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VI(1)                   FreeBSD General Commands Manual                  VI(1)

NAME
       ex, vi, view - text editors

SYNOPSIS
       ex [-eFGRrSsv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]
       vi [-eFGlRrSv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]
       view [-eFGRrSv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]

LICENSE
       The vi program is freely redistributable.  You are welcome to copy,
       modify and share it with others under the conditions listed in the
       LICENSE file.  If any company (not individual!) finds vi sufficiently
       useful that you would have purchased it, or if any company wishes to
       redistribute it, contributions to the authors would be appreciated.

DESCRIPTION
       Vi is a screen oriented text editor.  Ex is a line-oriented text
       editor.  Ex and vi are different interfaces to the same program, and it
       is possible to switch back and forth during an edit session.  View is
       the equivalent of using the -R (read-only) option of vi.

       This manual page is the one provided with the nex/nvi versions of the
       ex/vi text editors.  Nex/nvi are intended as bug-for-bug compatible
       replacements for the original Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution
       (4BSD) ex and vi programs.  For the rest of this manual page, nex/nvi
       is used only when it's necessary to distinguish it from the historic
       implementations of ex/vi.

       This manual page is intended for users already familiar with ex/vi.
       Anyone else should almost certainly read a good tutorial on the editor
       before this manual page.  If you're in an unfamiliar environment, and
       you absolutely have to get work done immediately, read the section
       after the options description, entitled ``Fast Startup''.  It's
       probably enough to get you going.

       The following options are available:

       -c     Execute cmd immediately after starting the edit session.
              Particularly useful for initial positioning in the file, however
              cmd is not limited to positioning commands.  This is the POSIX
              1003.2 interface for the historic ``+cmd'' syntax.  Nex/nvi
              supports both the old and new syntax.

       -e     Start editing in ex mode, as if the command name were ex.

       -F     Don't copy the entire file when first starting to edit.  (The
              default is to make a copy in case someone else modifies the file
              during your edit session.)

       -l     Start editing with the lisp and showmatch options set.

       -G     Start editing in gtags mode, as if the gtagsmode option was set.

       -R     Start editing in read-only mode, as if the command name was
              view, or the readonly option was set.

       -r     Recover the specified files, or, if no files are specified, list
              the files that could be recovered.  If no recoverable files by
              the specified name exist, the file is edited as if the -r option
              had not been specified.

       -S     Run with the secure edit option set, disallowing all access to
              external programs.

       -s     Enter batch mode; applicable only to ex edit sessions.  Batch
              mode is useful when running ex scripts.  Prompts, informative
              messages and other user oriented message are turned off, and no
              startup files or environment variables are read.  This is the
              POSIX 1003.2 interface for the historic ``-'' argument.  Nex/nvi
              supports both the old and new syntax.

       -t     Start editing at the specified tag.  (See ctags(1)).

       -w     Set the initial window size to the specified number of lines.

       -v     Start editing in vi mode, as if the command name was vi or view.

       Command input for ex/vi is read from the standard input.  In the vi
       interface, it is an error if standard input is not a terminal.  In the
       ex interface, if standard input is not a terminal, ex will read
       commands from it regardless, however, the session will be a batch mode
       session, exactly as if the -s option had been specified.

       Ex/vi exits 0 on success, and greater than 0 if an error occurs.

FAST STARTUP
       This section will tell you the minimum amount that you need to do
       simple editing tasks using vi.  If you've never used any screen editor
       before, you're likely to have problems even with this simple
       introduction.  In that case you should find someone that already knows
       vi and have them walk you through this section.

       Vi is a screen editor.  This means that it takes up almost the entire
       screen, displaying part of the file on each screen line, except for the
       last line of the screen.  The last line of the screen is used for you
       to give commands to vi, and for vi to give information to you.

       The other fact that you need to understand is that vi is a modeful
       editor, i.e. you are either entering text or you are executing
       commands, and you have to be in the right mode to do one or the other.
       You will be in command mode when you first start editing a file.  There
       are commands that switch you into input mode.  There is only one key
       that takes you out of input mode, and that is the <escape> key.  (Key
       names are written using less-than and greater-than signs, e.g.
       <escape> means the ``escape'' key, usually labeled ``esc'' on your
       terminal's keyboard.)  If you're ever confused as to which mode you're
       in, keep entering the <escape> key until vi beeps at you.  (Generally,
       vi will beep at you if you try and do something that's not allowed.  It
       will also display error messages.)

