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ex(1)			    General Commands Manual			 ex(1)

NAME
       ex, edit	- extended line-oriented text editor

SYNOPSIS
       tag] size] command] [file ...]

   XPG4	Synopsis
       command]	tag] size] [file ...]

   Obsolescent Options
       command]	tag] size] [file ...]

       tag] size] command] [file ...]

   Remarks
       The  program  names and are separate personalities of the same program.
       This manual entry describes the behavior	of the personality.   On  many
       HP-UX and other similar systems,	is a synonym for

DESCRIPTION
       The program is the line-oriented	personality of a text editor that also
       supports	screen-oriented	editing	(see vi(1)).

       (XPG4 only.)  Certain block-mode	terminals do not have all the capabil-
       ities  necessary	 to support the	complete definition, such as the full-
       screen editing commands (mode or	mode).	When these commands cannot  be
       supported  on  such  terminals, this condition shall neither produce an
       error message such as "not an editor command" nor report	a  syntax  er-
       ror.

       The program is identical	to except that some editor option defaults are
       altered to make the editor somewhat friendlier for beginning and	casual
       users (see Editor Options below).

   Options and Arguments
       recognizes the following	command-line options and arguments:
       (Obsolescent)  Suppress	all interactive-user feedback.	This is	useful
       when editor commands are	taken from scripts.

       (XPG4 only.)

	      Suppress all interactive-user feedback.  This is useful when ed-
	      itor commands are	taken from scripts.

	      Ignore the value of the and any implementation terminal type and
	      assume the terminal is a type  incapable	of  supporting	visual
	      mode.

	      Suppress	the use	of the environment variable and	the reading of
	      the file.

       Set the
	      editor option (see Editor	Options	below).

       Recover the specified
	      files after an editor or system crash.  If no file is specified,
	      a	 list of all saved files is printed.  You must be the owner of
	      the saved	file in	order to recover it (superuser cannot  recover
	      files owned by other users).

       Set the
	      editor  option  to prevent overwriting a file inadvertently (see
	      Editor Options below).

       (XPG4 only.)
	      Edit the file containing the specified tag and proceed as	if the
	      first command were tag.  The tags	represented by the tag and the
	      command is optional. It shall be provided	 on  any  system  that
	      also  provides a confirming implementation of Otherwise, the use
	      of the produces undefined	results.

	      Execute the tag command to load and position a predefined	 file.
	      See the command in Command Descriptions and the editor option in
	      Editor Options below.

       Invoke visual mode

       Set the value of	the
	      editor option to size (see Editor	Options	below).	  If  size  is
	      omitted, it defaults to

       Set encryption mode.
	      You  are	prompted for a key to initiate the creation or editing
	      of an encrypted file (see	the command  in	 Command  Descriptions
	      below).

       Encryption option. Same as the
	      option, except that all text read	in is assumed to have been en-
	      crypted.

       (XPG4 only.)
       (Obsolescent)
	      Begin editing by executing the specified search  or  positioning
	      command.

       file   Specify  the  file or files to be	edited.	 If more than one file
	      is specified, they are processed in the order given.  If the op-
	      tion  is	also  specified,  the files are	read from the recovery
	      area.

       (XPG4 only.)  If	both the tag and command options are  given,  the  tag
       shall  be  processed first;i.e, the file	containing the tag is selected
       by the and then the command is executed.

   Definitions
       The name	of the file being edited by is called the current file.	  Text
       from the	current	file is	read into a work area, and all editing changes
       are performed on	this work area.	 Changes do not	 affect	 the  original
       file  until  the	 work area is explicitly written back to the file.  If
       the character is	used as	a file name, it	is  replaced  by  the  current
       file name.

       The  alternate file is the name of the last file	mentioned in an	editor
       command,	or the previous	current	file name if the last  file  mentioned
       becomes	the current file.  If the character is used as a file name, it
       is replaced by the alternate file name.

       Twenty-six buffers named	through	can be used for	saving blocks of  text
       during the edit.	 If the	buffer name is specified in uppercase, text is
       appended	to the existing	buffer contents	rather than overwriting	it.

       The flag	can be cleared from within the editor by  setting  the	editor
       option  (see Editor Options below).  Writing to a different file	is al-
       lowed even when the flag	is set.	 Also, a write can be forced to	a file
       by  using  after	the write command (see the command in Command Descrip-
       tions below).

       If an interrupt signal is received, and	commands  are  being  supplied
       from  a keyboard, returns to command mode.  If editor commands are com-
       ing from	a file,	an interrupt signal causes to abort.

       If the system crashes or	aborts due to an internal error	or  unexpected
       signal,	attempts  to  preserve	the work area if any unwritten changes
       were made.  Use the command-line	option to retrieve the saved changes.

       starts up in command mode, as indicated by the colon prompt.   switches
       to  input mode whenever an or command is	encountered.  To terminate in-
       put mode	and return to command mode, type a period alone	at the	begin-
       ning of a line.

       Command	lines  beginning with a	quotation mark () are ignored (this is
       useful for placing comments in an editor	script).

       can be combined on a single line	by separating them with	a vertical bar
       character However, global commands, comments, and the shell escape com-
       mand must be the	last command on	a line because they cannot  be	termi-
       nated by	a character.

   Addressing
       (XPG4  only.)   Addressing  in relates to the current line. In general,
       the current line	shall be the last line affected	by  the	 command;  the
       exact  effect on	the current line is discussed under the	description of
       each command. When the buffer contains no lines,	the current line shall
       be set to zero.

       recognizes the following	line address forms:

	      Dot or period  refers  to	 the  current line.  There is always a
			     current line whose	position can be	the result  of
			     an	 explicit  movement command or the result of a
			     command that affects  multiple  lines  (in	 which
			     case it is	usually	the last line affected).

	      n		     The  nth  line  in	the work area.	Lines are num-
			     bered sequentially, starting at line 1.

	      The last line in the work	area.

	      Abbreviation for
			     meaning the entire	work area.

	      An offset	relative to the	current	line  or  the  preceding  line
	      specification.
			     means  forward; means backward.  For example, the
			     forms and are equivalent.

	      The line containing the pattern
			     re, scanning forward or backward The trailing  or
			     can  be  omitted  if  the line is only being dis-
			     played.  If re is omitted,	uses the more recently
			     set  of either the	scanning string	or the substi-
			     tution string (see	Regular	Expressions below).

	      Lines can	be marked using	single lowercase letters (see the
			     command in	Command	Descriptions  below).	refers
			     to	the line marked	with x.	 In addition, the pre-
			     vious current line	is marked before each nonrela-
			     tive motion.  This	line can be referred to	by us-
			     ing for x (thus refers to	the  previous  current
			     line).

			     (XPG4  only.)   Commands require zero, one	or two
			     addresses.	Commands that require  zero  addresses
			     shall regard the presence of an address as	an er-
			     ror.

