Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages


home | help
exa(1)									exa(1)

       exa - a modern replacement for ls

       exa [options] [files]...

       exa is a	modern replacement for ls.  It uses colours for	information by
       default,	helping	you distinguish	between	many types of files,  such  as
       whether	you  are the owner, or in the owning group.  It	also has extra
       features	not present in the original ls,	such as	viewing	the Git	status
       for a directory,	or recursing into directories with a tree view.

       -1, --oneline
	      display one entry	per line

       -G, --grid
	      display entries as a grid	(default)

       -l, --long
	      display extended file metadata as	a table

       -x, --across
	      sort the grid across, rather than	downwards

       -R, --recurse
	      recurse into directories

       -T, --tree
	      recurse into directories as a tree

       -F, --classify
	      display type indicator by	file names

       --color,	--colour=WHEN
	      when to use terminal colours (always, automatic, never)

       --color-scale, --colour-scale
	      highlight	levels of file sizes distinctly

       -a, --all
	      show  hidden and 'dot' files.  Use this twice to also show the .
	      and .. directories.

       -d, --list-dirs
	      list directories like regular files

       -L, --level=DEPTH
	      limit the	depth of recursion

       -r, --reverse
	      reverse the sort order

       -s, --sort=SORT_FIELD
	      which field to sort by.  Valid fields are	name, Name, extension,
	      Extension,  size,	 modified,  changed, accessed, created,	inode,
	      type, and	none.  The modified field has the aliases date,	 time,
	      and  newest,  and	its reverse order has the aliases age and old-
	      est.  Fields starting with a capital letter will sort  uppercase
	      before lowercase:	'A' then 'B' then 'a' then 'b'.	 Fields	start-
	      ing with a lowercase letter will mix them: 'A' then 'a' then 'B'
	      then 'b'.

       -I, --ignore-glob=GLOBS
	      Glob patterns, pipe-separated, of	files to ignore

	      ignore files mentioned in	'.gitignore'

	      list directories before other files

       -D, --only-dirs
	      list only	directories

       These options are available when	running	with --long (-l):

       -b, --binary
	      list file	sizes with binary prefixes

       -B, --bytes
	      list file	sizes in bytes,	without	any prefixes

       -g, --group
	      list each	file's group

       -h, --header
	      add a header row to each column

       -H, --links
	      list each	file's number of hard links

       -i, --inode
	      list each	file's inode number

       -m, --modified
	      use the modified timestamp field

       -S, --blocks
	      list each	file's number of file system blocks

       -t, --time=WORD
	      which timestamp field to list (modified, changed,	accessed, cre-

	      how to format timestamps (default, iso, long-iso,	full-iso)

       -u, --accessed
	      use the accessed timestamp field

       -U, --created
	      use the created timestamp	field

       -@, --extended
	      list each	file's extended	attributes and sizes

       --git  list each	file's Git status, if tracked

       To display a list of files, with	the largest at the top:

	      exa --reverse --sort=size

       To display a tree of files, three levels	deep:

	      exa --long --tree	--level=3

       exa responds to the following environment variables:

       Overrides the width of the terminal, in characters.  For	example,  COL-
       UMNS=80 exa  will  show	a grid view with a maximum width of 80 charac-

       This option won't do anything when exa's	output doesn't wrap,  such  as
       when using the --long view.

       Enables	strict	mode,  which will make exa error when two command-line
       options are incompatible.  Usually, options can override	each other go-
       ing  right-to-left  on  the  command  line,  so	that  exa can be given
       aliases:	  creating   an	  alias	  exa=exa --sort=ext   then    running
       exa --sort=size	with  that  alias will run exa --sort=ext --sort=size,
       and the sorting specified by the	user will override the sorting	speci-
       fied  by	 the alias.  In	strict mode, the two options will not co-oper-
       ate, and	exa will error.

       This option is intended for use with automated scripts and other	situa-
       tions where you want to be certain you're typing	in the right command.

       Limits the grid-details view (exa --grid	--long)	so it's	only activated
       when at least the given number of rows of output	 would	be  generated.
       With  widescreen	displays, it's possible	for the	grid to	look very wide
       and sparse, on just one or two lines with none of  the  columns	lining
       up.   By	specifying a minimum number of rows, you can only use the view
       if it's going to	be worth using.

       The EXA_COLORS variable is  the	traditional  way  of  customising  the
       colours used by ls.

       You  can	 use  the dircolors program to generate	a script that sets the
       variable	from an	input file, or if you don't mind editing long  strings
       of  text,  you can just type it out directly.  These variables have the
       following structure:

       o A list	of key-value pairs separated by	=, such	as *.txt=32.

       o Multiple  ANSI	 formatting  codes  are	 separated  by	;,   such   as

       o Finally,    multiple	 pairs	 are   separated   by	:,   such   as

       The key half of the pair	can either be a	 two-letter  code  or  a  file
       glob,  and  anything that's not a valid code will be treated as a glob,
       including keys that happen to be	two letters long.