       To start editing a file, enter the command ``vi file_name<carriage-
       return>''.  The command you should enter as soon as you start editing
       is ``:set verbose showmode<carriage-return>''.  This will make the
       editor give you verbose error messages and display the current mode at
       the bottom of the screen.

       The commands to move around the file are:

       h      Move the cursor left one character.

       j      Move the cursor down one line.

       k      Move the cursor up one line.

       l      Move the cursor right one character.

       <cursor-arrows>
              The cursor arrow keys should work, too.

       /text<carriage-return>
              Search for the string ``text'' in the file, and move the cursor
              to its first character.

       The commands to enter new text are:

       a      Append new text, after the cursor.

       i      Insert new text, before the cursor.

       o      Open a new line below the line the cursor is on, and start
              entering text.

       O      Open a new line above the line the cursor is on, and start
              entering text.

       <escape>
              Once you've entered input mode using the one of the a, i, O or o
              commands, use <escape> to quit entering text and return to
              command mode.

       The commands to copy text are:

       yy     Copy the line the cursor is on.

       p      Append the copied line after the line the cursor is on.

       The commands to delete text are:

       dd     Delete the line the cursor is on.

       x      Delete the character the cursor is on.

       The commands to write the file are:

       :w<carriage-return>
              Write the file back to the file with the name that you
              originally used as an argument on the vi command line.

       :w file_name<carriage-return>
              Write the file back to the file with the name ``file_name''.

       The commands to quit editing and exit the editor are:

       :q<carriage-return>
              Quit editing and leave vi (if you've modified the file, but not
              saved your changes, vi will refuse to quit).

       :q!<carriage-return>
              Quit, discarding any modifications that you may have made.

       One final caution.  Unusual characters can take up more than one column
       on the screen, and long lines can take up more than a single screen
       line.  The above commands work on ``physical'' characters and lines,
       i.e. they affect the entire line no matter how many screen lines it
       takes up and the entire character no matter how many screen columns it
       takes up.

VI COMMANDS
       The following section describes the commands available in the command
       mode of the vi editor.  In each entry below, the tag line is a usage
       synopsis for the command character.

       [count] <control-A>
              Search forward count times for the current word.

       [count] <control-B>
              Page backwards count screens.

       [count] <control-D>
              Scroll forward count lines.

       [count] <control-E>
              Scroll forward count lines, leaving the current line and column
              as is, if possible.

       [count] <control-F>
              Page forward count screens.

       <control-G>
              Display the file information.

       <control-H>

       [count] h
              Move the cursor back count characters in the current line.

       [count] <control-J>

       [count] <control-N>

       [count] j
              Move the cursor down count lines without changing the current
              column.

       <control-L>

       <control-R>
              Repaint the screen.

       [count] <control-M>

       [count] +
              Move the cursor down count lines to the first nonblank character
              of that line.

       [count] <control-P>

       [count] k
              Move the cursor up count lines, without changing the current
              column.

       <control-T>
              Return to the most recent tag context.

       <control-U>
              Scroll backwards count lines.

       <control-W>
              Switch to the next lower screen in the window, or, to the first
              screen if there are no lower screens in the window.

       <control-Y>
              Scroll backwards count lines, leaving the current line and
              column as is, if possible.

       <control-Z>
              Suspend the current editor session.

       <escape>
              Execute ex commands or cancel partial commands.

       <control-]>
              Push a tag reference onto the tag stack.  In gtagsmode, if at
              the first column of line, locate function references otherwise
              function definitions.

       <control-^>
              Switch to the most recently edited file.

       [count] <space>

       [count] l
              Move the cursor forward count characters without changing the
              current line.

       [count] ! motion shell-argument(s)
              Replace text with results from a shell command.

       [count] # #|+|-
              Increment or decrement the cursor number.

       [count] $
              Move the cursor to the end of a line.