       (XPG4 only.)  Adjacent address in a shall be separated from each	 other
       by  a  comma  (,)  or  a	semicolon(;).  In the latter case, the current
       line(.) shall be	set to the first address, and only then	is the	second
       address	calculated.  This feature can be ued to	determine the starting
       line for	forwards and backwards searches. The  second  address  of  any
       two-address  sequence  shall correspond to the first address. The first
       address shall be	less than or equal to the second  address.  The	 first
       address shall be	greater	than or	equal to the first line	of the editing
       buffer, and the last address shall be less than or equal	 to  the  last
       line of the editing buffer.  Any	other case shall be an error.

       Addresses for commands consist of a series of line addresses (specified
       as above), separated by a comma or semicolon  Such  address  lists  are
       evaluated  left-to-right.   When	the separator is a semicolon, the cur-
       rent line is set	to the value of	the previous address before  the  next
       address	is  interpreted.  If more addresses are	given than the command
       requires, then all but the last one or two are ignored.	Where  a  com-
       mand  requires two addresses, the first line addressed must precede the
       second one in the work area.  A null (missing) address in  a  list  de-
       faults to the current line.

   Regular Expression
       The  editor  maintains  copies of two regular expression	strings	at all
       times: the substitution string, and the scanning	string.	  The  substi-
       tute  command  sets  the	 substitution string to	the regular expression
       used.  Both the global-command and the regular-expression form of  line
       addressing  (see	 Addressing  above)  for all commands set the scanning
       string to the regular expression	used.  These strings are used  as  de-
       fault  regular  expressions as described	under Addressing, the command,
       and the command.

       The editor supports Basic Regular Expressions (see regexp(5)) with  the
       following modifications:

	      The	  matches  the	beginning  of  a  "word"; that is, the
			  matched string must begin in a letter, digit,	or un-
			  derline,  and	 must  be preceded by the beginning of
			  the line or a	character other	than the above.	  This
			  construct  can  only	be  used at the	beginning of a
			  regular expression (as in \_word), but  not  in  the
			  middle (word1	\_word2).

	      The	  matches  the	end  of	 a  "word" (see	previous para-
			  graph).  This	construct can only be used at the  end
			  of  a	 regular expression (as	in word\_), but	not in
			  the middle (word1\_ word2).

	      Match the	replacement part of the	last
			  command.

	      The positional quoting within bracket expressions	defined	by Ba-
	      sic
			  Regular  Expressions	is  replaced by	the use	of the
			  backslash to quote bracket-expression	special	 char-
			  acters.

	      When the editor option
			  is  set,  the	 only characters with special meanings
			  are at the beginning of a pattern, at	the end	 of  a
			  pattern, and \.  The characters ., *,	and lose their
			  special meanings unless escaped by a

   Replacement Strings
       The character in	the replacement	string stands for the text matched  by
       the pattern to be replaced.  Use	if the editor option is	set.

       The  character is replaced by the replacement part of the previous com-
       mand.  Use if the editor	option is set.

       The sequence where n is an integer, is replaced by the text matched  by
       the subpattern enclosed in the nth set of parentheses and

       The  sequence  (causes  the  immediately	following character in the re-
       placement to be converted to uppercase (lowercase), if the character is
       a  letter.   The	sequence (turns	case conversion	on, until the sequence
       or is encountered, or the end of	the replacement	string is reached.

   Command Names and Abbreviations
       The following table summarizes the line-mode  commands.	 The  commands
       whose names are enclosed	in parentheses are available only in their ab-
       breviated forms.

       +--------------------+-----------------------+--------------------------+
       |Command	     Abbr.  | Command	   Abbr.    | Command		 Abbr. |
       +--------------------+-----------------------+--------------------------+
       |abbreviate   ab	    | next	   n	    | tag		 ta    |
       |append	     a	    | number	   nu #	    | unabbreviate	 una   |
       |args	     ar	    | open	   o	    | undo		 u     |
       |change	     c	    | pop		    | unmap		 unm   |
       |chdir	     chd cd | preserve	   pre	    | version		 ve    |
       +--------------------+-----------------------+--------------------------+
       |copy	     co	t   | print	   p	    | visual		 vi    |
       |crypt	     cr	X   | put	   pu	    | write		 w wq  |
       |delete	     d	    | quit	   q	    | xit		 x     |
       |edit	     e ex   | read	   r	    | yank		 ya    |
       |file	     f	    | recover	   rec	    |			       |
       +--------------------+-----------------------+--------------------------+
       |global	     g v    | rewind	   rew	    | (execute buffer)	 * @   |
       |insert	     i	    | set	   se	    | (line number)	 =     |
       |join	     j	    | shell	   sh	    | (left shift)	 _     |
       |list	     l	    | source	   so	    | (right shift)	 _     |
       |map		    | stop	   st ^Z    | (scroll)		 ^D    |
       +--------------------+-----------------------+--------------------------+
       |mark	     ma	k   | substitute   s sr	_ ~ | (shell escape)	 !     |
       |move	     m	    | suspend	   su ^Z    | (window)		 z     |
       +--------------------+-----------------------+--------------------------+
   Command Descriptions
       In the following	 command  descriptions,	 some  arguments  appear  fre-
       quently.	 They are described below.

	      line	A  single  line	address, in any	of the forms described
			in Addressing above.  The default is the current line.

	      range	A pair of line addresses separated by a	comma or semi-
			colon,	as described in	Addressing above.  The default
			is the current line

	      count	A positive integer specifying the number of  lines  to
			be  affected  by the command.  The default is 1	or the
			number of lines	in range.

			When count is specified, range	is  ineffective.   In-
			stead, only a line number should be specified to indi-
			cate the first line affected by	the  command.	(If  a
			range  is  given, the last line	of the range is	inter-
			preted as the starting line for	the command.)

	      flags	One or more of the characters  and  The	 corresponding
			command	 to  print the line is executed	after the com-
			mand completes.	 Any number of or characters can  also
			be given with these flags.  The	default	is no flags.

       These modifiers are all optional.

       When only a line	or a range is specified	(with a	null command), the im-
       plied command is	If a null line is entered, the next  line  is  printed
       (equivalent to

	      buffer	One  of	 a  number of named areas for saving text. The
			named buffers are specified by the  lowercase  letters
			of  the	 POSIX locale. Specifying shall	cause the area
			of the text affected by	the command to be stored  into
			the  buffer  as	it was before the command took effect.
			This argument is also used on the command and the vis-
			ual  mode  "put"  commands  to specify the buffer that
			shall provide the text to insert.

			If the buffer name is specified	in uppercase, and  the
			buffer is to be	modified, the buffer shall be appended
			to rather than being overwritten. If the buffer	is not
			to  be	modified,  the buffer name can be specified in
			lowercase or uppercase with the	 same  results.	 There
			shall be also one unnamed buffer, which	is the reposi-
			tory for all text deleteed or yanked when no buffer is
			specified.