       LS_COLORS can use these ten codes:

       o di, directories

       o ex, executable	files

       o fi, regular files

       o pi, named pipes

       o so, sockets

       o bd, block devices

       o cd, character devices

       o ln, symlinks

       o or, symlinks with no target

       EXA_COLORS can use many more:

       o ur, the user-read permission bit

       o uw, the user-write permission bit

       o ux, the user-execute permission bit for regular files

       o ue, the user-execute for other	file kinds

       o gr, the group-read permission bit

       o gw, the group-write permission	bit

       o gx, the group-execute permission bit

       o tr, the others-read permission	bit

       o tw, the others-write permission bit

       o tx, the others-execute	permission bit

       o su, setuid, setgid, and sticky	permission bits	for files

       o sf, setuid, setgid, and sticky	for other file kinds

       o xa, the extended attribute indicator

       o sn, the numbers of a file's size

       o sb, the units of a file's size

       o df, a device's	major ID

       o ds, a device's	minor ID

       o uu, a user that's you

       o un, a user that's someone else

       o gu, a group that you belong to

       o gn, a group you aren't	a member of

       o lc, a number of hard links

       o lm, a number of hard links for	a regular file with at least two

       o ga, a new flag	in Git

       o gm, a modified	flag in	Git

       o gd, a deleted flag in Git

       o gv, a renamed flag in Git

       o gt, a modified	metadata flag in Git

       o xx, "punctuation", including many background UI elements

       o da, a file's date

       o in, a file's inode number

       o bl, a file's number of	blocks

       o hd, the header	row of a table

       o lp, the path of a symlink

       o cc, an	escaped	character in a filename

       o bO, the overlay style for broken symlink paths

       Values in EXA_COLORS override those given in LS_COLORS,	so  you	 don't
       need to re-write	an existing LS_COLORS variable with proprietary	exten-

       Unlike some versions of ls, the given ANSI values must be valid	colour
       codes:  exa  won't  just	print out whichever characters are given.  The
       codes accepted by exa are:

       o 1, for	bold

       o 4, for	underline

       o 31, for red text

       o 32, for green text

       o 33, for yellow	text

       o 34, for blue text

       o 35, for purple	text

       o 36, for cyan text

       o 37, for white text

       o 38;5;nnn, for a colour	from 0 to 255 (replace the nnn part)

       Many terminals will treat bolded	text as	 a  different  colour,	or  at
       least provide the option	to.

       exa provides its	own built-in set of file extension mappings that cover
       a large range of	common file extensions,	including documents, archives,
       media,  and temporary files.  Any mappings in the environment variables
       will override this default set: running exa  with  LS_COLORS="*.zip=32"
       will  turn  zip	files  green but leave the colours of other compressed
       files alone.

       You can also disable this built-in set entirely by  including  a	 reset
       entry  at  the  beginning  of  EXA_COLORS.   So setting EXA_COLORS="re-
       set:*.txt=31" will highlight only text files;  setting  EXA_COLORS="re-
       set" will highlight nothing.

       o Disable the "current user" highlighting: EXA_COLORS="uu=0:gu=0"

       o Turn the date column green: EXA_COLORS="da=32"

       o Highlight Vagrantfiles: EXA_COLORS="Vagrantfile=1;4;33"

       o Override the existing zip colour: EXA_COLORS="*.zip=38;5;125"

       o Markdown  files a shade of green, log files a shade of	grey: EXA_COL-

       o "Immediate" files are the files you should look at  when  downloading
	 and  building	a  project  for	 the  first  time: READMEs, Makefiles,
	 Cargo.toml, and others.  They're highlighted  in  yellow  and	under-

       o Images	(png, jpeg, gif) are purple.

       o Videos	(mp4, ogv, m2ts) are a slightly	purpler	purple.

       o Music (mp3, m4a, ogg) is a deeper purple.

       o Lossless music	(flac, alac, wav) is deeper than that purple.  In gen-
	 eral, most media files	are some shade of purple.

       o Cryptographic files (asc, enc,	p12) are a faint blue.

       o Documents (pdf, doc, dvi) are a less faint blue.

       o Compressed files (zip,	tgz, Z)	are red.

       o Temporary files (tmp, swp, ~) are grey.

       o Compiled files	(class,	o, pyc)	are faint  orange.   A	file  is  also
	 counted  as compiled if it uses a common extension and	is in the same
	 directory as one of its source	files: 'styles.css' will count as com-
	 piled	when  next to 'styles.less' or 'styles.sass', and 'scripts.js'
	 when next to 'scripts.ts' or ''.

       exa is maintained by Benjamin 'ogham' Sago and many other contributors.
       You can view the	full list at <

exa 0.9.0			  2019-07-15				exa(1)


Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:

home | help