       %      Move to the matching character.

       &      Repeat the previous substitution command on the current line.

       '<character>

       `<character>
              Return to a context marked by the character _character_.

       [count] (
              Back up count sentences.

       [count] )
              Move forward count sentences.

       [count] ,
              Reverse find character count times.

       [count] -
              Move to first nonblank of the previous line, count times.

       [count] .
              Repeat the last vi command that modified text.

       /RE<carriage-return>

       /RE/ [offset]<carriage-return>

       ?RE<carriage-return>

       ?RE? [offset]<carriage-return>

       N

       n      Search forward or backward for a regular expression.

       0      Move to the first character in the current line.

       :      Execute an ex command.

       [count] ;
              Repeat the last character find count times.

       [count] < motion

       [count] > motion
              Shift lines left or right.

       @ buffer
              Execute a named buffer.

       [count] A
              Enter input mode, appending the text after the end of the line.

       [count] B
              Move backwards count bigwords.

       [buffer] [count] C
              Change text from the current position to the end-of-line.

       [buffer] D
              Delete text from the current position to the end-of-line.

       [count] E
              Move forward count end-of-bigwords.

       [count] F <character>
              Search count times backward through the current line for
              _character_.

       [count] G
              Move to line count, or the last line of the file if count not
              specified.

       [count] H
              Move to the screen line count - 1 lines below the top of the
              screen.

       [count] I
              Enter input mode, inserting the text at the beginning of the
              line.

       [count] J
              Join lines.

       [count] L
              Move to the screen line count - 1 lines above the bottom of the
              screen.

        M     Move to the screen line in the middle of the screen.

       [count] O
              Enter input mode, appending text in a new line above the current
              line.

       [buffer] P
              Insert text from a buffer.

       Q      Exit vi (or visual) mode and switch to ex mode.

       [count] R
              Enter input mode, replacing the characters in the current line.

       [buffer] [count] S
              Substitute count lines.

       [count] T <character>
              Search backwards, count times, through the current line for the
              character after the specified _character_.

       U      Restore the current line to its state before the cursor last
              moved to it.

       [count] W
              Move forward count bigwords.

       [buffer] [count] X
              Delete count characters before the cursor.

       [buffer] [count] Y
              Copy (or ``yank'') count lines into the specified buffer.

       ZZ     Write the file and exit vi.

       [count] [[
              Back up count section boundaries.

       [count] ]]
              Move forward count section boundaries.

       ^      Move to first nonblank character on the current line.

       [count] _
              Move down count - 1 lines, to the first nonblank character.

       [count] a
              Enter input mode, appending the text after the cursor.

       [count] b
              Move backwards count words.

       [buffer] [count] c motion
              Change a region of text.

       [buffer] [count] d motion
              Delete a region of text.

       [count] e
              Move forward count end-of-words.

       [count] f<character>
              Search forward, count times, through the rest of the current
              line for _character_.

       [count] i
              Enter input mode, inserting the text before the cursor.

       m <character>
              Save the current context (line and column) as _character_.

       [count] o
              Enter input mode, appending text in a new line under the current
              line.

       [buffer] p
              Append text from a buffer.

       [count] r <character>
              Replace count characters.

       [buffer] [count] s
              Substitute count characters in the current line starting with
              the current character.

       [count] t <character>
              Search forward, count times, through the current line for the
              character immediately before _character_.

       u      Undo the last change made to the file.

       [count] w
              Move forward count words.

       [buffer] [count] x
              Delete count characters.

       [buffer] [count] y motion
              Copy (or ``yank'') a text region specified by the count and
              motion into a buffer.

       [count1] z [count2] -|.|+|^|<carriage-return>
              Redraw, optionally repositioning and resizing the screen.

       [count] {
              Move backward count paragraphs.

       [count] |
              Move to a specific column position on the current line.

       [count] }
              Move forward count paragraphs.

       [count] ~
              Reverse the case of the next count character(s).

       [count] ~ motion
              Reverse the case of the characters in a text region specified by
              the count and motion.

       <interrupt>
              Interrupt the current operation.

VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS
       The following section describes the commands available in the text
       input mode of the vi editor.

