (--printConv)
	    Disable print conversion for all tags.  By default,	extracted
	    values are converted to a more human-readable format, but the -n
	    option disables this conversion, revealing the machine-readable
	    values.  For example:

		> exiftool -Orientation	-S a.jpg
		Orientation: Rotate 90 CW
		> exiftool -Orientation	-S -n a.jpg
		Orientation: 6

	    The	print conversion may also be disabled on a per-tag basis by
	    suffixing the tag name with	a "#" character:

		> exiftool -Orientation# -Orientation -S a.jpg
		Orientation: 6
		Orientation: Rotate 90 CW

	    These techniques may also be used to disable the inverse print
	    conversion when writing.  For example, the following commands all
	    have the same effect:

		> exiftool -Orientation='Rotate	90 CW' a.jpg
		> exiftool -Orientation=6 -n a.jpg
		> exiftool -Orientation#=6 a.jpg

       -p FMTFILE or STR (-printFormat)
	    Print output in the	format specified by the	given file or string.
	    The	argument is interpreted	as a string unless a file of that name
	    exists, in which case the string is	loaded from the	contents of
	    the	file.  Tag names in the	format file or string begin with a "$"
	    symbol and may contain leading group names and/or a	trailing "#"
	    (to	disable	print conversion).  Case is not	significant.  Braces
	    "{}" may be	used around the	tag name to separate it	from
	    subsequent text.  Use $$ to	represent a "$"	symbol,	and $/ for a

	    Multiple -p	options	may be used, each contributing a line (or
	    more) of text to the output.  Lines	beginning with "#[HEAD]" and
	    "#[TAIL]" are output before	the first processed file and after the
	    last processed file	respectively.  Lines beginning with "#[SECT]"
	    and	"#[ENDS]" are output before and	after each section of files.
	    A section is defined as a group of consecutive files with the same
	    section header (eg.	files are grouped by directory if "#[SECT]"
	    contains $directory).  Lines beginning with	"#[BODY]" and lines
	    not	beginning with "#" are output for each processed file.	Lines
	    beginning with "#[IF]" are not output, but all BODY	lines are
	    skipped if any tag on an IF	line doesn't exist.  Other lines
	    beginning with "#" are ignored.  For example, this format file:

		# this is a comment line
		#[HEAD]-- Generated by ExifTool	$exifToolVersion --
		File: $FileName	- $DateTimeOriginal
		(f/$Aperture, ${ShutterSpeed}s,	ISO $EXIF:ISO)
		#[TAIL]-- end --

	    with this command:

		exiftool -p test.fmt a.jpg b.jpg

	    produces output like this:

		-- Generated by	ExifTool 12.14 --
		File: a.jpg - 2003:10:31 15:44:19
		(f/5.6,	1/60s, ISO 100)
		File: b.jpg - 2006:05:23 11:57:38
		(f/8.0,	1/13s, ISO 100)
		-- end --

	    The	values of List-type tags with multiple items and Shortcut tags
	    representing multiple tags are joined according the	the -sep
	    option setting when	interpolated in	the string.

	    When -ee (-extractEmbedded)	is combined with -p, embedded
	    documents are effectively processed	as separate input files.

	    If a specified tag does not	exist, a minor warning is issued and
	    the	line with the missing tag is not printed.  However, the	-f
	    option may be used to set the value	of missing tags	to '-' (but
	    this may be	configured via the MissingTagValue API option),	or the
	    -m option may be used to ignore minor warnings and leave the
	    missing values empty.  Alternatively, -q -q	may be used to simply
	    suppress the warning messages.

	    The	"Advanced formatting feature" may be used to modify the	values
	    of individual tags with the	-p option.

       -php Format output as a PHP Array.  The -g, -G, -D, -H, -l, -sep	and
	    -struct options combine with -php, and duplicate tags are handled
	    in the same	way as with the	-json option.  As well,	the -b option
	    may	be added to output binary data,	and -t may be added to include
	    tag	table information (see -t for details).	 Here is a simple
	    example showing how	this could be used in a	PHP script:

		eval('$array=' . `exiftool -php	-q image.jpg`);

       -s[NUM] (-short)
	    Short output format.  Prints tag names instead of descriptions.
	    Add	NUM or up to 3 -s options for even shorter formats:

		-s1 or -s	 - print tag names instead of descriptions
		-s2 or -s -s	 - no extra spaces to column-align values
		-s3 or -s -s -s	 - print values	only (no tag names)

	    Also effective when	combined with -t, -h, -X or -listx options.

       -S (-veryShort)
	    Very short format.	The same as -s2	or two -s options.  Tag	names
	    are	printed	instead	of descriptions, and no	extra spaces are added
	    to column-align values.

       -sep STR	(-separator)
	    Specify separator string for items in list-type tags.  When
	    reading, the default is to join list items with ", ".  When
	    writing, this option causes	values assigned	to list-type tags to
	    be split into individual items at each substring matching STR
	    (otherwise they are	not split by default).	Space characters in
	    STR	match zero or more whitespace characters in the	value.

	    Note that an empty separator ("") is allowed, and will join	items
	    with no separator when reading, or split the value into individual
	    characters when writing.

	    For	pure binary output (-b used without -j,	-php or	-X), the first
	    -sep option	specifies a list-item separator, and a second -sep
	    option specifies a terminator for the end of the list (or after
	    each value if not a	list).	In these strings, "\n",	"\r" and "\t"
	    may	be used	to represent a newline,	carriage return	and tab
	    respectively.  By default, binary list items are separated by a
	    newline, and no terminator is added.

       -sort, --sort
	    Sort output	by tag description, or by tag name if the -s option is
	    used.  When	sorting	by description,	the sort order will depend on
	    the	-lang option setting.  Without the -sort option, tags appear
	    in the order they were specified on	the command line, or if	not
	    specified, the order they were extracted from the file.  By
	    default, tags are organized	by groups when combined	with the -g or
	    -G option, but this	grouping may be	disabled with --sort.

       -struct,	--struct
	    Output structured XMP information instead of flattening to
	    individual tags.  This option works	well when combined with	the
	    XML	(-X) and JSON (-j) output formats.  For	other output formats,
	    XMP	structures and lists are serialized into the same format as
	    when writing structured information	(see
	    <> for details).  When copying,
	    structured tags are	copied by default unless --struct is used to
	    disable this feature (although flattened tags may still be copied
	    by specifying them individually unless -struct is used).  These
	    options have no effect when	assigning new values since both
	    flattened and structured tags may always be	used when writing.

       -t (-tab)
	    Output a tab-delimited list	of description/values (useful for
	    database import).  May be combined with -s to print	tag names
	    instead of descriptions, or	-S to print tag	values only, tab-
	    delimited on a single line.	 The -t	option may be combined with
	    -j,	-php or	-X to add tag table information	("table", tag "id",
	    and	"index"	for cases where	multiple conditional tags exist	with
	    the	same ID).

       -T (-table)
	    Output tag values in table form.  Equivalent to -t -S -q -f.

       -v[NUM] (-verbose)
	    Print verbose messages.  NUM specifies the level of	verbosity in
	    the	range 0-5, with	higher numbers being more verbose.  If NUM is
	    not	given, then each -v option increases the level of verbosity by
	    1.	With any level greater than 0, most other options are ignored
	    and	normal console output is suppressed unless specific tags are
	    extracted.	Using -v0 causes the console output buffer to be
	    flushed after each line (which may be useful to avoid delays when
	    piping exiftool output), and prints	the name of each processed
	    file when writing.	Also see the -progress option.

       -w[+|!] EXT or FMT (-textOut)
	    Write console output to files with names ending in EXT, one	for
	    each source	file.  The output file name is obtained	by replacing
	    the	source file extension (including the '.') with the specified
	    extension (and a '.' is added to the start of EXT if it doesn't
	    already contain one).  Alternatively, a FMT	string may be used to
	    give more control over the output file name	and directory.	In the
	    format string, %d, %f and %e represent the directory, filename and
	    extension of the source file, and %c represents a copy number
	    which is automatically incremented if the file already exists.  %d
	    includes the trailing '/' if necessary, but	%e does	not include
	    the	leading	'.'.  For example:

		-w %d%f.txt	  # same effect	as "-w txt"
		-w dir/%f_%e.out  # write files	to "dir" as "FILE_EXT.out"
		-w dir2/%d%f.txt  # write to "dir2", keeping dir structure
		-w a%c.txt	  # write to "a.txt" or	"a1.txt" or "a2.txt"...

	    Existing files will	not be changed unless an exclamation point is
	    added to the option	name (ie. -w! or -textOut!) to overwrite the
	    file, or a plus sign (ie. -w+ or -textOut+)	to append to the
	    existing file.  Both may be	used (ie. -w+! or -textOut+!) to
	    overwrite output files that	didn't exist before the	command	was
	    run, and append the	output from multiple source files.  For
	    example, to	write one output file for all source files in each

		exiftool -filename -createdate -T -w+! %d/out.txt -r DIR

	    Capitalized	format codes %D, %F, %E	and %C provide slightly
	    different alternatives to the lower	case versions.	%D does	not
	    include the	trailing '/', %F is the	full filename including
	    extension, %E includes the leading '.', and	%C increments the
	    count for each processed file (see below).


	    1) In a Windows BAT	file the "%" character is represented by "%%",
	    so an argument like	"%d%f.txt" is written as "%%d%%f.txt".

	    2) If the argument for -w does not contain a valid format code
	    (eg. %f), then it is interpreted as	a file extension.  It is not
	    possible to	specify	a simple filename as an	argument -- creating a
	    single output file from multiple source files is typically done by
	    shell redirection, ie)

		exiftool FILE1 FILE2 ... > out.txt

	    But	if necessary, an empty format code may be used to force	the
	    argument to	be interpreted as a format string, and the same	result
	    may	be obtained without the	use of shell redirection:

		exiftool -w+! %0fout.txt FILE1 FILE2 ...