			There  are  also  numbered buffers, 1 through 9, which
			shall be accessible only from visual mode. These  buf-
			fers  are  special  in	that, in the visual mode, when
			deleted	text is	placed in the unnamed buffer, it  also
			shall  be  placed  in  buffer 1, the previous contents
			buffer 1 shall be placed in buffer 2 and  so  on.  Any
			text  in  the  buffer  9  shall	 be lost. Text that is
			yanked into the	unnamed	buffer shall  not  modify  the
			numbered buffers.  Text	cannot be placed directly into
			the numbered buffered, although	it  can	 be  retrieved
			from  them  by	using a	visual mode "put" command with
			the buffer name	given as s  number.  When  the	buffer
			modifier  is  not  used	in the commands	below, the un-
			named buffer shall be the default.

	      word	In the POSIX Locale, a consists	of a maximal  sequence
			of  letters, digits and	underscores, delimited at both
			ends by	characters other than letters, digits, or  un-
			derscores, or by the beginning or end of a word	or the
			file.  A character that	can be appended	to the command
			to modify its operation, as detailed in	the individual
			command	descriptions.

			If both	a and is specified for	a  command  that  uses
			them, the number of lines affected shall be taken from
			the value rather than the The starting	line  for  the
			command	 shall be taken	to be the first	line addressed
			by the range.

			When only a or is specified with no command,  the  im-
			plied  command shall be	either or ( or The command se-
			lected shall be	the last of these three	commands to be
			used. When no range or count is	specified and the com-
			mand line is a blank line, the current line  shall  be
			written, and the current line shall be set to

			Zero  or mode <blank> characters can precede or	follow
			the addresses, count or	command	name. Any object  fol-
			lowing	a command name (such as	buffer,	file etc) that
			begins with an alphabetic character shall be separated
			from the command name with at least one	<blank>.

       For  each  of  the commands listed below, the command can be entered as
       the abbreviation	(those characters in the Synopsis command word preced-
       ing  the	 [),  the  full	 command (all characters shown for the command
       word, omitting the [ and	]), or any subset of  the  characters  of  the
       full command down to the	abbreviation.

       word replacement

			 Add  the  named abbreviation to the current list.  In
			 visual	mode, if word is typed as a complete word dur-
			 ing input, it is replaced by the string replacement.

       line

			 Enter	input mode; the	input text is placed after the
			 specified line.  If line 0 is specified, the text  is
			 placed	 at  the beginning of the work area.  The last
			 input line becomes the	current	line,  or  the	target
			 line if no lines are input.

			 Appending  to	the  command toggles the editor	option
			 setting for this insert only.

				Prints the argument, placing the current argu-
				ment between
			 and

       range		 count

			 Enter	input mode; the	input text replaces the	speci-
			 fied lines.  The last input line becomes the  current
			 line;	if  no lines are input,	the effect is the same
			 as a delete.

			 Appending to the command toggles  the	editor	option
			 setting for this insert only.

       directory]
       directory]

			 Change	the working directory to directory.  If	direc-
			 tory is omitted, the value of the  environment	 vari-
			 able  is  used.   If  the work	area has been modified
			 since the last	write and the name of the  file	 being
			 edited	 does  not begin with a	slash a	warning	is is-
			 sued and the working directory	is  not	 changed.   To
			 force	a change of directory in this case, append the
			 character to the command.

       range		 line flags
			 A copy	of the specified lines (range) is placed after
			 the specified destination line; line 0	specifies that
			 the lines are to be placed at the  beginning  of  the
			 work  area.   (The letter is an alternative abbrevia-
			 tion for the command.)

				The user is prompted for a key with  which  to
				enter encryption mode.
			 This  command	can also be used to change the key en-
			 tered from a previous command or the command line op-
			 tion.	 If  no	 key  is  supplied  in response	to the
			 prompt	(that is, only carriage	 return	 is  pressed),
			 encryption  mode  is  canceled	 and  the work area is
			 written out in	plain-text form	 by  subsequent	 write
			 commands.

			 While in encryption mode, all file input is decrypted
			 using the current key.	 However, while	an input  file
			 is being processed, if	a block	of text	(approximately
			 1024 bytes) is	encountered that contains  only	 7-bit
			 ASCII characters, that	block of text is assumed to be
			 plain-text and	is not decrypted.   All	 file  output,
			 except	 that piped via	a shell	escape to another com-
			 mand, is encrypted using the current key.

			 The temporary file used by the	editor to  manage  the
			 work  area  is	 not  encrypted	until the current work
			 area is discarded (or written out) and	editing	begins
			 on  a	new  file.   When creating a new file that re-
			 quires	encryption protection, ensure  that  the  work
			 area  file is also encrypted by specifying the	option
			 when invoking the editor.

			 Encryption option. Same as the	command,  except  that
			 all text read in is assumed to	have been encrypted.

       range		 buffer	count

			 The  specified	 lines are deleted from	the work area.
			 If a named buffer is specified, the deleted  text  is
			 saved	in it.	If no buffer is	specified, the unnamed
			 buffer	is used	(that is, the buffer  where  the  most
			 recently  deleted  or	yanked	text  is placed	by de-
			 fault).  The new current line is the line  after  the
			 deleted  lines	 or  the  last line of the file	if the
			 deleted lines were at the end of the file.

       line]		 file
			 line] file

			 Begin editing a new file is an	alternative  name  for
			 the command).	If the current work area has been mod-
			 ified since the last write, a warning is printed  and
			 the  command is aborted.  This	action can be overrid-
			 den by	appending the character	to the command	file).
			 The  current  line  is	the last line of the work area
			 unless	it is executed from within vi, in  which  case
			 the  current line is the first	line of	the work area.
			 If the	option is specified, the current line  is  set
			 to the	specified position, where line can be a	number
			 (or or	specified as or

				Print the current file name and	other informa-
				tion, including	the number
			 of lines and the current position.

       range		 command...
			 range command...

			 Perform  command on lines within range	(or on the en-
			 tire work area	if no range is given) that contain re.
			 First	mark  the  lines  within  the given range that
			 match the pattern re.	If the pattern is omitted, the
			 more  recently	 set of	either the substitution	string
			 or the	scanning string	is used	(see  Regular  Expres-
			 sions	above).	  Then the given commands are executed
			 with set to each marked line.	 Any  character	 other
			 than  a  letter or a digit can	be used	to delimit the
			 pattern instead of the

			 command can be	specified on multiple lines by	hiding
			 new-lines  with  a backslash.	If command is omitted,
			 each line is printed.	and commands are allowed;  the
			 terminating  dot can be omitted if it ends command or
			 commands.  The	command	is also	permitted (unless  the
			 command itself	has been issued	from visual mode), and
			 takes input from the terminal.	 (If command  contains
			 a  visual-mode	 command  (that	is, or the visual-mode
			 command must be terminated by the visual-mode command
			 in order to proceed to	the next marked	line.)

			 The command itself and	the command are	not allowed in
			 command.  The editor options and are inhibited.

