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ES(1)			    General Commands Manual			 ES(1)

       es - extensible shell

       es [-silevxnpo] [-c command | file] [arguments]

       Es is a command interpreter and programming language which combines the
       features	of other Unix shells and the features of a functional program-
       ming language such as Scheme.  The syntax is derived from rc(1).	 Es is
       intended	for use	both as	an interactive shell and  a  programming  lan-
       guage for scripts.

       Es is an	extremely customizable language.  The semantics	can be altered
       radically by redefining functions that are called to implement internal
       operations.  This manual	page describes the default, initial configura-
       tion.  See the section entitled Hook Functions  for  details  on	 entry
       points which can	be redefined to	give the shell extended	semantics.

       Es  is an interpreter which reads commands and executes them.  The sim-
       plest form of command in	es is a	sequence of words separated  by	 white
       space  (space and tab) characters.  A word is either a string or	a pro-
       gram fragment (see below).  The first word is the command  to  be  exe-
       cuted; the remaining words are passed as	arguments to that command.  If
       the first word is a string, it is a interpreted as the name of  a  pro-
       gram  or	 shell	function  to  run.  If the name	is the name of a shell
       function, that function is executed.  Otherwise,	the name  is  used  as
       the name	of an executable file.	If the name begins with	/, ./, or ../,
       then it is used as the absolute path name of a file; if not,  es	 looks
       for an executable file in the directories named by $path.

       Commands	 are  terminated  by  newline or semicolon (;).	 A command may
       also be terminated by an	ampersand (&), which causes the	command	to  be
       run  in the background: the shell does not wait for the command to fin-
       ish before continuing execution.	 Background processes have an implicit
       redirection of /dev/null	as their standard input	that may be overridden
       by an explicit redirection.

       Es gives	several	characters special meaning; special  characters	 auto-
       matically terminate words.  The following characters, along with	space,
       tab, and	newline, are special:

	    # $	& ' ( )	; < = >	\ ^ ` {	| }

       The single quote	(') prevents special treatment of any character	 other
       than itself.  Any characters between single quotes, including newlines,
       backslashes, and	control	characters, are	treated	 as  an	 uninterpreted
       string.	 A  quote character itself may be quoted by placing two	quotes
       in a row.  A single quote character is therefore	represented by the se-
       quence ''''.  The empty string is represented by	''.  Thus:

	    echo 'What''s the plan, Stan?'

       prints out

	    What's the plan, Stan?

       The  backslash (\) quotes the immediately following character, if it is
       one of the special characters, except for  newline.   In	 addition,  es
       recognizes backslash sequences similar to those used in C strings:

	      \a     alert (bell)

	      \b     backspace

	      \e     escape

	      \f     form-feed

	      \n     newline

	      \r     carriage return

	      \t     tab

	      \xnn   hexadecimal character nn

	      \nnn   octal character nnn

       The  number  sign (#) begins a comment in es.  All characters up	to but
       not including the next newline are ignored.

   Line	continuation
       A long logical line may be continued over  several  physical  lines  by
       terminating  each  line	(except	 the  last) with a backslash (\).  The
       backslash-newline sequence is treated as	a space.  Note that line  con-
       tinuation  does not work	in comments, where the backslash is treated as
       part of the comment, and	inside quoted strings, where the backslash and
       newline are quoted.

       The  primary  data  structure in	es is the list,	which is a sequence of
       words.  Parentheses are used to group lists.  The empty list is	repre-
       sented  by ().  Lists have no hierarchical structure; a list inside an-
       other list is expanded so that the outer	list contains all the elements
       of the inner list.  Thus, the following are all equivalent:

	    one	two three
	    (one two three)
	    ((one) () ((two three)))

       Note  that  the	null  string, '', and the empty	list, (), are two very
       different things.  Assigning the	null string to variable	is a valid op-
       eration,	but it does not	remove its definition.