	    Advanced features:

	    A substring	of the original	file name, directory or	extension may
	    be taken by	specifying a field width immediately following the '%'
	    character.	If the width is	negative, the substring	is taken from
	    the	end.  The substring position (characters to ignore at the
	    start or end of the	string)	may be given by	a second optional
	    value after	a decimal point.  For example:

		Input File Name	    Format Specifier	Output File Name
		----------------    ----------------	----------------
		Picture-123.jpg	    %7f.txt		Picture.txt
		Picture-123.jpg	    %-.4f.out		Picture.out
		Picture-123.jpg	    %7f.%-3f		Picture.123
		Picture-123a.jpg    Meta%-3.1f.txt	Meta123.txt

	    (Note that special characters may have a width of greater than

	    For	%d and %D, the field width/position specifiers may be applied
	    to the directory levels instead of substring position by using a
	    colon instead of a decimal point in	the format specifier.  For

		Source Dir     Format	Result	     Notes
		------------   ------	----------   ------------------
		pics/2012/02   %2:d	pics/2012/   take top 2	levels
		pics/2012/02   %-:1d	pics/2012/   up	one directory level
		pics/2012/02   %:1d	2012/02/     ignore top	level
		pics/2012/02   %1:1d	2012/	     take 1 level after	top
		pics/2012/02   %-1:D	02	     bottom level folder name
		/Users/phil    %:2d	phil/	     ignore top	2 levels

	    (Note that the root	directory counts as one	level when an absolute
	    path is used as in the last	example	above.)

	    For	%c, these modifiers have a different effects.  If a field
	    width is given, the	copy number is padded with zeros to the
	    specified width.  A	leading	'-' adds a dash	before the copy
	    number, and	a '+' adds an underline.  By default, the copy number
	    is omitted from the	first file of a	given name, but	this can be
	    changed by adding a	decimal	point to the modifier.	For example:

		-w A%-cZ.txt	  # AZ.txt, A-1Z.txt, A-2Z.txt ...
		-w B%5c.txt	  # B.txt, B00001.txt, B00002.txt ...
		-w C%.c.txt	  # C0.txt, C1.txt, C2.txt ...
		-w D%-.c.txt	  # D-0.txt, D-1.txt, D-2.txt ...
		-w E%-.4c.txt	  # E-0000.txt,	E-0001.txt, E-0002.txt ...
		-w F%-.4nc.txt	  # F-0001.txt,	F-0002.txt, F-0003.txt ...
		-w G%+c.txt	  # G.txt, G_1.txt G_2.txt ...
		-w H%-lc.txt	  # H.txt, H-b.txt, H-c.txt ...
		-w I.%.3uc.txt	  # I.AAA.txt, I.AAB.txt, I.AAC.txt ...

	    A special feature allows the copy number to	be incremented for
	    each processed file	by using %C (upper case) instead of %c.	 This
	    allows a sequential	number to be added to output file names, even
	    if the names are different.	 For %C, a copy	number of zero is not
	    omitted as it is with %c.  A leading '-' causes the	number to be
	    reset at the start of each new directory, and '+' has no effect.
	    The	number before the decimal place	gives the starting index, the
	    number after the decimal place gives the field width.  The
	    following examples show the	output filenames when used with	the
	    command "exiftool rose.jpg star.jpg	jet.jpg	...":

		-w %C%f.txt	  # 0rose.txt, 1star.txt, 2jet.txt
		-w %f-%10C.txt	  # rose-10.txt, star-11.txt, jet-12.txt
		-w %.3C-%f.txt	  # 000-rose.txt, 001-star.txt,	002-jet.txt
		-w %57.4C%f.txt	  # 0057rose.txt, 0058star.txt,	0059jet.txt

	    All	format codes may be modified by	'l' or 'u' to specify lower or
	    upper case respectively (ie. %le for a lower case file extension).
	    When used to modify	%c or %C, the numbers are changed to an
	    alphabetical base (see example H above).  Also, %c and %C may be
	    modified by	'n' to count using natural numbers starting from 1,
	    instead of 0 (see example F	above).

	    This same FMT syntax is used with the -o and -tagsFromFile
	    options, although %c and %C	are only valid for output file names.

       -W[+|!] FMT (-tagOut)
	    This enhanced version of the -w option allows a separate output
	    file to be created for each	extracted tag.	See the	-w option
	    documentation above	for details of the basic functionality.
	    Listed here	are the	differences between -W and -w:

	    1) With -W,	a new output file is created for each extracted	tag.

	    2) -W supports three additional format codes:  %t, %g and %s
	    represent the tag name, group name,	and suggested extension	for
	    the	output file (based on the format of the	data).	The %g code
	    may	be followed by a single	digit to specify the group family
	    number (eg.	%g1), otherwise	family 0 is assumed.  The substring
	    width/position/case	specifiers may be used with these format codes
	    in exactly the same	way as with %f and %e.

	    3) The argument for	-W is interpreted as a file name if it
	    contains no	format codes.  (For -w,	this would be a	file
	    extension.)	 This change allows a simple file name to be
	    specified, which, when combined with the append feature, provides
	    a method to	write metadata from multiple source files to a single
	    output file	without	the need for shell redirection.	 For example,
	    the	following pairs	of commands give the same result:

		# overwriting existing text file
		exiftool test.jpg > out.txt	# shell	redirection
		exiftool test.jpg -W+! out.txt	# equivalent -W	option

		# append to existing text file
		exiftool test.jpg >> out.txt	# shell	redirection
		exiftool test.jpg -W+ out.txt	# equivalent -W	option

	    4) Adding the -v option to -W sends	a list of the tags and output
	    file names to the console instead of giving	a verbose dump of the
	    entire file.  (Unless appending all	output to one file for each
	    source file	by using -W+ with an output file FMT that does not
	    contain %t,	$g or %s.)

	    5) Individual list items are stored	in separate files when -W is
	    combined with -b, but note that for	separate files to be created
	    %c or %C must be used in FMT to give the files unique names.

       -Wext EXT, --Wext EXT (-tagOutExt)
	    This option	is used	to specify the type of output file(s) written
	    by the -W option.  An output file is written only if the suggested
	    extension matches EXT.  Multiple -Wext options may be used to
	    write more than one	type of	file.  Use --Wext to write all but the
	    specified type(s).

       -X (-xmlFormat)
	    Use	ExifTool-specific RDF/XML formatting for console output.
	    Implies the	-a option, so duplicate	tags are extracted.  The
	    formatting options -b, -D, -H, -l, -s, -sep, -struct and -t	may be
	    used in combination	with -X	to affect the output, but note that
	    the	tag ID (-D, -H and -t),	binary data (-b) and structured	output
	    (-struct) options are not effective	for the	short output (-s).
	    Another restriction	of -s is that only one tag with	a given	group
	    and	name may appear	in the output.	Note that the tag ID options
	    (-D, -H and	-t) will produce non-standard RDF/XML unless the -l
	    option is also used.

	    By default,	-X outputs flattened tags, so -struct should be	added
	    if required	to preserve XMP	structures.  List-type tags with
	    multiple values are	formatted as an	RDF Bag, but they are combined
	    into a single string when -s or -sep is used.  Using -L changes
	    the	XML encoding from "UTF-8" to "windows-1252".  Other -charset
	    settings change the	encoding only if there is a corresponding
	    standard XML character set.	 The -b	option causes binary data
	    values to be written, encoded in base64 if necessary.  The -t
	    option adds	tag table information to the output (see -t for

	    Note:  This	output is NOT the same as XMP because it uses
	    dynamically-generated property names corresponding to the ExifTool
	    tag	names, and not the standard XMP	properties.  To	write XMP
	    instead, use the -o	option with an XMP extension for the output

       Processing control

       -a, --a (-duplicates, --duplicates)
	    Allow (-a) or suppress (--a) duplicate tag names to	be extracted.
	    By default,	duplicate tags are suppressed when reading unless the
	    -ee	or -X options are used or the Duplicates option	is enabled in
	    the	configuration file. This option	has an affect when writing
	    only to allow duplicate Warning messages to	be shown.  Duplicate
	    tags are always extracted when copying.

       -e (--composite)
	    Extract existing tags only -- don't	generate composite tags.

       -ee (-extractEmbedded)
	    Extract information	from embedded documents	in EPS files, embedded
	    EPS	information and	JPEG and Jpeg2000 images in PDF	files,
	    embedded MPF images	in JPEG	and MPO	files, streaming metadata in
	    AVCHD videos, and the resource fork	of Mac OS files.  Implies the
	    -a option.	Use -g3	or -G3 to identify the originating document
	    for	extracted information.	Embedded documents containing sub-
	    documents are indicated with dashes	in the family 3	group name.
	    (eg. "Doc2-3" is the 3rd sub-document of the 2nd embedded
	    document.) Note that this option may increase processing time
	    substantially, especially for PDF files with many embedded images
	    or videos with streaming metadata.

	    When used with -ee,	the -p option is evaluated for each embedded
	    document as	if it were a separate input file.  This	allows,	for
	    example, generation	of GPS track logs from timed metadata in
	    videos.  See <> for

       -ext[+] EXT, --ext EXT (-extension)
	    Process only files with (-ext) or without (--ext) a	specified
	    extension.	There may be multiple -ext and --ext options.  A plus
	    sign may be	added (ie. -ext+) to add the specified extension to
	    the	normally processed files.  EXT may begin with a	leading	'.',
	    which is ignored.  Case is not significant.	 "*" may be used to
	    process files with any extension (or none at all), as in the last
	    three examples:

		exiftool -ext JPG DIR		  # process only JPG files
		exiftool --ext cr2 --ext dng DIR  # supported files but	CR2/DNG
		exiftool -ext+ txt DIR		  # supported files plus TXT
		exiftool -ext "*" DIR		  # process all	files
		exiftool -ext "*" --ext	xml DIR	  # process all	but XML	files
		exiftool -ext "*" --ext	. DIR	  # all	but those with no ext

	    Using this option has two main advantages over specifying "*.EXT"
	    on the command line:  1) It	applies	to files in subdirectories
	    when combined with the -r option.  2) The -ext option is case-
	    insensitive, which is useful when processing files on case-
	    sensitive filesystems.