			 Appending a to	the command (that is, or using the al-
			 ternate  name	causes	command	to be run on the lines
			 within	range that do not match	the pattern.

       line

			 Enter input mode; the input text is placed before the
			 specified line.  The last line	input becomes the cur-
			 rent line, or the line	before the target line,	if  no
			 lines are input.

			 Appending  to	the  command toggles the editor	option
			 setting for this insert only.

       range		 count flags

			 Join together the text	from the specified lines  into
			 one  line.   White  space  is	adjusted to provide at
			 least one blank character (two	if a period appears at
			 the  end of a line, or	none if	the first character of
			 a line	is a closing parenthesis Extra white space  at
			 the beginning of a line is discarded.

			 Appending a to	the command causes a simpler join with
			 no white-space	processing.

       range		 ount flags

			 Print the specified lines with	tabs displayed as  and
			 the end of each line marked with a trailing (The only
			 useful	flag is	for  line  numbers.)   The  last  line
			 printed becomes the current line.

       key|n		 action
			 key|n action

			 The  and  commands  define  macros  for use in	visual
			 mode.	The first argument, key, can be	a single char-
			 acter	or  a multicharacter sequence.	In the special
			 sequence, n is	a digit	referring to the function  key
			 n.   Special characters, whitespace, and newline must
			 be escaped with a to be  entered  in  the  arguments.
			 The  key argument cannot contain a colon as its first
			 character, nor	can a  multicharacter  sequence	 begin
			 with an alphabetic character.

			 Macros	 defined  by  are  effective in	visual command
			 mode.	Macros defined by are effective	in visual  in-
			 put mode.  When key or	the function key corresponding
			 to is entered,	the editor interprets the operation as
			 though	action were typed.

			 The  or  command  without options displays the	corre-
			 sponding current list of macros.

			 See also the editor options and in Editor Options be-
			 low.

       x
			 The  specified	 line  is  given the specified mark x,
			 which must be a single	lowercase  letter  x  must  be
			 preceded  by  a space or tab.	The current line posi-
			 tion is not affected.	is an alternate	name for

       range		 line

			 Move the specified lines (range) to follow the	target
			 line.	The first line moved becomes the current line.

       file ...]

			 The  next file	from the command line argument list is
			 edited.  Appending a to  the  command	overrides  the
			 warning  about	 the  work  area  having been modified
			 since the last	write (and discards any	changes	unless
			 the  editor option is set).  The argument list	can be
			 replaced by specifying	a  new	one  on	 this  command
			 line.

       range		 count flags
			 (The character	is an alternative abbreviation for the
			 command.)  Print the lines, each preceded by its line
			 number	(the only useful flag is The last line printed
			 becomes the current line.

       line		 flags

			 Enter open mode, which	is similar to visual mode with
			 a  one-line window.  All the visual-mode commands are
			 available.  If	a match	is found in line for  the  op-
			 tional	 regular  expression,  the cursor is placed at
			 the start of the matching pattern.   Use  the	visual
			 mode command to exit from open	mode.  For more	infor-
			 mation, see vi(1).

				Load the file whose name is stored at the  top
				of the tag stack
			 and set the current line to the stored	location.  The
			 top entry of the tag stack is deleted.	 (The  current
			 file name is placed on	the stack when you execute the
			 line mode command or the visual mode command.)

			 overrides the warning about the work area having been
			 modified  since  the last write; any changes are dis-
			 carded	unless the editor option is set).

				The current editor work	area is	 saved	as  if
				the system had just crashed.
			 Use  this  command in emergencies, for	example	when a
			 write does not	work and the work area cannot be saved
			 in any	other way.  Use	the command-line option	to re-
			 cover the file. After the file	has been preserved,  a
			 mail  message	shall be sent to the user. The message
			 shall contain the name	 of  the  file,	 the  time  of
			 preservation and an command that could	be used	to re-
			 cover the file. Additional  information  may  be  in-
			 cluded	in the mail message.

       count

			 Print	the specified lines, with non-printing charac-
			 ters printed as control characters in the form	DEL is
			 represented as	The last line printed becomes the cur-
			 rent line.

       line		 buffer

			 Place deleted or "yanked" lines after line.  A	buffer
			 can  be specified; otherwise, the text	in the unnamed
			 buffer	(that is,  the	buffer	in  which  deleted  or
			 yanked	 text  is  placed by default) is restored. The
			 current line indicator	shall be set to	the first line
			 put back.

				Terminate the edit.
			 If  the  work	area  has been modified	since the last
			 write,	a warning is printed and  the  command	fails.
			 To  force termination without preserving changes, ap-
			 pend to the command.

       line		 file

			 Place a copy of the specified file in the  work  area
			 after	the  target line (which	can be line 0 to place
			 text at the beginning).  If no	 file  is  named,  the
			 current  file is the default.	If no current file ex-
			 ists, file becomes the	current	file.  The  last  line
			 read  becomes	the current line except	in visual mode
			 where the first line read becomes the current line.

			 If is given as	string is interpreted as a system com-
			 mand  and  passed to the command interpreter; the re-
			 sultant output	is read	into the work area.   A	 blank
			 or tab	must precede the

       file

			 Recover  file from the	save area, after an accidental
			 hangup	or a system crash.  If the current  work  area
			 has  been modified since the last write, a warning is
			 printed and the command is aborted.  This action  can
			 be  overridden	by appending the character to the com-
			 mand file).

				The argument list is rewound,
			 and the first file in the list	is edited. This	 shall
			 be  equivalent	to a command with the current argument
			 list as its operands. If the current buffer has  been
			 modified  since  the  last  write, a warning shall be
			 written and the command shall be aborted.  Any	 warn-
			 ings can be overridden	by appending a The current in-
			 dicator line shall be affected	by the editor options,
			 and

				boolean-option
			 Set and display the values of the editor options (see
			 Editor	Options	below).

			 With no arguments, the	command	 prints	 those	editor
			 options  whose	 values	have been changed from the de-
			 fault settings.  If is	specified, it prints all  cur-
			 rent option values.

			 The  second and third forms display the current value
			 of the	specified option.  The is necessary  only  for
			 Boolean options.

			 The fourth form turns a Boolean option	on.  The fifth
			 form turns a Boolean option off.

			 The sixth form	assigns	values to string  and  numeric
			 options.   Spaces and tabs in strings must be escaped
			 with a	leading	backslash

			 The last five forms can be  combined;	interpretation
			 is left-to-right.

				Execute	 the  command interpreter specified by
				the
			 editor	option (see Editor Options below).  Editing is
			 resumed when you exit from the	command	interpreter.

       file

			 Read  and  execute  commands from the specified file.
			 commands can be nested. The maximum supported nesting
			 depths	 is  implementation  defined,  but shall be at
			 least one.

       range		 options count flags
			 On each specified line, the  first  instance  of  the
			 pattern re is replaced	by the string repl.  (See Reg-
			 ular Expressions and Replacement Strings above.)  Any
			 character  other than a letter	or a digit can be used
			 to delimit the	pattern	instead	of the

			 If you	include	the (global) option, all instances  of
			 the pattern in	the line are substituted.