       Two  lists  may	be joined by the concatenation operator	(^).  A	single
       word is a list of length	one, so

	    echo foo^bar

       produces	the output


       For lists of more than one element, concatenation  produces  the	 cross
       (Cartesian) product of the elements in both lists:

	    echo (a- b-	c-)^(1 2)

       produces	the output

	    a-1	a-2 b-1	b-2 c-1	c-2

       A list may be assigned to a variable, using the notation:

	    var	= list

       Any  sequence  of  non-special  characters, except a sequence including
       only digits, may	be used	as a variable name.  Es	exports	 all  user-de-
       fined  variables	 into the environment unless it	is explicitly told not

       The value of a variable is referenced with the notation:


       Any variable which has not been assigned	a value	returns	the empty list
       when referenced.	 In addition, multiple references are allowed:

	    a =	foo
	    b =	a
	    echo $$b



       A variable's definition may also	be removed by assigning	the empty list
       to a variable:


       Multiple	variables may be assigned with a single	 assignment  statment.
       The  left  hand	side of	the assignment operation consists of a list of
       variables which are assigned, one by one, to the	values in the list  on
       the  right  hand	 side.	If there are more variables than values	in the
       list, the empty list is assigned	to the remaining variables.  If	 there
       are  fewer  variables  than  elements in	the list, the last variable is
       bound to	all the	remaining list values.

       For example,

	    (a b) = 1 2	3

       has the same effect as

	    a =	1
	    b =	2 3


	    (a b c) = 1	2

       is the same as

	    a =	1
	    b =	2
	    c =

       Note that when assigning	values to more than one	variable,
       the list	of variables must be enclosed in parentheses.

       For ``free careting'' (see below) to work correctly,
       must make certain assumptions
       about what characters may appear	in a variable name.
       assumes that a variable name consists only of alphanumeric characters,
       and underscore
       To reference a variable with other
       characters in its name, quote the variable name.

	    echo $'we$Irdriab!le'

       A variable name produced	by some	complex	operation, such	as  concatena-
       tion, should be enclosed	in parentheses:



	    Good-Morning = Bonjour
	    Guten = Good
	    Morgen = Morning
	    echo $($Guten^-^$Morgen)



       Each  element  of  the list in parentheses is treated as	an independent
       variable	and expanded separately.  Thus,	given the above	definitions,

	    echo $(Guten Morgen)


	    Good Morning

       To count	the number of elements in a variable, use


       This returns a single-element list with the number of elements in $var.

       Variables may be	indexed	with the notation


       where n is a list of integers or	ranges.	 Subscript indexes  are	 based
       at  one.	  The  list of subscripts need not be in order or even unique.
       Thus, if

	    a =	one two	three


	    echo $a(3 3	3)


	    three three	three

       Subscript indices which refer to	nonexistent  elements  expand  to  the
       empty list.  Thus, given	the definition above

	    echo $a(3 1	4 1 5 9	2 6 5)


	    three one one two

       Subscript  ranges are of	the form lo...hi and refer to all the elements
       between lo and hi.  If lo is omitted, then  1  is  used	as  a  default
       value; if hi is omitted,	the length of the list is used.	 Thus

	    * =	$*(2 ...)

       removes the first element of *, similar to the effect of	shift in rc(1)
       or sh(1).

       The notation $n,	where n	is an  integer,	 is  a	shorthand  for	$*(n).
       Thus, es's arguments may	be referred to as $1, $2, and so on.

       Note that the list of subscripts	may be given by	any es expression, so

	    $var(`{awk 'BEGIN{for(i=1;i<=10;i++)print i;exit }'})

       returns the first 10 elements of	$var.

   Free	Carets
       Es  inserts carets (concatenation operators) for	free in	certain	situa-
       tions, in order to save some typing on the user's behalf.  For example,
       the following are all equivalent:

	    cc -O -g -c	malloc.c alloca.c
	    cc -^(O g c) (malloc alloca)^.c
	    opts=O g c;	files=malloc alloca; cc	-$opts $files.c

       Es inserts a free-caret between the ``-'' and $opts, as well as between
       $files and .c.  The rule	for free carets	is as follows: if  a  word  or
       keyword	is  immediately	followed by another word, keyword, dollar-sign
       or backquote without any	intervening spaces, then es  inserts  a	 caret
       between them.