	    Note that all files	specified on the command line will be
	    processed regardless of extension unless the -ext option is	used.

       -F[OFFSET] (-fixBase)
	    Fix	the base for maker notes offsets.  A common problem with some
	    image editors is that offsets in the maker notes are not adjusted
	    properly when the file is modified.	 This may cause	the wrong
	    values to be extracted for some maker note entries when reading
	    the	edited file.  This option allows an integer OFFSET to be
	    specified for adjusting the	maker notes base offset.  If no	OFFSET
	    is given, ExifTool takes its best guess at the correct base.  Note
	    that exiftool will automatically fix the offsets for images	which
	    store original offset information (eg. newer Canon models).
	    Offsets are	fixed permanently if -F	is used	when writing EXIF to
	    an image. eg)

		exiftool -F -exif:resolutionunit=inches	image.jpg

	    Increase speed of extracting information.  With -fast (or -fast1),
	    ExifTool will not scan to the end of a JPEG	image to check for an
	    AFCP or PreviewImage trailer, or past the first comment in GIF
	    images or the audio/video data in WAV/AVI files to search for
	    additional metadata.  These	speed benefits are small when reading
	    images directly from disk, but can be substantial if piping	images
	    through a network connection.  For more substantial	speed
	    benefits, -fast2 also causes exiftool to avoid extracting any EXIF
	    MakerNote information.  -fast3 avoids extracting metadata from the
	    file, and returns only pseudo System tags, but still reads the
	    file header	to obtain an educated guess at FileType.  -fast4
	    doesn't even read the file header, and returns only	System tags
	    and	a FileType based on the	file extension.	 -fast5	also disables
	    generation of the Composite	tags (like -e).	 Has no	effect when

	    Note that a	separate -fast setting may be used for evaluation of a
	    -if	condition, or when ordering files with the -fileOrder option.
	    See	the -if	and -fileOrder options for details.

       -fileOrder[NUM] [-]TAG
	    Set	file processing	order according	to the sorted value of the
	    specified TAG.  For	example, to process files in order of date:

		exiftool -fileOrder DateTimeOriginal DIR

	    Additional -fileOrder options may be added for secondary sort
	    keys.  Numbers are sorted numerically, and all other values	are
	    sorted alphabetically.  Files missing the specified	tag are	sorted
	    last.  The sort order may be reversed by prefixing the tag name
	    with a "-" (eg.  "-fileOrder -createdate").	 Print conversion of
	    the	sorted values is disabled with the -n option, or a "#"
	    appended to	the tag	name.  Other formatting	options	(eg. -d) have
	    no effect on the sorted values.  Note that the -fileOrder option
	    can	have a large performance impact	since it involves an
	    additional processing pass of each file, but this impact may be
	    reduced by specifying a NUM	for the	-fast level used during	the
	    metadata-extraction	phase.	For example, -fileOrder4 may be	used
	    if TAG is a	pseudo System tag.  If multiple	-fileOrder options are
	    used, the extraction is done at the	lowest -fast level.  Note that
	    files are sorted across directory boundaries if multiple input
	    directories	are specified.

       -i DIR (-ignore)
	    Ignore specified directory name.  DIR may be either	an individual
	    folder name, or a full path.  If a full path is specified, it must
	    match the Directory	tag exactly to be ignored.  Use	multiple -i
	    options to ignore more than	one directory name.  A special DIR
	    value of "SYMLINKS"	(case sensitive) may be	specified to ignore
	    symbolic links when	the -r option is used.	As well, a value of
	    "HIDDEN" (case sensitive) may be used to ignore files with names
	    that start with a "." (ie. hidden files on Unix systems) when
	    scanning a directory.

       -if[NUM]	EXPR
	    Specify a condition	to be evaluated	before processing each FILE.
	    EXPR is a Perl-like	logic expression containing tag	names prefixed
	    by "$" symbols.  It	is evaluated with the tags from	each FILE in
	    turn, and the file is processed only if the	expression returns
	    true.  Unlike Perl variable	names, tag names are not case
	    sensitive and may contain a	hyphen.	 As well, tag names may	have a
	    leading group names	separated by colons, and/or a trailing "#"
	    character to disable print conversion.  The	expression $GROUP:all
	    evaluates to 1 if any tag exists in	the specified "GROUP", or 0
	    otherwise (see note	2 below).  When	multiple -if options are used,
	    all	conditions must	be satisfied to	process	the file.  Returns an
	    exit status	of 2 if	all files fail the condition.  Below are a few

		# extract shutterspeed from all	Canon images in	a directory
		exiftool -shutterspeed -if '$make eq "Canon"' dir

		# add one hour to all images created on	or after Apr. 2, 2006
		exiftool -alldates+=1 -if '$CreateDate ge "2006:04:02"'	dir

		# set EXIF ISO value if	possible, unless it is set already
		exiftool '-exif:iso<iso' -if 'not $exif:iso' dir

		# find images containing a specific keyword (case insensitive)
		exiftool -if '$keywords	=~ /harvey/i' -filename	dir

	    Adding NUM to the -if option causes	a separate processing pass to
	    be executed	for evaluating EXPR at a -fast level given by NUM (see
	    the	-fast option documentation for details).  Without NUM, only
	    one	processing pass	is done	at the level specified by the -fast
	    option.  For example, using	-if5 is	possible if EXPR uses only
	    pseudo System tags,	and may	significantly speed processing if
	    enough files fail the condition.

	    The	expression has access to the current ExifTool object through
	    $self, and the following special functions are available to	allow
	    short-circuiting of	the file processing.  Both functions have a
	    return value of 1.	Case is	significant for	function names.

		End()	 - end processing after	this file
		EndDir() - end processing of files in this directory (not
			   compatible with the B<-fileOrder> option)


	    1) The -n and -b options also apply	to tags	used in	EXPR.

	    2) Some binary data	blocks are not extracted unless	specified
	    explicitly.	 These tags are	not available for use in the -if
	    condition unless they are also specified on	the command line.  The
	    alternative	is to use the $GROUP:all syntax. (eg. Use $exif:all
	    instead of $exif in	EXPR to	test for the existence of EXIF tags.)

	    3) Tags in the string are interpolated the same way	as with	-p
	    before the expression is evaluated.	 In this interpolation,	$/ is
	    converted to a newline and $$ represents a single "$" symbol (so
	    Perl variables, if used, require a double "$").

	    4) The condition may only test tags	from the file being processed.
	    To process one file	based on tags from another, two	steps are
	    required.  For example, to process XMP sidecar files in directory
	    "DIR" based	on tags	from the associated NEF:

		exiftool -if EXPR -p '$directory/$filename' -ext nef DIR > nef.txt
		exiftool -@ nef.txt -srcfile %d%f.xmp ...

	    5) The -a option has no effect on the evaluation of	the
	    expression,	and the	values of duplicate tags are accessible	only
	    by specifying a group name (such as	a family 4 instance number,
	    eg.	$Copy1:TAG, $Copy2:TAG,	etc).

	    6) A special "OK" UserParam	is available to	test the success of
	    the	previous command when -execute was used, and may be used like
	    any	other tag in the condition (ie.	"$OK").

       -m (-ignoreMinorErrors)
	    Ignore minor errors	and warnings.  This enables writing to files
	    with minor errors and disables some	validation checks which	could
	    result in minor warnings.  Generally, minor	errors/warnings
	    indicate a problem which usually won't result in loss of metadata
	    if ignored.	 However, there	are exceptions,	so ExifTool leaves it
	    up to you to make the final	decision.  Minor errors	and warnings
	    are	indicated by "[minor]" at the start of the message.  Warnings
	    which affect processing when ignored are indicated by "[Minor]"
	    (with a capital "M").  Note	that this causes missing values	in
	    -tagsFromFile, -p and -if strings to be set	to an empty string
	    rather than	an undefined value.

       -o OUTFILE or FMT (-out)
	    Set	the output file	or directory name when writing information.
	    Without this option, when any "real" tags are written the original
	    file is renamed to "FILE_original" and output is written to	FILE.
	    When writing only FileName and/or Directory	"pseudo" tags, -o
	    causes the file to be copied instead of moved, but directories
	    specified for either of these tags take precedence over that
	    specified by the -o	option.

	    OUTFILE may	be "-" to write	to stdout.  The	output file name may
	    also be specified using a FMT string in which %d, %f and %e
	    represent the directory, file name and extension of	FILE.  Also,
	    %c may be used to add a copy number. See the -w option for FMT
	    string examples.

	    The	output file is taken to	be a directory name if it already
	    exists as a	directory or if	the name ends with '/'.	 Output
	    directories	are created if necessary.  Existing files will not be
	    overwritten.  Combining the	-overwrite_original option with	-o
	    causes the original	source file to be erased after the output file
	    is successfully written.

	    A special feature of this option allows the	creation of certain
	    types of files from	scratch, or with the metadata from another
	    type of file.  The following file types may	be created using this


	    The	output file type is determined by the extension	of OUTFILE
	    (specified as "-.EXT" when writing to stdout).  The	output file is
	    then created from a	combination of information in FILE (as if the
	    -tagsFromFile option was used), and	tag values assigned on the
	    command line.  If no FILE is specified, the	output file may	be
	    created from scratch using only tags assigned on the command line.