			 If  you include the (confirm) option, you are queried
			 about whether to perform  each	 individual  substitu-
			 tion,	as  follows: Before each substitution the line
			 is displayed with the pattern to be  replaced	marked
			 underneath with carets	Type to	cause the substitution
			 to be performed; any other input to  abort  it.   The
			 last line substituted becomes the current line.

			 If  the  substitution	pattern	re is omitted the more
			 recently set of either	the substitution string	or the
			 scanning  string  is  used  (see  Regular Expressions
			 above).

			 If the	or forms of the	command	are used, the  substi-
			 tution	 pattern defaults to the previous substitution
			 string	and the	replacement  string  defaults  to  the
			 previous replacement string used.

			 If  the or forms of the command are used, the substi-
			 tution	pattern	defaults to the	more recently  set  of
			 either	the substitution string	or the scanning	string
			 and the replacement string defaults to	 the  previous
			 replacement string used.

			 The form is equivalent	to where scan-re is the	previ-
			 ous scanning string.

			 The form is equivalent	to where subs-re is the	previ-
			 ous substitution string.

				susp

			 Suspend  the  editor  job  and	 return	to the calling
			 shell.	 and susp are equivalent to susp is  the  user
			 process control suspend character, which is typically
			 the character (ASCII SUB) (see	stty(1)).   This  com-
			 mand  is  disabled if the calling shell does not sup-
			 port job control or has disabled it.

			 The work area is written to the current  file	before
			 the  editor is	suspended if the editor	option is set,
			 the editor option is not set, and the work  area  has
			 been modified since the last write.  To override this
			 action, append	the character to the or	command.

       tag

			 Search	the files specified by the editor option  (see
			 Editor	 Options below)	sequentially until a tag defi-
			 nition	for tag	is found.  If tag is found,  load  the
			 associated  file  into	the work area and set the cur-
			 rent position to the address  specified  in  the  tag
			 definition.

			 The  work  area is written to the current file	before
			 the new file is loaded	if the new file	 is  different
			 from  the current file, the editor option is set, the
			 editor	option is not set, and the work	area has  been
			 modified  since the last write.  To override this ac-
			 tion, append the character to the command.

			 If the	editor option is set, the  current  file  name
			 and  line  number  is	pushed	onto the tag stack for
			 later recall with the line mode command or the	visual
			 mode command.

       word

			 Delete	 word  from the	list of	abbreviations (see the
			 command above).

				Reverse	the changes made by the	previous edit-
				ing command.
			 For this purpose, and are considered single commands.
			 Commands that affect the external  environment,  such
			 as and	cannot be undone.  An can itself be reversed.

       key

			 The macro definition for key is removed (see the com-
			 mand above).

				Print the current version information for  the
				editor.

       line		 type count flags

			 Enter visual mode at the specified line.

			 The  type  can	 be one	of the characters or as	in the
			 (window) command, to  specify	the  position  of  the
			 specified line	on the screen window The default is to
			 place the line	at the top of the screen window.

			 A count specifies an initial window size; the default
			 is the	value of the editor option

			 The  flags  and  (ell)	 cause the lines in the	visual
			 window	to be displayed	in the corresponding mode (see
			 the and commands).

			 Use the command to exit visual	mode.  For more	infor-
			 mation, see vi(1).

       [range]		 file
			 [range] file

			 Write the specified lines (or the entire  work	 area,
			 if  no	range is given)	out to file, printing the num-
			 ber of	lines and characters written.  If file is  not
			 specified,  the default is the	current	file (the com-
			 mand fails with an error message if there is no  cur-
			 rent file and no file is specified).

			 If  an	 alternate  file is specified and the file ex-
			 ists, the write fails,	but can	be forced by appending
			 to  the  command.  To append to an existing file, ap-
			 pend to the command.  If the file does	not exist,  an
			 error is reported.

			 If  the file is specified as string is	interpreted as
			 a system command, the command interpreter is invoked,
			 and  the specified lines are passed as	standard input
			 to the	command.

			 The command is	equivalent  to	a  followed  by	 a  is
			 equivalent  to	 followed by is	equivalent to followed
			 by

       file

			 If changes have been made to the work area, a command
			 is  executed  with any	options	(such as or file) used
			 by the	command.  Then (in any case)  the  command  is
			 executed.

       range		 buffer	count

			 Place the specified lines in the named	buffer.	 If no
			 buffer	is specified, the unnamed buffer is used (that
			 is,  the  buffer  where  the most recently deleted or
			 yanked	text is	placed by default).

       (execute	buffer)	 [buffer]
			 [buffer]

			 Execute the contents of buffer	as an editor  command.
			 buffer	 can be	the letter of a	named buffer or	or The
			 and the forms of this command are equivalent.	 If  a
			 buffer	 is  not  specified or buffer is or the	buffer
			 last named in a or command is executed.

       (line number)

			 Print the line	number of the specified	line.  The de-
			 fault is the last line.  The current line position is
			 not affected.

       (scroll)

			 Print the next	n lines, where n is the	value  of  the
			 editor	option.

       (shell escape)
			 Pass  the remainder of	the line after the to the sys-
			 tem command interpreter for execution.	 A warning  is
			 issued	 if  the  work area has	been changed since the
			 last write.  A	single is  printed  when  the  command
			 completes.   The  current  line  position  is not af-
			 fected.

			 Within	the text of command, and are expanded as  file
			 names,	 and is	replaced with the text of the previous
			 command.  Thus, repeats the previous  command.	  When
			 such  expansion  is  performed,  the expanded line is
			 echoed.

			 If you	specify	range, the specified lines are	passed
			 to  the  command  interpreter as standard input.  The
			 output	from the command replaces the specified	lines.

       (shift left)

			 Shift the specified lines to the left.	 The number of
			 spaces	 to be deleted is determined by	the editor op-
			 tion Only whitespace (blanks and  tabs)  is  lost  in
			 shifting;  other  characters  are  not	affected.  The
			 last line changed becomes the current line.

       (shift right)

			 Shift the specified lines to the right	 by  inserting
			 whitespace  The  number  of spaces inserted is	deter-
			 mined by the editor option The	last line changed  be-
			 comes the current line.

       (window)

			 The number of lines specified by count	are displayed.
			 The default for count is the value of the editor  op-
			 tion

			 If  type is omitted, count lines following the	speci-
			 fied line are printed.

			 If type is specified, it must be one of the following
			 characters:

			 Display  a  window  of	 lines following the addressed
			 line.
			 Place the addressed line
				at the	bottom	of  the	 window	 of  displayed
				lines.
			 Place the addressed line at the center	of the window.
			 Display a window of lines
				that  is  two  windows	prior to the addressed
				line.
			 Display the addressed line at the center of the  win-
			 dow
				with  a	line of	dashes above and below the ad-
				dressed	line.

			 The last line printed becomes the current  line,  ex-
			 cept  for  the	 where	the addressed line becomes the
			 current line.