       <nul>  Replay the previous input.

       <control-D>
              Erase to the previous shiftwidth column boundary.

       ^<control-D>
              Erase all of the autoindent characters, and reset the autoindent
              level.

       0<control-D>
              Erase all of the autoindent characters.

       <control-T>
              Insert sufficient _tab_ and _space_ characters to move forward
              to the next shiftwidth column boundary.

       <erase>

       <control-H>
              Erase the last character.

       <literal next>
              Quote the next character.

       <escape>
              Resolve all text input into the file, and return to command
              mode.

       <line erase>
              Erase the current line.

       <control-W>

       <word erase>
              Erase the last word.  The definition of word is dependent on the
              altwerase and ttywerase options.

       <control-X>[0-9A-Fa-f]+
              Insert a character with the specified hexadecimal value into the
              text.

       <interrupt>
              Interrupt text input mode, returning to command mode.

EX COMMANDS
       The following section describes the commands available in the ex
       editor.  In each entry below, the tag line is a usage synopsis for the
       command.

       <end-of-file>
              Scroll the screen.

       ! argument(s)

       [range]! argument(s)
              Execute a shell command, or filter lines through a shell
              command.

       "      A comment.

       [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags]

       [range] # [count] [flags]
              Display the selected lines, each preceded with its line number.

       @ buffer

       * buffer
              Execute a buffer.

       [line] a[ppend][!]
              The input text is appended after the specified line.

       [range] c[hange][!] [count]
              The input text replaces the specified range.

       cs[cope] add | find | help | kill | reset
              Execute a Cscope command.

       [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags]
              Delete the lines from the file.

       di[splay] b[uffers] | c[onnections] | s[creens] | t[ags]
              Display buffers, Cscope connections, screens or tags.

       [Ee][dit][!] [+cmd] [file]

       [Ee]x[!] [+cmd] [file]
              Edit a different file.

       exu[sage] [command]
              Display usage for an ex command.

       f[ile] [file]
              Display and optionally change the file name.

       [Ff]g [name]
              Vi mode only.  Foreground the specified screen.

       [range] g[lobal] /pattern/ [commands]

       [range] v /pattern/ [commands]
              Apply commands to lines matching (or not matching) a pattern.

       he[lp] Display a help message.

       [line] i[nsert][!]
              The input text is inserted before the specified line.

       [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags]
              Join lines of text together.

       [range] l[ist] [count] [flags]
              Display the lines unambiguously.

       map[!] [lhs rhs]
              Define or display maps (for vi only).

       [line] ma[rk] <character>

       [line] k <character>
              Mark the line with the mark _character_.

       [range] m[ove] line
              Move the specified lines after the target line.

       mk[exrc][!] file
              Write the abbreviations, editor options and maps to the
              specified file.

       [Nn][ext][!] [file ...]
              Edit the next file from the argument list.

       [line] o[pen] /pattern/ [flags]
              Enter open mode.

       pre[serve]
              Save the file in a form that can later be recovered using the ex
              -r option.

       [Pp]rev[ious][!]
              Edit the previous file from the argument list.

       [range] p[rint] [count] [flags]
              Display the specified lines.

       [line] pu[t] [buffer]
              Append buffer contents to the current line.

       q[uit][!]
              End the editing session.

       [line] r[ead][!] [file]
              Read a file.

       rec[over] file
              Recover file if it was previously saved.

       res[ize] [+|-]size
              Vi mode only.  Grow or shrink the current screen.

       rew[ind][!]
              Rewind the argument list.

       rta[g][!] tagstring
              Edit the file referring the specified tag. (Only in gtagsmode)

       se[t] [option[=[value]] ...] [nooption ...] [option? ...] [all]
              Display or set editor options.

       sh[ell]
              Run a shell program.

       so[urce] file
              Read and execute ex commands from a file.

       [range] s[ubstitute] [/pattern/replace/] [options] [count] [flags]

       [range] & [options] [count] [flags]

       [range] ~ [options] [count] [flags]
              Make substitutions.

       su[spend][!]

       st[op][!]

       <suspend>
              Suspend the edit session.