	    Overwrite the original FILE	(instead of preserving it by adding
	    "_original"	to the file name) when writing information to an
	    image.  Caution: This option should	only be	used if	you already
	    have separate backup copies	of your	image files.  The overwrite is
	    implemented	by renaming a temporary	file to	replace	the original.
	    This deletes the original file and replaces	it with	the edited
	    version in a single	operation.  When combined with -o, this	option
	    causes the original	file to	be deleted if the output file was
	    successfully written (ie. the file is moved	instead	of copied).

	    Similar to -overwrite_original except that an extra	step is	added
	    to allow the original file attributes to be	preserved.  For
	    example, on	a Mac this causes the original file creation date,
	    type, creator, label color,	icon, Finder tags, other extended
	    attributes and hard	links to the file to be	preserved (but note
	    that the Mac OS resource fork is always preserved unless
	    specifically deleted with "-rsrc:all=").  This is implemented by
	    opening the	original file in update	mode and replacing its data
	    with a copy	of a temporary file before deleting the	temporary.
	    The	extra step results in slower performance, so the
	    -overwrite_original	option should be used instead unless

	    Note that this option reverts to the behaviour of the
	    -overwrite_original	option when also writing the FileName and/or
	    Directory tags.

       -P (-preserve)
	    Preserve the filesystem modification date/time ("FileModifyDate")
	    of the original file when writing.	Note that some filesystems
	    store a creation date (ie. "FileCreateDate"	on Windows and Mac
	    systems) which is not affected by this option.  This creation date
	    is preserved on Windows systems where Win32API::File and
	    Win32::API are available regardless	of this	setting.  For other
	    systems, the -overwrite_original_in_place option may be used if
	    necessary to preserve the creation date.  The -P option is
	    superseded by any value written to the FileModifyDate tag.

       -password PASSWD
	    Specify password to	allow processing of password-protected PDF
	    documents.	If a password is required but not given, a warning is
	    issued and the document is not processed.  This option is ignored
	    if a password is not required.

	    Show the progress when processing files.  Without a	colon, the
	    -progress option adds a progress count in brackets after the name
	    of each processed file, giving the current file number and the
	    total number of files to be	processed.  Implies the	-v0 option,
	    causing the	names of processed files to also be printed when
	    writing.  When combined with the -if option, the total count
	    includes all files before the condition is applied,	but files that
	    fail the condition will not	have their names printed.

	    If followed	by a colon (ie.	-progress:), the console window	title
	    is set according to	the specified TITLE string.  If	no TITLE is
	    given, a default TITLE string of "ExifTool %p%%" is	assumed.  In
	    the	string,	%f represents the file name, %p	is the progress	as a
	    percent, %r	is the progress	as a ratio, %##b is a progress bar of
	    width "##" (20 characters if "##" is omitted), and %% is a %
	    character.	May be combined	with the normal	-progress option to
	    also show the progress count in console messages.  (Note: For this
	    feature to function	correctly on Mac/Linux,	stderr must go to the

       -q (-quiet)
	    Quiet processing.  One -q suppresses normal	informational
	    messages, and a second -q suppresses warnings as well.  Error
	    messages can not be	suppressed, although minor errors may be
	    downgraded to warnings with	the -m option, which may then be
	    suppressed with "-q	-q".

       -r[.] (-recurse)
	    Recursively	process	files in subdirectories.  Only meaningful if
	    FILE is a directory	name.  Subdirectories with names beginning
	    with "." are not processed unless "." is added to the option name
	    (ie. -r. or	-recurse.).  By	default, exiftool will also follow
	    symbolic links to directories if supported by the system, but this
	    may	be disabled with "-i SYMLINKS" (see the	-i option for
	    details).  Combine this with -ext options to control the types of
	    files processed.

	    Scan all files (even unsupported formats) for XMP information
	    unless found already.  When	combined with the -fast	option,	only
	    unsupported	file types are scanned.	 Warning: It can be time
	    consuming to scan large files.

       -u (-unknown)
	    Extract values of unknown tags.  Add another -u to also extract
	    unknown information	from binary data blocks.  This option applies
	    to tags with numerical tag ID's, and causes	tag names like
	    "Exif_0xc5d9" to be	generated for unknown information.  It has no
	    effect on information types	which have human-readable tag ID's
	    (such as XMP), since unknown tags are extracted automatically from
	    these formats.

       -U (-unknown2)
	    Extract values of unknown tags as well as unknown information from
	    some binary	data blocks.  This is the same as two -u options.

       -wm MODE	(-writeMode)
	    Set	mode for writing/creating tags.	 MODE is a string of one or
	    more characters from the list below.  The default write mode is

		w - Write existing tags
		c - Create new tags
		g - create new Groups as necessary

	    For	example, use "-wm cg" to only create new tags (and avoid
	    editing existing ones).

	    The	level of the group is the SubDirectory level in	the metadata
	    structure.	For XMP	or IPTC	this is	the full XMP/IPTC block	(the
	    family 0 group), but for EXIF this is the individual IFD (the
	    family 1 group).

       -z (-zip)
	    When reading, causes information to	be extracted from .gz and .bz2
	    compressed images (only one	image per archive; requires gzip and
	    bzip2 to be	available).  When writing, causes compressed
	    information	to be written if supported by the metadata format (eg.
	    compressed textual metadata	in PNG), disables the recommended
	    padding in embedded	XMP (saving 2424 bytes when writing XMP	in a
	    file), and writes XMP in shorthand format -- the equivalent	of
	    setting the	API Compress=1 and Compact="NoPadding,Shorthand".

       Other options

       -@ ARGFILE
	    Read command-line arguments	from the specified file.  The file
	    contains one argument per line (NOT	one option per line -- some
	    options require additional arguments, and all arguments must be
	    placed on separate lines).	Blank lines and	lines beginning	with
	    "#"	are ignored (unless they start with "#[CSTR]", in which	case
	    the	rest of	the line is treated as a C string, allowing standard C
	    escape sequences such as "\n" for a	newline).  White space at the
	    start of a line is removed.	 Normal	shell processing of arguments
	    is not performed, which among other	things means that arguments
	    should not be quoted and spaces are	treated	as any other
	    character.	ARGFILE	may exist relative to either the current
	    directory or the exiftool directory	unless an absolute pathname is

	    For	example, the following ARGFILE will set	the value of Copyright
	    to "Copyright YYYY,	Phil Harvey", where "YYYY" is the year of

		-copyright<Copyright $createdate, Phil Harvey

	    Arguments in ARGFILE behave	exactly	the same as if they were
	    entered at the location of the -@ option on	the command line, with
	    the	exception that the -config and -common_args options may	not be
	    used in an ARGFILE.

       -k (-pause)
	    Pause with the message "-- press any key --" or "--	press RETURN
	    --"	(depending on your system) before terminating.	This option is
	    used to prevent the	command	window from closing when run as	a
	    Windows drag and drop application.

       -list, -listw, -listf, -listr, -listwf, -listg[NUM], -listd, -listx
	    Print a list of all	valid tag names	(-list), all writable tag
	    names (-listw), all	supported file extensions (-listf), all
	    recognized file extensions (-listr), all writable file extensions
	    (-listwf), all tag groups [in a specified family] (-listg[NUM]),
	    all	deletable tag groups (-listd), or an XML database of tag
	    details including language translations (-listx).  The -list,
	    -listw and -listx options may be followed by an additional
	    argument of	the form "-GROUP:All" to list only tags	in a specific
	    group, where "GROUP" is one	or more	family 0-2 group names
	    (excepting EXIF IFD	groups)	separated by colons.  With -listg, NUM
	    may	be given to specify the	group family, otherwise	family 0 is
	    assumed.  The -l option may	be combined with -listf, -listr	or
	    -listwf to add file	descriptions to	the list.  The -lang option
	    may	be combined with -listx	to output descriptions in a single
	    language.  Here are	some examples:

		-list		    # list all tag names
		-list -EXIF:All	    # list all EXIF tags
		-list -xmp:time:all # list all XMP tags	relating to time
		-listw -XMP-dc:All  # list all writable	XMP-dc tags
		-listf		    # list all supported file extensions
		-listr		    # list all recognized file extensions
		-listwf		    # list all writable	file extensions
		-listg1		    # list all groups in family	1
		-listd		    # list all deletable groups
		-listx -EXIF:All    # list database of EXIF tags in XML	format
		-listx -XMP:All	-s  # list short XML database of XMP tags

	    When combined with -listx, the -s option shortens the output by
	    omitting the descriptions and values (as in	the last example
	    above), and	-f adds	a 'flags' attribute if applicable.  The	flags
	    are	formatted as a comma-separated list of the following possible
	    values:  Avoid, Binary, List, Mandatory, Permanent,	Protected,
	    Unknown and	Unsafe (see the	Tag Name documentation).  For XMP List
	    tags, the list type	(Alt, Bag or Seq) is added to the flags, and
	    flattened structure	tags are indicated by a	Flattened flag.

	    Note that none of the -list	options	require	an input FILE.

       -ver Print exiftool version number.  The	-v option may be added to
	    print addition system information (see the README file of the full
	    distribution for more details about	optional libraries), or	-v2 to
	    also list the Perl include directories.

       --   Indicates the end of options.  Any remaining arguments are treated
	    as file names, even	if they	begin with a dash ("-").