   Editor Options
       The command has a number	of options that	modify	its  behavior.	 These
       options	have  default settings,	which can be changed using the command
       (see above).  Options can also be set at	startup	by putting  a  command
       string  in the environment variable or in the file in the directory, or
       in in the current directory.  If	exists,	the file in the	 directory  is
       not  executed.	If  the	current	directory is not the directory and the
       editor option is	set (see below), the file in the current directory  is
       executed	after or the directory

       The  editor  obtains  the  horizontal and vertical size of the terminal
       screen from the database	(see terminfo(4)).  These values can be	 over-
       ridden  by setting the environment variable, which specifies to use the
       XPG4 behavior for this command.	and environment	 variables.   See  the
       editor option below for more information.

       The following table shows the defaults that differ for the various edi-
       tor personalities:
		 |
	   Name	 |		   Default Editor Options
	   ------+---------------------------------------------------------
	   edit	 | nomagic     novice	noreadonly   report=1	  showmode
	   ex	 |   magic   nonovice	noreadonly   report=5	noshowmode
	   vedit | nomagic     novice	noreadonly   report=1	  showmode
	   vi	 |   magic   nonovice	noreadonly   report=5	noshowmode
	   view	 |   magic   nonovice	  readonly   report=5	noshowmode

       Editor options are Boolean unless otherwise  specified.	 Abbreviations
       are shown in parentheses.

       Indent each line	in input mode
			   (using  blanks and tabs) to align with the previous
			   line.  Indentation begins after the line  appended,
			   or  before  the  line  inserted  or	the first line
			   changed.  Additional	indentation can	be provided as
			   usual.  Succeeding lines are	automatically indented
			   to the new alignment.

			   Reducing the	indent is achieved by  typing  one  or
			   more	 times:	 the  cursor is	moved back to the next
			   multiple of spaces for each A followed by a removes
			   all	indentation  temporarily for the current line.
			   A followed by a removes all indentation.

			   Reversed by The default is

       The current line	is printed after each command that changes  work  area
       text.
			   Autoprint  is  suppressed in	commands.  Reversed by
			   The default is

       The work	area is	written	out to the current file
			   if the work area has	been modified and a or command
			   is given.  Reversed by The default is

       Cause all control characters other than tab,
			   newline,  and formfeed to be	discarded from the in-
			   put text.  Reversed by The default is

       Specify the directory in	which the editor work area should be placed.
			   This	option only takes effect when a	new work  area
			   is  created.	  It should be set in or to affect the
			   location of the work	area file for  the  edit  file
			   specified on	the command line.  The default is

			   If  the  specified  directory is set	from or	a file
			   and is not writable by the user, the	editor	quits;
			   if set interactively	by the user, the editor	issues
			   an error message.

       When set, two consecutive ESC (escape) characters
			   are required	to leave input mode.  In input mode, a
			   single  ESC character followed by a different char-
			   acter causes	to issue an audible or visual  warning
			   (see	 the editor option) and	insert both characters
			   into	the work area.	Reversed by The	default	is

			   The character sequences transmitted by the keyboard
			   editing  keys  of  some  terminals are identical to
			   some	sequences of user commands.  If	the mapping of
			   these  keys is enabled (see the and options), might
			   not be able to  reliably  distinguish  between  the
			   character  sequence	transmitted  by	an editing key
			   and the same	character sequence typed  by  a	 user.
			   This	 problem is most likely	to occur when the user
			   types ESC to	terminate input	mode immediately  fol-
			   lowed  by  another command.	If you set the option,
			   the ambiguity of this case is removed.

       Cause the presence of
			   and suffixes	on substitute commands	to  be	remem-
			   bered,  and toggled by repeating the	suffixes.  Re-
			   versed by The default is

       When set, error messages	are preceded with a bell
			   only	on terminals that do not support a standout or
			   highlighting	 mode  such  as	inverse	video.	If the
			   terminal supports highlighting, the bell  is	 never
			   used	prior to error messages	and this option	has no
			   effect.  Note that visual-mode errors are  signaled
			   by  the bell	(regardless of the setting of this op-
			   tion) without an accompanying error message.

			   Reversed by The default is

       When set, the	   file	in the current directory is  processed	during
			   editor  initialization  if the current directory is
			   not the directory.  This option is not set  by  de-
			   fault  and  must be set in the environment variable
			   or the directory file to have any effect.  See  the
			   Editor  Options  introductory text above.  Reversed
			   by The default is

       When set, the screen flashes instead of beeping,
			   provided an appropriate entry  is  present  in  the
			   database  for the terminal being used.  Reversed by
			   The default is

       Define the spacing between hardware tab settings
			   and the number of spaces used by  the  system  when
			   expanding  tab characters.  Tab stops are placed in
			   each	column number (starting	at the	left  edge  of
			   the screen) that corresponds	to an integer multiple
			   of number.  The default is

       All uppercase characters	in the text
			   are	mapped	to  lowercase  in  regular  expression
			   matching.   Also, all uppercase characters in regu-
			   lar expressions are mapped to lowercase, except  in
			   character  class  specifications.   Reversed	by The
			   default is

       When set, any keyboard editing key mappings
			   that	are loaded automatically at initialization for
			   command-mode	 use  are  enabled.  If	not set, these
			   mappings are	disabled (but not deleted).   Use  the
			   command to get a list of the	currently enabled com-
			   mand-mode mappings.	Reversed by The	default	is

       When set, the keyboard editing key mappings
			   automatically loaded	at  initialization  for	 input
			   mode	 use  are enabled.  If not set,	these mappings
			   are disabled	(but not deleted).  Use	the command to
			   list	 the  currently	 enabled  input-mode mappings.
			   Reversed by The default is for terminals whose key-
			   board  editing  keys	send HP-style escape sequences
			   (an ESC followed by a single	letter).  The  default
			   is for all other terminals.

       Modify		   mode	and the	and commands in	visual mode for	source
			   code.  Reversed by The default is

       Display all printed lines with tabs shown as
			   and the end of line marked by a Reversed by The de-
			   fault is

       Affect the interpretation of characters in regular expressions
			   and	substitution  replacement strings (see Regular
			   Expressions and Replacement	Strings	 above).   Re-
			   versed by The and default is	The and	default	is

       Allows other users to use the
			   command  (see  write(1))  to	 send messages to your
			   terminal, possibly disrupting the  screen  display.
			   Unsetting  this  option  blocks write permission to
			   your	terminal from other system users while you are
			   using the editor.  Reversed by The default is

       If set when the editor reads in a file, any
			   commands  embedded  in the first five and last five
			   lines of the	file are executed after	 and  commands
			   are	processed  but before editing control is given
			   to the user.	 The commands must be prefixed	by  or
			   and	terminated by in a single line.	 Any number of
			   other characters with the exception	of  the	 colon
			   can	precede	 or  follow the	embedded command.  Re-
			   versed by The default is

       Use the version of the editor available for novices, known as
			   or Reversed by The and default is The  and  default
			   is

       Cause lines to be printed with line numbers.
			   Reversed by The default is

       Suppress	automatic carriage returns on terminals
			   that	do not support direct cursor addressing.  This
			   streamlines text output in certain situations  such
			   as  when printing multiple lines that contain lead-
			   ing whitespace.  Reversed by	The default is

       The value of this option	is a string
			   whose successive pairs of  characters  specify  the
			   names  of  text-processing  macros that begin para-
			   graphs.  (A macro appears in	the text in  the  form
			   where the is	the first character in the line.)