   Flattened Lists
       To  create  a  single-element  list from	a multi-element	list, with the
       components space-separated, use


       Flattening is useful when the normal list concatenation rules  need  to
       be  bypassed.   For  example,  to  append a single period at the	end of
       $path, use:

	    echo $^path.

   Wildcard Expansion
       Es expands wildcards in filenames if possible.  When the	characters  *,
       [  or ?	occur in an argument or	command, es looks at the argument as a
       pattern for matching against files.  (Contrary  to  the	behavior  some
       other  shells  exhibit,	es  will  only	perform	 pattern matching if a
       metacharacter occurs unquoted and literally in the input.  Thus,

	    foo	= '*'
	    echo $foo

       will always echo	just a star.  In order for non-literal	metacharacters
       to  be  expanded, an eval statement must	be used	in order to rescan the
       input.)	Pattern	matching occurs	according to the following rules: a  *
       matches	any  number  (including	zero) of characters.  A	?  matches any
       single character, and a [ followed by a number of  characters  followed
       by a ] matches a	single character in that class.	 The rules for charac-
       ter class matching are the same as those	for ed(1), with	the  exception
       that  character	class negation is achieved with	the tilde (~), not the
       caret (^), since	the caret already means	something  else	 in  es.   The
       filename	component separator, slash (/),	must appear explicitly in pat-
       terns.  * and ?	do not match a dot character (.)  at the beginning  of
       a filename component.

       A  tilde	 (~) as	the first character of an argument is used to refer to
       home directories.  A tilde alone	or followed by a slash (/) is replaced
       by  the value of	$home, which is	usually	the home directory of the cur-
       rent user.  A tilde followed by a username is replaced  with  the  home
       directory of that user, according to getpwent(3).

   Pattern Matching
       The tilde (~) operator is used in es for	matching strings against wild-
       card patterns.  The command

	    ~ subject pattern pattern ...

       returns a true value if and only	if the subject matches any of the pat-
       terns.	The matching follows the same rules as wildcard	expansion, ex-
       cept that slashes (/) are not considered	significant, leading dots  (.)
       do not have to be matched explicitly, and home directory	expansion does
       not occur.  Thus

	    ~ foo f*

       returns zero (true), while

	    ~ (bar baz)	f*

       returns one (false).  The null list is matched by the null list,	so

	    ~ $foo ()

       checks to see whether $foo is empty or not.  This may also be  achieved
       by the test

	    ~ $#foo 0

       Note  that  inside  a ~ command es does not match patterns against file
       names, so it is not necessary to	quote the characters *,	[ and ?.  How-
       ever,  es  does	expand	the  subject  against filenames	if it contains
       metacharacters.	Thus, the command

	    ~ *	?

       returns true if any of the files	in the current directory have  a  sin-
       gle-character  name.  Note that if the ~	command	is given a list	as its
       first argument, then a successful match against any of the elements  of
       that list will cause ~ to return	true.  For example:

	    ~ (foo goo zoo) z*

       is true.

   Pattern Extraction
       The  double-tilde  (~~) operator	is used	in es for extracting the parts
       of strings that match patterns.	The command

	    ~~ subject pattern pattern ...

       returns the parts of each matching  subject  which  correspond  to  the

       Each  subject  is checked in order against each pattern;	 if it matches
       the pattern, the	parts of the subject which matched each	*,  ?,	or  []
       character range are extracted, and processing moves on to the next sub-
       ject.  If the subject does not match, the next pattern is tried.

       For example, the	result of the extraction operation

	    ~~ (foo.c foo.x bar.h) *.[ch]

       is the list (foo	c bar h).

   Command Substitution
       A list may be formed from the output of a command  by  using  backquote

	    `{ command }

       returns	a  list	 formed	 from  the  standard  output of	the command in
       braces.	The characters stored in the variable $ifs (for	``input	 field
       separator'')  are  used to split	the output into	list elements.	By de-
       fault, $ifs has the value space-tab-newline.  The braces	may be omitted
       if  the	command	 is  a	single	word.  Thus `ls	may be used instead of
       `{ls}.  This last feature is useful when	defining functions that	expand
       to useful argument lists.  A frequent use is:

	    fn src { echo *.[chy] }

       followed	by

	    wc `src

       (This will print	out a word-count of all	C and Yacc source files	in the
       current directory.)