       Special features

       -geotag TRKFILE
	    Geotag images from the specified GPS track log file.  Using	the
	    -geotag option is equivalent to writing a value to the "Geotag"
	    tag.  The GPS position is interpolated from	the track at a time
	    specified by the value written to the "Geotime" tag.  If "Geotime"
	    is not specified, the value	is copied from "DateTimeOriginal#"
	    (the "#" is	added to copy the unformatted value, avoiding
	    potential conflicts	with the -d option).  For example, the
	    following two commands are equivalent:

		exiftool -geotag trk.log image.jpg
		exiftool -geotag trk.log "-Geotime<DateTimeOriginal#" image.jpg

	    When the "Geotime" value is	converted to UTC, the local system
	    timezone is	assumed	unless the date/time value contains a
	    timezone.  Writing "Geotime" causes	the following tags to be
	    written (provided they can be calculated from the track log, and
	    they are supported by the destination metadata format):
	    GPSLatitude, GPSLatitudeRef, GPSLongitude, GPSLongitudeRef,
	    GPSAltitude, GPSAltitudeRef, GPSDateStamp, GPSTimeStamp,
	    GPSDateTime, GPSTrack, GPSTrackRef,	GPSSpeed, GPSSpeedRef,
	    GPSImgDirection, GPSImgDirectionRef, GPSPitch, GPSRoll,
	    AmbientTemperature and CameraElevationAngle.  By default, tags are
	    created in EXIF, and updated in XMP	only if	they already exist.
	    However, "EXIF:Geotime" or "XMP:Geotime" may be specified to write
	    only EXIF or XMP tags respectively.	 Note that GPSPitch and
	    GPSRoll are	non-standard, and require user-defined tags in order
	    to be written.

	    The	"Geosync" tag may be used to specify a time correction which
	    is applied to each "Geotime" value for synchronization with	GPS
	    time.  For example,	the following command compensates for image
	    times which	are 1 minute and 20 seconds behind GPS:

		exiftool -geosync=+1:20	-geotag	a.log DIR

	    Advanced "Geosync" features	allow a	linear time drift correction
	    and	synchronization	from previously	geotagged images.  See
	    "geotag.html" in the full ExifTool distribution for	more

	    Multiple -geotag options may be used to concatenate	GPS track log
	    data.  Also, a single -geotag option may be	used to	load multiple
	    track log files by using wildcards in the TRKFILE name, but	note
	    that in this case TRKFILE must be quoted on	most systems (with the
	    notable exception of Windows) to prevent filename expansion.  For

		exiftool -geotag "TRACKDIR/*.log" IMAGEDIR

	    Currently supported	track file formats are GPX, NMEA RMC/GGA/GLL,
	    KML, IGC, Garmin XML and TCX, Magellan PMGNTRK, Honeywell PTNTHPR,
	    Bramor gEO,	Winplus	Beacon TXT, and	GPS/IMU	CSV files.  See
	    "GEOTAGGING	EXAMPLES" for examples.	Also see "geotag.html" in the
	    full ExifTool distribution and the Image::ExifTool Options for
	    more details and for information about geotag configuration

       -globalTimeShift	SHIFT
	    Shift all formatted	date/time values by the	specified amount when
	    reading.  Does not apply to	unformatted (-n) output.  SHIFT	takes
	    the	same form as the date/time shift when writing (see for details), with a negative shift
	    being indicated with a minus sign ("-") at the start of the	SHIFT
	    string.  For example:

		# return all date/times, shifted back by 1 hour
		exiftool -globalTimeShift -1 -time:all a.jpg

		# set the file name from the shifted CreateDate	(-1 day) for
		# all images in	a directory
		exiftool "-filename<createdate"	-globaltimeshift "-0:0:1 0:0:0"	\
		    -d %Y%m%d-%H%M%S.%%e dir

       -use MODULE
	    Add	features from specified	plug-in	MODULE.	 Currently, the	MWG
	    module is the only plug-in module distributed with exiftool.  This
	    module adds	read/write support for tags as recommended by the
	    Metadata Working Group.  As	a convenience, "-use MWG" is assumed
	    if the "MWG" group is specified for	any tag	on the command line.
	    See	the MWG	Tags documentation for more details.  Note that	this
	    option is not reversible, and remains in effect until the
	    application	terminates, even across	the "-execute" option.


	    These utility options automate the maintenance of the "_original"
	    files created by exiftool.	They have no effect on files without
	    an "_original" copy.  The -restore_original	option restores	the
	    specified files from their original	copies by renaming the
	    "_original"	files to replace the edited versions.  For example,
	    the	following command restores the originals of all	JPG images in
	    directory "DIR":

		exiftool -restore_original -ext	jpg DIR

	    The	-delete_original option	deletes	the "_original"	copies of all
	    files specified on the command line.  Without a trailing "!" this
	    option prompts for confirmation before continuing.	For example,
	    the	following command deletes "a.jpg_original" if it exists, after
	    asking "Are	you sure?":

		exiftool -delete_original a.jpg

	    These options may not be used with other options to	read or	write
	    tag	values in the same command, but	may be combined	with options
	    such -ext, -if, -r,	-q and -v.

       Advanced	options

       Among other things, the advanced	options	allow complex processing to be
       performed from a	single command without the need	for additional
       scripting.  This	may be particularly useful for implementations such as
       Windows drag-and-drop applications.  These options may also be used to
       improve performance in multi-pass processing by reducing	the overhead
       required	to load	exiftool for each invocation.

       -api OPT[[^]=[VAL]]
	    Set	ExifTool API option.  OPT is an	API option name.  The option
	    value is set to 1 if =VAL is omitted.  If VAL is omitted, the
	    option value is set	to undef if "="	is used, or an empty string
	    with "^=".	See Image::ExifTool Options for	a list of available
	    API	options.  This overrides API options set via the config	file.

	    Specifies that all arguments following this	option are common to
	    all	executed commands when -execute	is used.  This and the -config
	    option are the only	options	that may not be	used inside a -@
	    ARGFILE.  Note that	by definition this option and its arguments
	    MUST come after all	other options on the command line.

       -config CFGFILE
	    Load specified configuration file instead of the default
	    ".ExifTool_config".	 If used, this option must come	before all
	    other arguments on the command line	and applies to all -execute'd
	    commands.  The CFGFILE must	exist relative to the current working
	    directory or the exiftool application directory unless an absolute
	    path is specified.	Loading	of the default config file may be
	    disabled by	setting	CFGFILE	to an empty string (ie.	 "").  See
	    <> and config_files/example.config
	    in the full	ExifTool distribution for details about	the
	    configuration file syntax.

       -echo[NUM] TEXT
	    Echo TEXT to stdout	(-echo or -echo1) or stderr (-echo2).  Text is
	    output as the command line is parsed, before the processing	of any
	    input files.  NUM may also be 3 or 4 to output text	(to stdout or
	    stderr respectively) after processing is complete.	For -echo3 and
	    -echo4, "${status}"	may be used in the TEXT	string to represent
	    the	numerical exit status of the command (see "EXIT	STATUS").

       -efile[NUM][!] ERRFILE
	    Save the names of files giving errors (NUM missing or 1), files
	    that were unchanged	(NUM is	2), files that fail the	-if condition
	    (NUM is 4),	or any combination thereof (by summing NUM, eg.
	    -efile3 is the same	has having both	-efile and -efile2 options
	    with the same ERRFILE).  By	default, file names are	appended to
	    any	existing ERRFILE, but ERRFILE is overwritten if	an exclamation
	    point is added to the option (eg. -efile!).	 Saves the name	of the
	    file specified by the -srcfile option if applicable.

	    Execute command for	all arguments up to this point on the command
	    line (plus any arguments specified by -common_args).  The result
	    is as if the commands were executed	as separate command lines
	    (with the exception	of the -config and -use	options	which remain
	    in effect for subsequent commands).	 Allows	multiple commands to
	    be executed	from a single command line.  NUM is an optional	number
	    that is echoed in the "{ready}" message when using the -stay_open
	    feature.  If a NUM is specified, the -q option no longer
	    suppresses the output "{readyNUM}" message.

       -srcfile	FMT
	    Specify a different	source file to be processed based on the name
	    of the original FILE.  This	may be useful in some special
	    situations for processing related preview images or	sidecar	files.
	    See	the -w option for a description	of the FMT syntax.  Note that
	    file name FMT strings for all options are based on the original
	    FILE specified from	the command line, not the name of the source
	    file specified by -srcfile.

	    For	example, to copy metadata from NEF files to the	corresponding
	    JPG	previews in a directory	where other JPG	images may exist:

		exiftool -ext nef -tagsfromfile	@ -srcfile %d%f.jpg dir

	    If more than one -srcfile option is	specified, the files are
	    tested in order and	the first existing source file is processed.
	    If none of the source files	already	exist, then exiftool uses the
	    first -srcfile specified.

	    A FMT of "@" may be	used to	represent the original FILE, which may
	    be useful when specifying multiple -srcfile	options	(eg. to	fall
	    back to processing the original FILE if no sidecar exists).

	    When this option is	used, two special UserParam tags
	    (OriginalFileName and OriginalDirectory) are generated to allow
	    access to the original FILE	name and directory.

       -stay_open FLAG
	    If FLAG is 1 or "True" (case insensitive), causes exiftool keep
	    reading from the -@	ARGFILE	even after reaching the	end of file.
	    This feature allows	calling	applications to	pre-load exiftool,
	    thus avoiding the overhead of loading exiftool for each command.
	    The	procedure is as	follows:

	    1) Execute "exiftool -stay_open True -@ ARGFILE", where ARGFILE is
	    the	name of	an existing (possibly empty) argument file or "-" to
	    pipe arguments from	the standard input.

	    2) Write exiftool command-line arguments to	ARGFILE, one argument
	    per	line (see the -@ option	for details).

	    3) Write "-execute\n" to ARGFILE, where "\n" represents a newline
	    sequence.  (Note: You may need to flush your write buffers here if
	    using buffered output.)  ExifTool will then	execute	the command
	    with the arguments received	up to this point, send a "{ready}"
	    message to stdout when done	(unless	the -q or -T option is used),
	    and	continue trying	to read	arguments for the next command from
	    ARGFILE.  To aid in	command/response synchronization, any number
	    appended to	the "-execute" option is echoed	in the "{ready}"
	    message.  For example, "-execute613" results in "{ready613}".
	    When this number is	added, -q no longer suppresses the "{ready}"
	    message.  (Also, see the -echo3 and	-echo4 options for additional
	    ways to pass signals back to your application.)