			   If  any  macros have	a single-character name, use a
			   space character to substitute for the missing  sec-
			   ond character in the	name.  To type a space charac-
			   ter in such situations, precede the	space  with  a
			   backslash  to  prevent the editor from interpreting
			   it as a delimiter.

			   The default is

       When set, command mode input is prompted	for with a colon
			   when	unset, no prompt is  displayed.	  Reversed  by
			   The default is

       Set the		   flag	for the	file being edited, thus	preventing ac-
			   cidental overwriting	at the	end  of	 the  session.
			   This	 option	 is equivalent to invoking or with the
			   option or using the command.	 Reversed by  The  and
			   default is The default is

       Simulate	an intelligent terminal	on a dumb terminal.
			   During input	mode, lines are	continuously reprinted
			   as text is entered.	Since this is  likely  to  re-
			   quire  a large amount of output to the terminal, it
			   is useful only at high transmission speeds.	If  is
			   set,	 lines	are  reprinted only when input mode is
			   terminated and deleted lines	are marked with	an  in
			   the left margin.  Reversed by The default is

       If set, macro translation allows	for macros defined in terms of
			   other macros; translation continues until the final
			   product is obtained.	 If unset, a one-step transla-
			   tion	only is	done.  Reversed	by The default is

       The value of	   n gives the number of lines that must be changed by
			   a command before a report is	displayed on the  num-
			   ber of lines	affected.  If n	is 5, then changes are
			   reported for	6 or more lines.  The and  default  is
			   The and default is

       The value of	   n determines	the number of lines scrolled by	a com-
			   mand	and the	number of lines	displayed by the  com-
			   mand	 (twice	 the value of scroll).	The default is
			   half	the value of the option.

       The value of this option	is a string,
			   in that successive pairs of characters specify  the
			   names  of  text-processing  macros  that begin sec-
			   tions.  See the editor option above.	  The  default
			   is

       Set the file name of the	shell to be used for the
			   shell  escape  and the command.  It defaults	to the
			   value of your environment  variable,	 if  set,  and
			   otherwise to

       Sets the	indentation step value used by
			   and the shift and commands.	The default is

       In visual mode, jump momentarily	to the matching
			   or  when you	type a or if the match is still	on the
			   screen.  Reversed by	The default is

       Display the current editor mode (such as
			   in the lower	right-hand corner of the screen	during
			   visual  and open mode.  Reversed by The and default
			   is The and default is

       In visual mode,	   prevents screen updates  during  input  to  improve
			   throughput on unintelligent terminals.  Reversed by
			   The default is

       Sets the	spacing	of the software	tab stops
			   used	by the editor to  expand  tabs	in  the	 input
			   file.  The default is

       Set the maximum number of characters
			   that	 should	 be  treated  as significant in	a tag.
			   Characters beyond the limit are ignored.   A	 value
			   of  zero  means  that all characters	in the tag are
			   significant.	 The default is

       Specify the tags	files to be used by the
			   command and the command-line	option.	  The  default
			   is specifying the file in the current directory and
			   the file File names are separated by	whitespace.

			   Each	line of	a tags	file  contains	the  following
			   three fields	separated by whitespace: the tag name,
			   the name of the file	to be edited, and  an  address
			   specification  (see Addressing above).  A file must
			   be sorted in	order by tag name.

			   The command (see ctags(1)) creates tags files  from
			   C, Pascal and FORTRAN source	files.

       Enable the pushdown stack of activated tags.
			   Reversed by The default is

			   When	 you  enter a line mode	command	or visual mode
			   command, the	current	line number and	file name  are
			   stored  on  the tag stack.  A future	line mode com-
			   mand	or visual mode	command	 will  return  to  the
			   stored file name at the stored line number.

			   If  the  tag	 stack	is disabled and	then reenabled
			   again, the stack continues where it left off.   The
			   command  does  not  work when the tag stack is dis-
			   abled.

       Define the type of terminal being used with the editor.
			   The default value is	obtained from the  environment
			   variable.   If is unset or null, is set to There is
			   no difference between the and editor	options.  Set-
			   ting	either one results in both being changed.

       Use shorter error messages.
			   Reversed by The default is

       If set, require that all	the characters of a multicharacter macro name
			   (the	 first argument	in a command) must be received
			   within the amount of	time specified by  the	option
			   in  order  to  be accepted as a match for the macro
			   name.  If not set, no limit is placed on  how  long
			   to  wait  for  the completion of a macro name.  Re-
			   versed by The default is

       Set, in milliseconds (ms),
			   the length of the macro timeout period (see the ed-
			   itor	 option).  This	option has no effect unless is
			   set.	 The value of n	must be	at least 1.   The  de-
			   fault is (half a second).

       Define the type of terminal being used with the editor.
			   See	the  editor  option  for details.  There is no
			   difference between the and editor options.  Setting
			   either one results in both being changed.

       Before executing	a  or  command escape, display the message if the work
			   area	has been modified since	it was last loaded  or
			   fully  written  to a	file.  Reversed	by The default
			   is

       Set the number of lines in a text window	in visual mode.
			   The default value is	one less than the size of your
			   terminal  screen  (as  defined  by  the environment
			   variable, if	set, or	the entry for your terminal in
			   the	terminfo(4) data base otherwise).  However, if
			   the terminal	baud rate (see stty(1) is set to  less
			   than	 1200 or 2400, the default value is reduced to
			   a maximum of	8  or  16  lines,  respectively.   The
			   startup  value  can	be specified with the command-
			   line	option.

       If the terminal baud rate is less than 1200, set	the
			   editor option to the	value specified.

       If the terminal baud rate is greater than or equal to 1200
			   but less than 2400, set the editor  option  to  the
			   value specified.

       If the terminal baud rate is greater than or equal to 2400, set the
			   editor option to the	value specified.