       In order	to override the	value of $ifs for a single  command  substitu-
       tion, use:

	    `` ifs-list	{ command }

       $ifs will be temporarily	ignored	and the	command's output will be split
       as specified by the list	following the double backquote.	 For example:

	    `` :\n {cat	/etc/passwd}

       splits up /etc/passwd into fields.

   Return Values
       The return value	of a command is	obtained with the construct

	    <={	command	}

       The return value	of an external program is its exit  status  (which  in
       other shells can	be found in special variables such as $?  or $status),
       as either a small integer or the	name of	signal.	 Thus

	    echo <={test -f /etc/motd} <={test -w /vmunix} <=a.out

       might produce the output

	    0 1	sigsegv+core

       along with any output or	error messages from the	programs.

       Es functions and	primitives can produce ``rich  return  values,''  that
       is, arbitrary lists as return values.

       When return values are interpreted as truth values, an extension	of the
       normal shell conventions	apply.	If any element of a list is not	 equal
       to ``0''	(or the	empty string), that list is considered false.

       The return value	of an assignment operation is the assigned value.

   Logical Operators
       There  are  a number of operators in es which depend on the exit	status
       of a command.

	    command1 &&	command2

       executes	the first command and then executes the	second command if  and
       only if the first command has a ``true''	return value.

	    command1 ||	command2

       executes	 the first command and then executes the second	command	if and
       only if the first command has a ``false'' return	value.

	    ! command

       inverts the truth value of the exit status of a command.

   Input and output
       The standard output of a	command	may be redirected to a file with

	    command > file

       and the standard	input may be taken from	a file with

	    command < file

       File descriptors	other than 0 and 1 may be specified also.   For	 exam-
       ple, to redirect	standard error to a file, use:

	    command >[2] file

       In  order to duplicate a	file descriptor, use >[n=m].  Thus to redirect
       both standard output and	standard error to the same file, use

	    command > file >[2=1]

       To close	a file descriptor that may be open, use	>[n=].	 For  example,
       to close	file descriptor	7:

	    command >[7=]

       In  order to place the output of	a command at the end of	an already ex-
       isting file, use:

	    command >> file

       If the file does	not exist, then	it is created.

       To open a file for reading and writing, use the <>  redirection	opera-
       tor;  for  reading and appending, use <>>.  Both	of these operators use
       file descriptor 0 (standard input) by default.  Similarly, >< truncates
       a  file	and opens it for reading and writing, and >>< opens a file for
       reading and appending; these operators use file	descriptor  1  by  de-

       ``Here documents'' are supported	as in sh(1) with the use of

	    command << 'eof-marker'

       If  the end-of-file marker is quoted, then no variable substitution oc-
       curs inside the here document.  Otherwise, every	 variable  is  substi-
       tuted by	its space-separated-list value (see Flat Lists,	below),	and if
       a ^ character follows a variable	name, it is deleted.  This allows  the
       unambiguous use of variables adjacent to	text, as in


       To include a literal $ in a here	document created with an unquoted end-
       of-file marker, use $$.

       Additionally, es	supports ``here	strings'', which are like  here	 docu-
       ments, except that input	is taken directly from a string	on the command
       line.  Its use is illustrated here:

	    cat	<<< 'this is a here string' | wc

       (This feature enables es	to export functions that use here documents.)

       Two or more commands may	be combined in a pipeline by placing the  ver-
       tical bar (|) between them.  The	standard output	(file descriptor 1) of
       the command on the left is tied to the standard input (file  descriptor
       0)  of  the  command  on	the right.  The	notation |[n=m]	indicates that
       file descriptor n of the	left process is	connected to file descriptor m
       of  the right process.  |[n] is a shorthand for |[n=0].	As an example,
       to pipe the standard error of a command to wc(1), use:

	    command |[2] wc

       The exit	status of a pipeline is	considered true	if and only  if	 every
       command in the pipeline exits true.