       [Tt]a[g][!] tagstring
              Edit the file containing the specified tag.

       tagn[ext][!]
              Edit the file containing the next context for the current tag.

       tagp[op][!] [file | number]
              Pop to the specified tag in the tags stack.

       tagp[rev][!]
              Edit the file containing the previous context for the current
              tag.

       unm[ap][!] lhs
              Unmap a mapped string.

       ve[rsion]
              Display the version of the ex/vi editor.

       [line] vi[sual] [type] [count] [flags]
              Ex mode only.  Enter vi.

       [Vi]i[sual][!] [+cmd] [file]
              Vi mode only.  Edit a new file.

       viu[sage] [command]
              Display usage for a vi command.

       [range] w[rite][!] [>>] [file]

       [range] w[rite] [!] [file]

       [range] wn[!] [>>] [file]

       [range] wq[!] [>>] [file]
              Write the file.

       [range] x[it][!] [file]
              Write the file if it has been modified.

       [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count]
              Copy the specified lines to a buffer.

       [line] z [type] [count] [flags]
              Adjust the window.

SET OPTIONS
       There are a large number of options that may be set (or unset) to
       change the editor's behavior.  This section describes the options,
       their abbreviations and their default values.

       In each entry below, the first part of the tag line is the full name of
       the option, followed by any equivalent abbreviations.  The part in
       square brackets is the default value of the option.  Most of the
       options are boolean, i.e. they are either on or off, and do not have an
       associated value.

       Options apply to both ex and vi modes, unless otherwise specified.

       altwerase [off]
              Vi only.  Select an alternate word erase algorithm.

       autoindent, ai [off]
              Automatically indent new lines.

       autoprint, ap [off]
              Ex only.  Display the current line automatically.

       autowrite, aw [off]
              Write modified files automatically when changing files.

       backup [""]
              Backup files before they are overwritten.

       beautify, bf [off]
              Discard control characters.

       cdpath [environment variable CDPATH, or current directory]
              The directory paths used as path prefixes for the cd command.

       cedit [no default]
              Set the character to edit the colon command-line history.

       columns, co [80]
              Set the number of columns in the screen.

       comment [off]
              Vi only.  Skip leading comments in shell, C and C++ language
              files.

       directory, dir [environment variable TMPDIR, or /tmp]
              The directory where temporary files are created.

       edcompatible, ed [off]
              Remember the values of the ``c'' and ``g'' suffices to the
              substitute commands, instead of initializing them as unset for
              each new command.

       errorbells, eb [off]
              Ex only.  Announce error messages with a bell.

       exrc, ex [off]
              Read the startup files in the local directory.

       extended [off]
              Regular expressions are extended (i.e.  egrep(1)-style)
              expressions.

       filec [no default]
              Set the character to perform file path completion on the colon
              command line.

       flash [on]
              Flash the screen instead of beeping the keyboard on error.

       gtagsmode, gt [off]
              Use GTAGS and GRTAGS instead of tags.

       hardtabs, ht [8]
              Set the spacing between hardware tab settings.

       iclower [off]
              Makes all Regular Expressions case-insensitive, as long as an
              upper-case letter does not appear in the search string.

       ignorecase, ic [off]
              Ignore case differences in regular expressions.

       keytime [6]
              The 10th's of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to
              complete a key mapping.

       leftright [off]
              Vi only.  Do left-right scrolling.

       lines, li [24]
              Vi only.  Set the number of lines in the screen.

       lisp [off]
              Vi only.  Modify various search commands and options to work
              with Lisp.  This option is not yet implemented.

       list [off]
              Display lines in an unambiguous fashion.

       lock [on]
              Attempt to get an exclusive lock on any file being edited, read
              or written.

       magic [on]
              Treat certain characters specially in regular expressions.

       matchtime [7]
              Vi only.  The 10th's of a second ex/vi pauses on the matching
              character when the showmatch option is set.

       mesg [on]
              Permit messages from other users.

       modelines, modeline [off]
              Read the first and last few lines of each file for ex commands.
              This option will never be implemented.

       noprint [""]
              Characters that are never handled as printable characters.

       number, nu [off]
              Precede each line displayed with its current line number.