       In visual mode only, if
			   n  is greater than zero, a newline is automatically
			   inserted in an input	line at	a  word	 boundary,  so
			   that	 lines	end  at	 least n spaces	from the right
			   margin of the terminal screen.  The default is

       When set, editor	searches using
			   (or continue	silently from the beginning  (or  end)
			   of the file upon reaching the end (or beginning) of
			   the file (that is, the scan "wraps around").	  When
			   unset, editor searches stop at the beginning	or the
			   end of the file, as appropriate.  Reversed  by  The
			   default is

       Inhibits	the checks otherwise made before write commands,
			   allowing  a	write to any file (provided the	system
			   allows it).	Reversed by The	default	is

EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
   Environment Variables
       This variable shall  override  the  system-selected  horizontal	screen
       size.

       overrides  the system-selected vertical screen size, used as the	number
       of lines	in a screenful and as the vertical screen size in visual mode.

       determines the search path for the shell	command	specified in the  edi-
       tor commands, and

       is variable that	shall be interpreted as	the preferred command-line in-
       terpreter for use in and	other commands with an operand of the form For
       the  command, the program shall be invoked with the single argument For
       all others, it shall be invoked with the	two arguments and string.   If
       no  environment	variable  is  set,  or it is set to a null string, the
       utility shall be	used.

       is a variable that shall	be interpreted as the  name  of	 the  terminal
       type.  If this variable is unset	or null, an unspecified	default	termi-
       nal type	shall be used.

       is a variable that shall	be interpreted to contain a list  of  commands
       that are	executed on editor startup, before reading the first file. The
       list can	contain	multiple commands by separating	then using a  vertical
       line (|)	character.

       shall  be  interpreted  as  a  pathname	of  a  directory that shall be
       searched	for an editor startup file name

       determines the collating	sequence used in  evaluating  regular  expres-
       sions  and  in processing the file.  If it is not specified or is null,
       it defaults to the value	of

       determines the interpretation of	text as	single and/or multibyte	 char-
       acters, the classification of characters	as uppercase or	lowercase let-
       ters, the shifting of the case of letters, and the  characters  matched
       by  character  class  expressions in regular expressions.  If it	is not
       specified or is null, it	defaults to the	value of

       determines the language in which	messages are displayed.	 If it is  not
       specified or is null, it	defaults to "C"	(see lang(5)).

       determines the locale to	be used	to override any	values for locale cat-
       egories specified by the	setting	of or any environment variable (begin-
       ning with ).

       determines  the processing of affirmative responses and the language in
       which messages should be	written.

       If any internationalization variable contains an	invalid	 setting,  all
       internationalization variables default to "C" (see environ(5)).

       When set, the environment variable specifies a directory	to be used for
       temporary files,	overriding the default directory

   International Code Set Support
       Single- and multibyte character code sets are supported.

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS (XPG4 Only)
       The following actions shall be taken upon receipt of signals:

       When an interrupt occurs,
	      shall alert the terminal and write a message. The	current	editor
	      command  shall be	aborted, and shall return to the command level
	      and prompt for another command.  If the standard input is	not  a
	      terminal	device,	 shall exit at the interrupt and return	a non-
	      zero exit	status.

       The screen shall	be refreshed.

       If the current buffer has changed since the last
	      or command, shall	attempt	to save	the current file  in  a	 state
	      such that	it can be recovered later by an	command.

       The action taken	for all	other signals is unspecified.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION (XPG4 Only)
       The  pathname  of  the file being edited	by is referred to as the file.
       The text	of the file shall be read into a working version of  the  file
       (called	in this	clause), and all editing changes shall be performed on
       that version; the changes shall have no effect on the original file un-
       til  an	command	causes the file	to be written out. Lines in the	buffer
       may be limited to 4096 characters including  2-3	 bytes	for  overhead.
       Thus  a	line length up to 4092 characters should cause no problem.  An
       error message may be written if the limit is exceeded during editing.

       The pathname is the name	of the last file mentioned in an  editor  com-
       mand,  or  the previous current pathname	if the last file mentioned be-
       came the	current	file. When the appears in a pathname entered  as  part
       of  a command argument, it shall	be replaced by the altername pathname.
       Any character, including	and shall retain its literal value  when  pre-
       ceded by	a backslash.

       When an error occurs, shall alert ther terminal and write a message.

       If  the system crashes, shall attempt to	preserve the buffer if any un-
       written changes were made. The command-line option can be used  to  re-
       trieve the saved	changes.

       During  initialization  (before the first file is read or any user com-
       mands from the terminal are processed), if the environment variable  is
       set,  the  editor shall execute commands	contained in that variable. If
       the variable is not set,	shall attempt to read commands from the	If and
       only  if	 or  sets  the editor option exrc, ex finally shall attempt to
       read commands from a file in the	current	directory.  In the event  that
       is not set and the current directory is the home	directory of the user,
       any file	shall only be processed	once. No shall be read	unless	it  is
       owned  by the same user ID as the effective user	ID of the process. Af-
       ter any files are processed, any	commands specified by the option shall
       be processed.

       By  default,  shall start in the	command	mode, which shall be indicated
       by the ":" prompt. The input mode can be	entered	by or commands.	 There
       is  one other mode, visual mode,	in which full screen editing is	avail-
       able. This is described more fully under	the command.  The command line
       can  consist  of	 multiple  commands separated by vertical-line charac-
       ters(|).	The use	of commands that enter input or	visual modes  in  this
       manner,	unless	they are the final command on the line,	produces unde-
       fined results.

       Command lines beginning with the	double-quote character	(")  shall  be
       ignored.	This can be used for comments in an editor script.

WARNINGS
       The  command  causes all	marks to be lost on lines that are changed and
       then restored.

       The command prints a number of  logical	rather	than  physical	lines.
       More than a screenful of	output can result if long lines	are present.

       Null  characters	 are discarded in input	files and cannot appear	in re-
       sultant files.

       On some systems,	the recovery of	an edit	file with the option is	possi-
       ble  only if certain system-dependent actions are taken when the	system
       is restarted.

       Edit preserve files can only be recovered on systems running  the  same
       HP-UX release in	which they were	preserved.  Preserve files are not re-
       coverable across	different releases.

       On HP terminals,	the attribute field of any function key	specified by a
       command should be set to	rather than to the default of

       Do not use the option to	edit unencrypted files.	The option is meant to
       be used only on files that are already encrypted. If the	option is used
       on  files  which	 are not yet encrypted,	a write	in the edit session is
       likely to corrupt the file.

       For information about line length limits, file size limits,  etc.,  see
       the WARNINGS section of vi(1).

EXIT STATUS (XPG4 Only)
       The utility shall exit with one of the following	values:

       Successful completion.

       An error	occurred.

AUTHOR
       was  developed  by  the University of California, Berkeley.  The	16-bit
       extensions to are based in part on software of the Toshiba Corporation.

FILES
       Primary editor initialization file
       Secondary editor	initialization file
       Preserve	command
       Recover command
       Description of terminal capabilities
       Preservation directory
       Editor temporary	file
       Named buffer temporary file

SEE ALSO
       ctags(1), ed(1),	stty(1),  vi(1),  write(1),  terminfo(4),  environ(5),
       lang(5),	regexp(5).

       Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., ISBN	0-8053-4460-8, HP part
       number 97005-90015.

STANDARDS COMPLIANCE
									 ex(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | EXTERNAL INFLUENCES | ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS (XPG4 Only) | EXTENDED DESCRIPTION (XPG4 Only) | WARNINGS | EXIT STATUS (XPG4 Only) | AUTHOR | FILES | SEE ALSO | STANDARDS COMPLIANCE

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