	    4) Repeat steps 2 and 3 for	each command.

	    5) Write "-stay_open\nFalse\n" (or "-stay_open\n0\n") to ARGFILE
	    when done.	This will cause	exiftool to process any	remaining
	    command-line arguments then	exit normally.

	    The	input ARGFILE may be changed at	any time before	step 5 above
	    by writing the following lines to the currently open ARGFILE:


	    This causes	ARGFILE	to be closed, and NEWARGFILE to	be kept	open.
	    (Without the -stay_open here, exiftool would have returned to
	    reading arguments from ARGFILE after reaching the end of

	    Note:  When	writing	arguments to a disk file there is a delay of
	    up to 0.01 seconds after writing "-execute\n" before exiftool
	    starts processing the command.  This delay may be avoided by
	    sending a CONT signal to the exiftool process immediately after
	    writing "-execute\n".  (There is no	associated delay when writing
	    arguments via a pipe with "-@ -", so the signal is not necessary
	    when using this technique.)

       -userParam PARAM[[^]=[VAL]]
	    Set	user parameter.	 PARAM is an arbitrary user parameter name.
	    This is an interface to the	API UserParam option (see the
	    Image::ExifTool Options documentation), and	provides a method to
	    access user-defined	parameters in arguments	to the -if and -p
	    options as if they were any	other tag.  Appending a	hash tag ("#")
	    to PARAM (eg. "-userParam MyTag#=yes") also	causes the parameter
	    to be extracted as a normal	tag in the UserParam group.  Similar
	    to the -api	option,	the parameter value is set to 1	if =VAL	is
	    omitted, undef if just VAL is omitted with "=", or an empty	string
	    if VAL is omitted with "^=".

		exiftool -p '$test from	$filename' -userparam test=Hello FILE

       Advanced	formatting feature

       An advanced formatting feature allows modification of the value of any
       tag interpolated	within a -if or	-p option argument, or a -tagsFromFile
       redirection string.  Tag	names within these strings are prefixed	by a
       "$" symbol, and an arbitrary Perl expression may	be applied to the tag
       value by	placing	braces around the tag name and inserting the
       expression after	the name, separated by a semicolon (ie.
       "${TAG;EXPR}").	The expression acts on the value of the	tag through
       the default input variable ($_),	and has	access to the full ExifTool
       API through the current ExifTool	object ($self) and the tag key ($tag).
       It may contain any valid	Perl code, including translation ("tr///") and
       substitution ("s///") operations, but note that braces within the
       expression must be balanced.  The example below prints the camera Make
       with spaces translated to underlines, and multiple consecutive
       underlines replaced by a	single underline:

	   exiftool -p '${make;tr/ /_/;s/__+/_/g}' image.jpg

       An "@" may be added after the tag name to make the expression act on
       individual list items for list-type tags, simplifying list processing.
       Set $_ to undef to remove an item from the list.	 As an example,	the
       following command returns all subjects not containing the string	"xxx":

	   exiftool -p '${subject@;$_=undef if /xxx/}' image.jpg

       A default expression of "tr(/\\?*:|"<>\0)()d" is	assumed	if the
       expression is empty (ie.	"${TAG;}").  This removes the characters / \ ?
       * : | < > and null from the printed value.  (These characters are
       illegal in Windows file names, so this feature is useful	if tag values
       are used	in file	names.)

       Helper functions


       Simplifies reformatting of individual date/time values.	This function
       acts on a standard EXIF-formatted date/time value in $_ and formats it
       according to the	specified format string	(see the -d option).  To avoid
       trying to reformat an already-formatted date/time value,	a "#" must be
       added to	the tag	name (as in the	example	below) if the -d option	is
       also used.  For example:

	   exiftool -p '${createdate#;DateFmt("%Y-%m-%d_%H%M%S")}' a.jpg


       Shifts EXIF-formatted date/time string by a specified amount.  Start
       with a leading minus sign to shift backwards in time.  See for details about shift syntax.  For example,
       to shift	a date/time value back by one year:

	   exiftool -p '${createdate;ShiftTime("-1:0:0 0")}' a.jpg


       Removes duplicate items from a list with	a separator specified by the
       -sep option.  This function is most useful when copying list-type tags.
       For example, the	following command may be used to remove	duplicate

	   exiftool -sep '##' '-keywords<${keywords;NoDups}' a.jpg

       The -sep	option is necessary to split the string	back into individual
       list items when writing to a list-type tag.

       An optional flag	argument may be	set to 1 to cause "NoDups" to set $_
       to undef	if no duplicates existed, thus preventing the file from	being
       rewritten unnecessarily:

	   exiftool -sep '##' '-keywords<${keywords;NoDups(1)}'	a.jpg

       Note that function names	are case sensitive.

       In Windows, command-line	arguments are specified	using the current code
       page and	are recoded automatically to the system	code page.  This
       recoding	is not done for	arguments in ExifTool arg files, so by default
       filenames in arg	files use the system code page.	 Unfortunately,	these
       code pages are not complete character sets, so not all file names may
       be represented.

       ExifTool	9.79 and later allow the file name encoding to be specified
       with "-charset filename=CHARSET", where "CHARSET" is the	name of	a
       valid ExifTool character	set, preferably	"UTF8" (see the	-charset
       option for a complete list).  Setting this triggers the use of Windows
       wide-character i/o routines, thus providing support for most Unicode
       file names (see note 4).	 But note that it is not trivial to pass
       properly	encoded	file names on the Windows command line (see
       <> for details), so placing them in a
       UTF-8 encoded -@	argfile	and using "-charset filename=utf8" is
       recommended if possible.

       A warning is issued if a	specified filename contains special characters
       and the filename	character set was not provided.	 However, the warning
       may be disabled by setting "-charset filename=""", and ExifTool may
       still function correctly	if the system code page	matches	the character
       set used	for the	file names.

       When a directory	name is	provided, the file name	encoding need not be
       specified (unless the directory name contains special characters), and
       ExifTool	will automatically use wide-character routines to scan the

       The filename character set applies to the FILE arguments	as well	as
       filename	arguments of -@, -geotag, -o, -p, -srcfile, -tagsFromFile,
       -csv=, -j= and -TAG<=.  However,	it does	not apply to the -config
       filename, which always uses the system character	set.  The "-charset
       filename=" option must come before the -@ option	to be effective, but
       the order doesn't matter	with respect to	other options.


       1) FileName and Directory tag values still use the same encoding	as
       other tag values, and are converted to/from the filename	character set
       when writing/reading if specified.

       2) Unicode support is not yet implemented for other Windows-based
       systems like Cygwin.

       3) See "WRITING READ-ONLY FILES"	below for a note about editing read-
       only files with Unicode names.

       4) Unicode file names with surrogate pairs (code	points over U+FFFF)
       still cause problems.

       In general, ExifTool may	be used	to write metadata to read-only files
       provided	that the user has write	permission in the directory.  However,
       there are three cases where file	write permission is also required:

       1) When using the -overwrite_original_in_place option.

       2) When writing only pseudo System tags (eg. FileModifyDate).

       3) On Windows if	the file has Unicode characters	in its name, and a)
       the -overwrite_original option is used, or b) the "_original" backup
       already exists.

       Hidden files in Windows behave as read-only files when attempting to
       write any real tags to the file -- an error is generated	when using the
       -overwrite_original_in_place, otherwise writing should be successful
       and the hidden attribute	will be	removed.  But the -if option may be
       used to avoid processing	hidden files (provided Win32API::File is

	   exiftool -if	"$fileattributes !~ /Hidden/" ...

       Note: Beware when cutting and pasting these examples into your
       terminal!  Some characters such as single and double quotes and hyphens
       may have	been changed into similar-looking yet functionally-different
       characters by the text formatter	used to	display	this documentation.
       Also note that Windows users must use double quotes instead of single
       quotes as below around arguments	containing special characters.

       exiftool	-a -u -g1 a.jpg
	    Print all meta information in an image, including duplicate	and
	    unknown tags, sorted by group (for family 1).  For performance
	    reasons, this command may not extract all available	metadata.
	    (Metadata in embedded documents, metadata extracted	by external
	    utilities, and metadata requiring excessive	processing time	may
	    not	be extracted).	Add "-ee" and "-api RequestAll=3" to the
	    command to extract absolutely everything available.

       exiftool	-common	dir
	    Print common meta information for all images in "dir".  "-common"
	    is a shortcut tag representing common EXIF meta information.

       exiftool	-T -createdate -aperture -shutterspeed -iso dir	> out.txt
	    List specified meta	information in tab-delimited column form for
	    all	images in "dir"	to an output text file named "out.txt".

       exiftool	-s -ImageSize -ExposureTime b.jpg
	    Print ImageSize and	ExposureTime tag names and values.

       exiftool	-l -canon c.jpg	d.jpg
	    Print standard Canon information from two image files.

       exiftool	-r -w .txt -common pictures
	    Recursively	extract	common meta information	from files in
	    "pictures" directory, writing text output to ".txt"	files with the
	    same names.

       exiftool	-b -ThumbnailImage image.jpg > thumbnail.jpg
	    Save thumbnail image from "image.jpg" to a file called

       exiftool	-b -JpgFromRaw -w _JFR.JPG -ext	NEF -r .
	    Recursively	extract	JPG image from all Nikon NEF files in the
	    current directory, adding "_JFR.JPG" for the name of the output
	    JPG	files.

       exiftool	-a -b -W %d%f_%t%-c.%s -preview:all dir
	    Extract all	types of preview images	(ThumbnailImage, PreviewImage,
	    JpgFromRaw,	etc.) from files in directory "dir", adding the	tag
	    name to the	output preview image file names.