       octal [off]
              Display unknown characters as octal numbers, instead of the
              default hexadecimal.

       open [on]
              Ex only.  If this option is not set, the open and visual
              commands are disallowed.

       optimize, opt [on]
              Vi only.  Optimize text throughput to dumb terminals.  This
              option is not yet implemented.

       paragraphs, para [IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp]
              Vi only.  Define additional paragraph boundaries for the { and }
              commands.

       path []
              Define additional directories to search for files being edited.

       print [""]
              Characters that are always handled as printable characters.

       prompt [on]
              Ex only.  Display a command prompt.

       readonly, ro [off]
              Mark the file and session as read-only.

       recdir [/var/tmp/vi.recover]
              The directory where recovery files are stored.

       redraw, re [off]
              Vi only.  Simulate an intelligent terminal on a dumb one.  This
              option is not yet implemented.

       remap [on]
              Remap keys until resolved.

       report [5]
              Set the number of lines about which the editor reports changes
              or yanks.

       ruler [off]
              Vi only.  Display a row/column ruler on the colon command line.

       scroll, scr [window / 2]
              Set the number of lines scrolled.

       searchincr [off]
              Makes the / and ?  commands incremental.

       sections, sect [NHSHH HUnhsh]
              Vi only.  Define additional section boundaries for the [[ and ]]
              commands.

       secure [off]
              Turns off all access to external programs.

       shell, sh [environment variable SHELL, or /bin/sh]
              Select the shell used by the editor.

       shellmeta [~{[*?$`'"\]
              Set the meta characters checked to determine if file name
              expansion is necessary.

       shiftwidth, sw [8]
              Set the autoindent and shift command indentation width.

       showmatch, sm [off]
              Vi only.  Note matching ``{'' and ``('' for ``}'' and ``)''
              characters.

       showmode, smd [off]
              Vi only.  Display the current editor mode and a ``modified''
              flag.

       sidescroll [16]
              Vi only.  Set the amount a left-right scroll will shift.

       slowopen, slow [off]
              Delay display updating during text input.  This option is not
              yet implemented.

       sourceany [off]
              Read startup files not owned by the current user.  This option
              will never be implemented.

       tabstop, ts [8]
              This option sets tab widths for the editor display.

       taglength, tl [0]
              Set the number of significant characters in tag names.

       tags, tag [tags /var/db/libc.tags /sys/kern/tags]
              Set the list of tags files.

       term, ttytype, tty [environment variable TERM]
              Set the terminal type.

       terse [off]
              This option has historically made editor messages less verbose.
              It has no effect in this implementation.

       tildeop [off]
              Modify the ~ command to take an associated motion.

       timeout, to [on]
              Time out on keys which may be mapped.

       ttywerase [off]
              Vi only.  Select an alternate erase algorithm.

       verbose [off]
              Vi only.  Display an error message for every error.

       w300 [no default]
              Vi only.  Set the window size if the baud rate is less than 1200
              baud.

       w1200 [no default]
              Vi only.  Set the window size if the baud rate is equal to 1200
              baud.

       w9600 [no default]
              Vi only.  Set the window size if the baud rate is greater than
              1200 baud.

       warn [on]
              Ex only.  This option causes a warning message to the terminal
              if the file has been modified, since it was last written, before
              a !  command.

       window, w, wi [environment variable LINES]
              Set the window size for the screen.

       windowname [off]
              Change the icon/window name to the current file name even if it
              can't be restored on editor exit.

       wraplen, wl [0]
              Vi only.  Break lines automatically, the specified number of
              columns from the left-hand margin.  If both the wraplen and
              wrapmargin edit options are set, the wrapmargin value is used.

       wrapmargin, wm [0]
              Vi only.  Break lines automatically, the specified number of
              columns from the right-hand margin.  If both the wraplen and
              wrapmargin edit options are set, the wrapmargin value is used.

       wrapscan, ws [on]
              Set searches to wrap around the end or beginning of the file.

       writeany, wa [off]
              Turn off file-overwriting checks.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       COLUMNS
              The number of columns on the screen.  This value overrides any
              system or terminal specific values.  If the COLUMNS environment
              variable is not set when ex/vi runs, or the columns option is
              explicitly reset by the user, ex/vi enters the value into the
              environment.