   Input/Output	Substitution
       Some  commands,	like  cmp(1)  or  diff(1), take	their input from named
       files on	the command line, and do not use standard input.  It is	conve-
       nient sometimes to build	nonlinear pipelines so that a command like cmp
       can read	the output of two commands at once.  Es	does it	like this:

	    cmp	<{command1} <{command2}

       compares	the output of the two commands.	 Note: on some	systems,  this
       form  of	 redirection  is  implemented with pipes, and since one	cannot
       lseek(2)	on a pipe, commands that use lseek will	 hang.	 For  example,
       most versions of	diff seek on their inputs.

       Data  can  be sent down a pipe to several commands using	tee(1) and the
       output version of this notation:

	    echo hi there | tee	>{sed 's/^/p1 /'} >{sed	's/^/p2	/'}

   Program Fragments
       Es allows the intermixing of code with strings.	 A  program  fragment,
       which  is a group of commands enclosed in braces	({ and }), may be used
       anywhere	a word is expected, and	is treated  as	an  indivisible	 unit.
       For example, a program fragment may be passed as	an argument, stored in
       a variable, or written to a file	or pipe.  If a	program	 fragment  ap-
       pears as	the first word in a command, it	is executed, and any arguments
       are ignored.  Thus the following	all produce the	same output:

	    { echo hello, world	}
	    { echo hello, world	} foo bar
	    es -c { echo hello,	world }
	    x =	{ echo hello, world }; $x
	    echo { echo	hello, world } | es
	    echo { echo	hello, world } > foo; es < foo

       Since program fragments in the first position in	 a  command  are  exe-
       cuted,  braces  may  be used as a grouping mechanism for	commands.  For
       example,	to run several commands, with output from all  of  them	 redi-
       rected to the same file,	one can	do

	    { date; ps agux; who } > snapshot

       In  addition,  program  fragments can continue across multiple physical
       lines without explicit line continuations, so the above	command	 could
       also be written:

		 ps agux
	    } >	snapshot

       A  lambda  is a variant on a program fragment which takes arguments.  A
       lambda has the form

	    @ parameters { commands }

       The parameters are one or more variable names, to  which	 arguments  of
       the lambda are assigned while the commands are run.  The	first argument
       is assigned to the first	variable, the second to	the second, and	so on.
       If there	are more arguments than	parameters, the	last named variable is
       assigned	all the	remaining arguments; if	there are fewer,  the  parame-
       ters  for which there are no arguments are bound	to the empty list.  If
       no parameters are listed, the variable named * is assigned all the  ar-
       guments	of  the	 lambda.   Note	 that @	is a keyword and not a special
       character in es,	so it must  be	separated  by  whitespace  from	 other

       As a small example,

	    @ {	echo $*	} hi

       is  a  complicated way of producing the output hi.  The first word is a
       function	which echoes its arguments, and	the second word	is  the	 argu-
       ment to the function, the word hi.

       Lambdas,	 like  other program fragments,	can appear anywhere in a list.
       A more complicated example in the same spirit:

	    @ cmd arg {	$cmd $arg } @ {	echo $*	} hi

       This command executes a lambda which runs  its  first  argument,	 named
       cmd,  using  its	 second	 argument,  named arg, as the argument for the
       first.  The first argument of this function  is	another	 lambda,  seen
       previously, and the second argument is the word hi.

       These lambda expressions

	    @ a	b c { echo $c $b $a } 1	2
	    @ a	b c { echo $c $b $a } 1	2 3 4 5

       produce this output:

	    2 1
	    3 4	5 2 1

       A function in es	is introduced with the syntax

	    fn name parameters { commands }

       If  the	function name appears as the first word	of a command, the com-
       mands are run, with the named parameters	bound to the arguments to  the

       The  similarity	between	 functions and lambdas is not coincidental.  A
       function	in es is a variable of the form	fn-name.  If  name  for	 which
       the appropriate fn- variable exists is found in the first position of a
       command,	the value of the variable is substituted for the  first	 word.
       The  above  syntax for creating functions is equivalent to the variable

	    fn-name = @	parameters { commands }

       Functions may be	deleted	with the syntax

	    fn name

       which is	equivalent to the assignment


       If, as the most common case, a function variable	is bound to a  lambda,
       when  the  function  is invoked,	the variable $0	is bound (dynamically,
       see below) to the name of the function.