       exiftool	-d '%r %a, %B %e, %Y' -DateTimeOriginal	-S -s -ext jpg .
	    Print formatted date/time for all JPG files	in the current

       exiftool	-IFD1:XResolution -IFD1:YResolution image.jpg
	    Extract image resolution from EXIF IFD1 information	(thumbnail
	    image IFD).

       exiftool	'-*resolution*'	image.jpg
	    Extract all	tags with names	containing the word "Resolution" from
	    an image.

       exiftool	-xmp:author:all	-a image.jpg
	    Extract all	author-related XMP information from an image.

       exiftool	-xmp -b	a.jpg >	out.xmp
	    Extract complete XMP data record intact from "a.jpg" and write it
	    to "out.xmp" using the special "XMP" tag (see the Extra tags in

       exiftool	-p '$filename has date $dateTimeOriginal' -q -f	dir
	    Print one line of output containing	the file name and
	    DateTimeOriginal for each image in directory "dir".

       exiftool	-ee -p '$gpslatitude, $gpslongitude, $gpstimestamp' a.m2ts
	    Extract all	GPS positions from an AVCHD video.

       exiftool	-icc_profile -b	-w icc image.jpg
	    Save complete ICC_Profile from an image to an output file with the
	    same name and an extension of ".icc".

       exiftool	-htmldump -w tmp/%f_%e.html t/images
	    Generate HTML pages	from a hex dump	of EXIF	information in all
	    images from	the "t/images" directory.  The output HTML files are
	    written to the "tmp" directory (which is created if	it didn't
	    exist), with names of the form 'FILENAME_EXT.html'.

       exiftool	-a -b -ee -embeddedimage -W Image_%.3g3.%s file.pdf
	    Extract embedded JPG and JP2 images	from a PDF file.  The output
	    images will	have file names	like "Image_#.jpg" or "Image_#.jp2",
	    where "#" is the ExifTool family 3 embedded	document number	for
	    the	image.

       Note that quotes	are necessary around arguments which contain certain
       special characters such as ">", "<" or any white	space.	These quoting
       techniques are shell dependent, but the examples	below will work	for
       most Unix shells.  With the Windows cmd shell however, double quotes
       should be used (eg. -Comment="This is a new comment").

       exiftool	-Comment='This is a new	comment' dst.jpg
	    Write new comment to a JPG image (replaces any existing comment).

       exiftool	-comment= -o newdir -ext jpg .
	    Remove comment from	all JPG	images in the current directory,
	    writing the	modified images	to a new directory.

       exiftool	-keywords=EXIF -keywords=editor	dst.jpg
	    Replace existing keyword list with two new keywords	("EXIF"	and

       exiftool	-Keywords+=word	-o newfile.jpg src.jpg
	    Copy a source image	to a new file, and add a keyword ("word") to
	    the	current	list of	keywords.

       exiftool	-exposurecompensation+=-0.5 a.jpg
	    Decrement the value	of ExposureCompensation	by 0.5 EV.  Note that
	    += with a negative value is	used for decrementing because the -=
	    operator is	used for conditional deletion (see next	example).

       exiftool	-credit-=xxx dir
	    Delete Credit information from all files in	a directory where the
	    Credit value was "xxx".

       exiftool	-xmp:description-de='k&uuml;hl'	-E dst.jpg
	    Write alternate language for XMP:Description, using	HTML character
	    escaping to	input special characters.

       exiftool	-all= dst.jpg
	    Delete all meta information	from an	image.	Note: You should NOT
	    do this to RAW images (except DNG) since proprietary RAW image
	    formats often contain information in the makernotes	that is
	    necessary for converting the image.

       exiftool	-all= -comment='lonely'	dst.jpg
	    Delete all meta information	from an	image and add a	comment	back
	    in.	 (Note that the	order is important: "-comment='lonely' -all="
	    would also delete the new comment.)

       exiftool	-all= --jfif:all dst.jpg
	    Delete all meta information	except JFIF group from an image.

       exiftool	-Photoshop:All=	dst.jpg
	    Delete Photoshop meta information from an image (note that the
	    Photoshop information also includes	IPTC).

       exiftool	-r -XMP-crss:all= DIR
	    Recursively	delete all XMP-crss information	from images in a

       exiftool	'-ThumbnailImage<=thumb.jpg' dst.jpg
	    Set	the thumbnail image from specified file	(Note: The quotes are
	    necessary to prevent shell redirection).

       exiftool	'-JpgFromRaw<=%d%f_JFR.JPG' -ext NEF -r	.
	    Recursively	write JPEG images with filenames ending	in "_JFR.JPG"
	    to the JpgFromRaw tag of like-named	files with extension ".NEF" in
	    the	current	directory.  (This is the inverse of the	"-JpgFromRaw"
	    command of the "READING EXAMPLES" section above.)

       exiftool	-DateTimeOriginal-='0:0:0 1:30:0' dir
	    Adjust original date/time of all images in directory "dir" by
	    subtracting	one hour and 30	minutes.  (This	is equivalent to
	    "-DateTimeOriginal-=1.5".  See for

       exiftool	-createdate+=3 -modifydate+=3 a.jpg b.jpg
	    Add	3 hours	to the CreateDate and ModifyDate timestamps of two

       exiftool	-AllDates+=1:30	-if '$make eq "Canon"' dir
	    Shift the values of	DateTimeOriginal, CreateDate and ModifyDate
	    forward by 1 hour and 30 minutes for all Canon images in a
	    directory.	(The AllDates tag is provided as a shortcut for	these
	    three tags,	allowing them to be accessed via a single tag.)

       exiftool	-xmp:city=Kingston image1.jpg image2.nef
	    Write a tag	to the XMP group of two	images.	 (Without the "xmp:"
	    this tag would get written to the IPTC group since "City" exists
	    in both, and IPTC is preferred by default.)

       exiftool	-LightSource-='Unknown (0)' dst.tiff
	    Delete "LightSource" tag only if it	is unknown with	a value	of 0.

       exiftool	-whitebalance-=auto -WhiteBalance=tung dst.jpg
	    Set	"WhiteBalance" to "Tungsten" only if it	was previously "Auto".

       exiftool	-comment-= -comment='new comment' a.jpg
	    Write a new	comment	only if	the image doesn't have one already.

       exiftool	-o %d%f.xmp dir
	    Create XMP meta information	data files for all images in "dir".

       exiftool	-o test.xmp -owner=Phil	-title='XMP File'
	    Create an XMP data file only from tags defined on the command

       exiftool	'-ICC_Profile<=%d%f.icc' image.jpg
	    Write ICC_Profile to an image from a ".icc"	file of	the same name.

       exiftool	-hierarchicalkeywords='{keyword=one,children={keyword=B}}'
	    Write structured XMP information.  See
	    <> for more	details.

       exiftool	-trailer:all= image.jpg
	    Delete any trailer found after the end of image (EOI) in a JPEG
	    file.  A number of digital cameras store a large PreviewImage
	    after the JPEG EOI,	and the	file size may be reduced significantly
	    by deleting	this trailer.  See the JPEG Tags documentation for a
	    list of recognized JPEG trailers.

       These examples demonstrate the ability to copy tag values between

       exiftool	-tagsFromFile src.cr2 dst.jpg
	    Copy the values of all writable tags from "src.cr2"	to "dst.jpg",
	    writing the	information to same-named tags in the preferred

       exiftool	-TagsFromFile src.jpg -all:all dst.jpg
	    Copy the values of all writable tags from "src.jpg"	to "dst.jpg",
	    preserving the original tag	groups.

       exiftool	-all= -tagsfromfile src.jpg -exif:all dst.jpg
	    Erase all meta information from "dst.jpg" image, then copy EXIF
	    tags from "src.jpg".

       exiftool	-exif:all= -tagsfromfile @ -all:all -unsafe bad.jpg
	    Rebuild all	EXIF meta information from scratch in an image.	 This
	    technique can be used in JPEG images to repair corrupted EXIF
	    information	which otherwise	could not be written due to errors.
	    The	"Unsafe" tag is	a shortcut for unsafe EXIF tags	in JPEG	images
	    which are not normally copied.  See	the tag	name documentation for
	    more details about unsafe tags.

       exiftool	-Tagsfromfile a.jpg out.xmp
	    Copy meta information from "a.jpg" to an XMP data file.  If	the
	    XMP	data file "out.xmp" already exists, it will be updated with
	    the	new information.  Otherwise the	XMP data file will be created.
	    Only metadata-only files may be created like this (files
	    containing images may be edited but	not created).  See "WRITING
	    EXAMPLES" above for	another	technique to generate XMP files.

       exiftool	-tagsFromFile a.jpg -XMP:All= -ThumbnailImage= -m b.jpg
	    Copy all meta information from "a.jpg" to "b.jpg", deleting	all
	    XMP	information and	the thumbnail image from the destination.

       exiftool	-TagsFromFile src.jpg -title -author=Phil dst.jpg
	    Copy title from one	image to another and set a new author name.

       exiftool	-TagsFromFile a.jpg -ISO -TagsFromFile b.jpg -comment dst.jpg
	    Copy ISO from one image and	Comment	from another image to a
	    destination	image.

       exiftool	-tagsfromfile src.jpg -exif:all	--subifd:all dst.jpg
	    Copy only the EXIF information from	one image to another,
	    excluding SubIFD tags.

       exiftool	'-FileModifyDate<DateTimeOriginal' dir
	    Use	the original date from the meta	information to set the same
	    file's filesystem modification date	for all	images in a directory.
	    (Note that "-TagsFromFile @" is assumed if no other	-TagsFromFile
	    is specified when redirecting information as in this example.)

       exiftool	-TagsFromFile src.jpg '-xmp:all<all' dst.jpg
	    Copy all possible information from "src.jpg" and write in XMP
	    format to "dst.jpg".