       EXINIT A list of ex startup commands, read if the variable NEXINIT is
              not set.

       HOME   The user's home directory, used as the initial directory path
              for the startup ``$HOME/.nexrc'' and ``$HOME/.exrc'' files.
              This value is also used as the default directory for the vi cd
              command.

       LINES  The number of rows on the screen.  This value overrides any
              system or terminal specific values.  If the LINES environment
              variable is not set when ex/vi runs, or the lines option is
              explicitly reset by the user, ex/vi enters the value into the
              environment.

       NEXINIT
              A list of ex startup commands.

       SHELL  The user's shell of choice (see also the shell option).

       TERM   The user's terminal type.  The default is the type ``unknown''.
              If the TERM environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs, or
              the term option is explicitly reset by the user, ex/vi enters
              the value into the environment.

       TMPDIR The location used to stored temporary files (see also the
              directory edit option).

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       SIGALRM
              Vi/ex uses this signal for periodic backups of file
              modifications and to display ``busy'' messages when operations
              are likely to take a long time.

       SIGHUP

       SIGTERM
              If the current buffer has changed since it was last written in
              its entirety, the editor attempts to save the modified file so
              it can be later recovered.  See the vi/ex Reference manual
              section entitled ``Recovery'' for more information.

       SIGINT When an interrupt occurs, the current operation is halted, and
              the editor returns to the command level.  If interrupted during
              text input, the text already input is resolved into the file as
              if the text input had been normally terminated.

       SIGWINCH
              The screen is resized.  See the vi/ex Reference manual section
              entitled ``Sizing the Screen'' for more information.

       SIGCONT

       SIGQUIT

       SIGTSTP
              Vi/ex ignores these signals.

FILES
       /bin/sh
              The default user shell.

       /etc/vi.exrc
              System-wide vi startup file.

       /tmp   Temporary file directory.

       /var/tmp/vi.recover
              The default recovery file directory.

       $HOME/.nexrc
              1st choice for user's home directory startup file.

       $HOME/.exrc
              2nd choice for user's home directory startup file.

       .nexrc 1st choice for local directory startup file.

       .exrc  2nd choice for local directory startup file.

SEE ALSO
       ctags(1), more(1), curses(3), dbopen(3)

       The ``Vi Quick Reference'' card.

       ``An Introduction to Display Editing with Vi'', found in the ``UNIX
       User's Manual Supplementary Documents'' section of both the 4.3BSD and
       4.4BSD manual sets.  This document is the closest thing available to an
       introduction to the vi screen editor.

       ``Ex Reference Manual (Version 3.7)'', found in the ``UNIX User's
       Manual Supplementary Documents'' section of both the 4.3BSD and 4.4BSD
       manual sets.  This document is the final reference for the ex editor,
       as distributed in most historic 4BSD and System V systems.

       ``Edit: A tutorial'', found in the ``UNIX User's Manual Supplementary
       Documents'' section of the 4.3BSD manual set.  This document is an
       introduction to a simple version of the ex screen editor.

       ``Ex/Vi Reference Manual'', found in the ``UNIX User's Manual
       Supplementary Documents'' section of the 4.4BSD manual set.  This
       document is the final reference for the nex/nvi text editors, as
       distributed in 4.4BSD and 4.4BSD-Lite.

       Roff source for all of these documents is distributed with nex/nvi in
       the nvi/USD.doc directory of the nex/nvi source code.

       The files ``autowrite'', ``input'', ``quoting'' and ``structures''
       found in the nvi/docs/internals directory of the nex/nvi source code.

HISTORY
       The nex/nvi replacements for the ex/vi editor first appeared in 4.4BSD.

STANDARDS
       Nex/nvi is close to IEEE Std1003.2 (``POSIX'').  That document differs
       from historical ex/vi practice in several places; there are changes to
       be made on both sides.

3rd Berkeley Distribution      October 10, 1996                          VI(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | LICENSE | DESCRIPTION | FAST STARTUP | VI COMMANDS | VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS | EX COMMANDS | SET OPTIONS | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS | FILES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | STANDARDS

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