       Lambdas are just	another	form of	code fragment, and, as	such,  can  be
       exported	 in  the  environment,	passed as arguments, etc.  The central
       difference between the two forms	is that	lambdas	bind their  arguments,
       while simple brace-enclosed groups just ignore theirs.

   Local Variables
       Variable	 assignments  may  be made local to a set of commands with the
       local construct:

	    local (var = value;	var = value ...) command

       The command may be a program fragment, so for example:

	    local (path	= /bin /usr/bin; ifs = ) {

       sets path to a minimal useful path and removes ifs for the duration  of
       one long	compound command.

       Local-bound  variables  are exported into the environment, and will in-
       voke appropriately named	settor functions (see below).

   Lexically Scoped Variables
       In addition to local variables, es supports a different form of	tempo-
       rary  variable binding, using let-bound,	or ``lexically scoped,'' vari-
       ables.  (Lexical	scoping	is the form of binding used by	most  compiled
       programming  languages, such as C or Scheme.)  A	lexically scoped vari-
       able is introduced with a let statement:

	    let	(var = value; var = value ...) command

       All references to any of	the variables defined in a  let	 statement  by
       any code	located	lexically (that	is, textually) within the command por-
       tion of the statement will refer	to the let-bound variable rather  than
       any  environment	or local-bound variable; the immediate text of the let
       statement is the	complete extent	of that	binding.  That	is,  lexically
       bound  variables	surrounding code fragments follow those	code fragments

       An example best shows the difference between let	and local (also	 known
       as ``dynamic'') binding:	(note that ``; '' is es's default prompt.)

	    ; x	= foo
	    ; let (x = bar) {
		 echo $x
		 fn lexical { echo $x }
	    ; local (x = baz) {
		 echo $x
		 fn dynamic { echo $x }
	    ; lexical
	    ; dynamic

       Lexically  bound	 variables  are	not exported into the environment, and
       never cause the invocation of settor functions.	Function (lambda)  pa-
       rameters	are lexically bound to their values.

   For loops
       The command

	    for	(var = list) command

       Runs  the  command  once	 for  each element of the list,	with the named
       variable	bound lexically	to each	element	of the list, in	order.

       If multiple bindings are	given in the for statement, the	looping	occurs
       in  parallel  and stops when all	lists are exhausted.  When one list is
       finished	before the others, the corresponding variable is bound to  the
       empty list for the remaining iterations.	 Thus the loop

	    for	(i = a b c; j =	x y) echo $#i $i $#j $j

       produces	the output

	    1 a	1 x
	    1 b	1 y
	    1 c	0

   Settor Functions
       A settor	function is a variable of the form set-var, which is typically
       bound to	a lambda.  Whenever a value is assigned	to the named variable,
       the lambda is invoked with its arguments	bound to the new value.	 While
       the settor function is running, the variable $0 is bound	to the name of
       the variable being assigned.  The result	of the settor function is used
       as the actual value in the assignment.

       For example, the	following settor function is used to  keep  the	 shell
       variables home and HOME synchronized.

	    set-HOME = @ {
		local (set-home	= )
		    home = $*
		result $*

       This settor function is called when any assignment is made to the vari-
       able HOME.  It assigns the new value to the variable home, but disables
       any settor function for home to prevent an infinite recursion.  Then it
       returns its argument unchanged for use  in  the	actual	assignment  to

       Settor functions	do not apply to	lexically bound	variables.

       Primitives  are	internal  es operations	that cannot or should not (for
       reasons of performance) be written in the interpreter's language.   The
       set of primitives makes up the run-time library for es.