       exiftool	'-Description<${FileName;s/\.[^.]*$//}'	dir
	    Set	the image Description from the file name after removing	the
	    extension.	This example uses the "Advanced	formatting feature" to
	    perform a substitution operation to	remove the last	dot and
	    subsequent characters from the file	name.

       exiftool	-@ iptc2xmp.args -iptc:all= a.jpg
	    Translate IPTC information to XMP with appropriate tag name
	    conversions, and delete the	original IPTC information from an
	    image.  This example uses iptc2xmp.args, which is a	file included
	    with the ExifTool distribution that	contains the required
	    arguments to convert IPTC information to XMP format.  Also
	    included with the distribution are xmp2iptc.args (which performs
	    the	inverse	conversion) and	a few more .args files for other
	    conversions	between	EXIF, IPTC and XMP.

       exiftool	-tagsfromfile %d%f.CR2 -r -ext JPG dir
	    Recursively	rewrite	all "JPG" images in "dir" with information
	    copied from	the corresponding "CR2"	images in the same

       exiftool	'-keywords+<make' image.jpg
	    Add	camera make to list of keywords.

       exiftool	'-comment<ISO=$exif:iso	Exposure=${shutterspeed}' dir
	    Set	the Comment tag	of all images in "dir" from the	values of the
	    EXIF:ISO and ShutterSpeed tags.  The resulting comment will	be in
	    the	form "ISO=100 Exposure=1/60".

       exiftool	-TagsFromFile src.jpg -icc_profile dst.jpg
	    Copy ICC_Profile from one image to another.

       exiftool	-TagsFromFile src.jpg -all:all dst.mie
	    Copy all meta information in its original form from	a JPEG image
	    to a MIE file.  The	MIE file will be created if it doesn't exist.
	    This technique can be used to store	the metadata of	an image so it
	    can	be inserted back into the image	(with the inverse command)
	    later in a workflow.

       exiftool	-o dst.mie -all:all src.jpg
	    This command performs exactly the same task	as the command above,
	    except that	the -o option will not write to	an output file that
	    already exists.

       exiftool	-b -jpgfromraw -w %d%f_%ue.jpg -execute	-b -previewimage -w
       %d%f_%ue.jpg -execute -tagsfromfile @ -srcfile %d%f_%ue.jpg
       -overwrite_original -common_args	--ext jpg DIR
	    [Advanced] Extract JpgFromRaw or PreviewImage from all but JPG
	    files in DIR, saving them with file	names like "image_EXT.jpg",
	    then add all meta information from the original files to the
	    extracted images.  Here, the command line is broken	into three
	    sections (separated	by -execute options), and each is executed as
	    if it were a separate command.  The	-common_args option causes the
	    "--ext jpg DIR" arguments to be applied to all three commands, and
	    the	-srcfile option	allows the extracted JPG image to be the
	    source file	for the	third command (whereas the RAW files are the
	    source files for the other two commands).

       By writing the "FileName" and "Directory" tags, files are renamed
       and/or moved to new directories.	 This can be particularly useful and
       powerful	for organizing files by	date when combined with	the -d option.
       New directories are created as necessary, but existing files will not
       be overwritten.	The format codes %d, %f	and %e may be used in the new
       file name to represent the directory, name and extension	of the
       original	file, and %c may be used to add	a copy number if the file
       already exists (see the -w option for details).	Note that if used
       within a	date format string, an extra '%' must be added to pass these
       codes through the date/time parser.  (And further note that in a
       Windows batch file, all '%' characters must also	be escaped, so in this
       extreme case '%%%%f' is necessary to pass a simple '%f' through the two
       levels of parsing.)  See	<> for
       additional documentation	and examples.

       exiftool	-filename=new.jpg dir/old.jpg
	    Rename "old.jpg" to	"new.jpg" in directory "dir".

       exiftool	-directory=%e dir
	    Move all files from	directory "dir"	into directories named by the
	    original file extensions.

       exiftool	'-Directory<DateTimeOriginal' -d %Y/%m/%d dir
	    Move all files in "dir" into a directory hierarchy based on	year,
	    month and day of "DateTimeOriginal".  eg) This command would move
	    the	file "dir/image.jpg" with a "DateTimeOriginal" of "2005:10:12
	    16:05:56" to "2005/10/12/image.jpg".

       exiftool	-o . '-Directory<DateTimeOriginal' -d %Y/%m/%d dir
	    Same effect	as above except	files are copied instead of moved.

       exiftool	'-filename<%f_${model;}.%e' dir
	    Rename all files in	"dir" by adding	the camera model name to the
	    file name.	The semicolon after the	tag name inside	the braces
	    causes characters which are	invalid	in Windows file	names to be
	    deleted from the tag value (see the	"Advanced formatting feature"
	    for	an explanation).

       exiftool	'-FileName<CreateDate' -d %Y%m%d_%H%M%S%%-c.%%e	dir
	    Rename all images in "dir" according to the	"CreateDate" date and
	    time, adding a copy	number with leading '-'	if the file already
	    exists ("%-c"), and	preserving the original	file extension (%e).
	    Note the extra '%' necessary to escape the filename	codes (%c and
	    %e)	in the date format string.

       exiftool	-r '-FileName<CreateDate' -d %Y-%m-%d/%H%M_%%f.%%e dir
	    Both the directory and the filename	may be changed together	via
	    the	"FileName" tag if the new "FileName" contains a	'/'.  The
	    example above recursively renames all images in a directory	by
	    adding a "CreateDate" timestamp to the start of the	filename, then
	    moves them into new	directories named by date.

       exiftool	'-FileName<${CreateDate}_$filenumber.jpg' -d %Y%m%d -ext jpg .
	    Set	the filename of	all JPG	images in the current directory	from
	    the	CreateDate and FileNumber tags,	in the form

       ExifTool	implements geotagging via 3 special tags: Geotag (which	for
       convenience is also implemented as an exiftool option), Geosync and
       Geotime.	 The examples below highlight some geotagging features.	 See
       <> for additional documentation.

       exiftool	-geotag	track.log a.jpg
	    Geotag an image ("a.jpg") from position information	in a GPS track
	    log	("track.log").	Since the "Geotime" tag	is not specified, the
	    value of DateTimeOriginal is used for geotagging.  Local system
	    time is assumed unless DateTimeOriginal contains a timezone.

       exiftool	-geotag	t.log -geotime='2009:04:02 13:41:12-05:00' a.jpg
	    Geotag an image with the GPS position for a	specific time.

       exiftool	-geotag	log.gpx	'-xmp:geotime<createdate' dir
	    Geotag all images in directory "dir" with XMP tags instead of EXIF
	    tags, based	on the image CreateDate.

       exiftool	-geotag	a.log -geosync=-20 dir
	    Geotag images in directory "dir", accounting for image timestamps
	    which were 20 seconds ahead	of GPS.

       exiftool	-geotag	a.log -geosync=1.jpg -geosync=2.jpg dir
	    Geotag images using	time synchronization from two previously
	    geotagged images (1.jpg and	2.jpg),	synchronizing the image	and
	    GPS	times using a linear time drift	correction.

       exiftool	-geotag	a.log '-geotime<${createdate}+01:00' dir
	    Geotag images in "dir" using CreateDate with the specified
	    timezone.  If CreateDate already contained a timezone, then	the
	    timezone specified on the command line is ignored.

       exiftool	-geotag= a.jpg
	    Delete GPS tags which may have been	added by the geotag feature.
	    Note that this does	not remove all GPS tags	-- to do this instead
	    use	"-gps:all=".

       exiftool	-xmp:geotag= a.jpg
	    Delete XMP GPS tags	which were added by the	geotag feature.

       exiftool	-xmp:geotag=track.log a.jpg
	    Geotag an image with XMP tags, using the time from

       exiftool	-geotag	a.log -geotag b.log -r dir
	    Combine multiple track logs	and geotag an entire directory tree of

       exiftool	-geotag	'tracks/*.log' -r dir
	    Read all track logs	from the "tracks" directory.

       exiftool	-p gpx.fmt -d %Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%SZ dir > out.gpx
	    Generate a GPX track log from all images in	directory "dir".  This
	    example uses the "gpx.fmt" file included in	the full ExifTool
	    distribution package and assumes that the images in	"dir" have all
	    been previously geotagged.

       cat a.jpg | exiftool -
	    Extract information	from stdin.

       exiftool	image.jpg -thumbnailimage -b | exiftool	-
	    Extract information	from an	embedded thumbnail image.

       cat a.jpg | exiftool -iptc:keywords+=fantastic -	> b.jpg
	    Add	an IPTC	keyword	in a pipeline, saving output to	a new file.

       curl -s | exiftool -fast	-
	    Extract information	from an	image over the internet	using the cURL
	    utility.  The -fast	option prevents	exiftool from scanning for
	    trailer information, so only the meta information header is

       exiftool	a.jpg -thumbnailimage -b | exiftool -comment=wow - | exiftool
       a.jpg -thumbnailimage'<=-'
	    Add	a comment to an	embedded thumbnail image.  (Why	anyone would
	    want to do this I don't know, but I've included this as an example
	    to illustrate the flexibility of ExifTool.)

       Interrupting exiftool with a CTRL-C or SIGINT will not result in
       partially written files or temporary files remaining on the hard	disk.
       The exiftool application	traps SIGINT and defers	it until the end of
       critical	processes if necessary,	then does a proper cleanup before

       The exiftool application	exits with a status of 0 on success, or	1 if
       an error	occurred, or 2 if all files failed the -if condition (for any
       of the commands if -execute was used).

       Copyright 2003-2021, Phil Harvey

       This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
       the same	terms as Perl itself.

       Image::ExifTool(3pm), Image::ExifTool::TagNames(3pm),

perl v5.32.1			  2021-01-06			   EXIFTOOL(1)


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