       Primitives can be used with the syntax


       A  primitive  can  be  used anywhere a lambda is	expected.  The list of
       primitives is returned as the result of running the primitive  $&primi-

       For details on specific primitives, see the section entitled PRIMITIVES

       Exceptions in es	are used for  many  forms  of  non-structured  control
       flow,  notably error reporting, signals,	and flow of control constructs
       such as break and return.

       Exceptions are passed up	 the  call  chain  to  catching	 routines.   A
       catcher	may  decide  to	 intercept  an	exception, retry the code that
       caused the exception, or	pass the exception along.  There can  only  be
       one exception raised at any time.

       Exceptions  are	represented  by	lists.	The first word of an exception
       is, by convention, the type of exception	being raised.	The  following
       exceptions are known:

       break value
	      Exit  from a loop.  The return value of the loop is the argument
	      to the exception.

       eof    Raised by	%parse when the	end of input is	reached.

       error source message
	      A	run-time error.	 Almost	all shell errors are reported with the
	      error exception.	The default interactive	loop and the outermost
	      level of the interpreter catch this exception and	print the mes-
	      sage.  Source is the name	of the routine (typically a primitive)
	      which raised the error.

       retry  When raised from a signal	catcher, causes	the body of the	 catch
	      clause to	be run again.

       return value
	      Causes  the  current  function to	exit, with value as the	return
	      value (exit status).

       signal signame
	      Raised when the shell itself receives a signal, and  the	signal
	      is  listed  in the variable signals.  Signame is the name	of the
	      signal that was raised.

       See the builtin commands	catch and throw	for details on how to  manipu-
       late exceptions.

       Several	variables are known to es and are treated specially.  Redefin-
       ing these variables can change interpreter semantics.  Note  that  only
       dynamically  bound (top-level or	local-bound) variables are interpreted
       in this way; the	names of lexically bound variables are unimportant.

       *      The argument list	of es.	$1, $2,	etc. are the  same  as	$*(1),
	      $*(2), etc.

       $0     Holds the	value of argv[0] with which es was invoked.  Addition-
	      ally, $0 is set to the name of a function	for  the  duration  of
	      the  execution  of that function,	and $0 is also set to the name
	      of the file being	interpreted for	the duration of	a . command.

       apid   The process ID of	the last process started in the	background.

	      The name of a file to which commands are appended	 as  es	 reads
	      them.  This facilitates the use of a stand-alone history program
	      (such as history(1)) which parses	the contents  of  the  history
	      file  and	 presents them to es for reinterpretation.  If history
	      is not set, then es does not append commands to any file.

       home   The current user's home directory, used in tilde (~)  expansion,
	      as  the default directory	for the	builtin	cd command, and	as the
	      directory	in which es looks to  find  its	 initialization	 file,
	      .esrc,  if  es  has been started up as a login shell.  Like path
	      and PATH,	home and HOME are aliased to each other.

       ifs    The default input	field separator, used  for  splitting  up  the
	      output  of backquote commands for	digestion as a list.  The ini-
	      tial value of ifs	is space-tab-newline.

	      A	list of	variables which	es will	not export.  All variables ex-
	      cept for the ones	on this	list and lexically bound variables are

       path   This is a	list of	directories to search in  for  commands.   The
	      empty  string  stands for	the current directory.	Note also that
	      an assignment to path causes an automatic	 assignment  to	 PATH,
	      and  vice-versa.	 If  neither  path nor PATH are	set at startup
	      time, path assumes a default value  suitable  for	 your  system.
	      This is typically	/usr/ucb /usr/bin /bin ''.

       pid    The process ID of	the currently running es.

       prompt This  variable  holds  the  two  prompts	(in list form) that es
	      prints.  $prompt(1) is printed before each command is read,  and
	      $prompt(2)  is printed when input	is expected to continue	on the
	      next line.  (See %parse for details.)  es	sets $prompt to	(';  '
	      '')  by  default.	  The reason for this is that it enables an es
	      user to grab commands from previous lines	using a	mouse, and  to
	      present  them  to	es for re-interpretation; the semicolon	prompt
	      is simply	ignored	by es.	The null $prompt(2) also has its  jus-
	      tification:   an	es  script, when typed interactively, will not
	      leave $prompt(2)'s on the	screen,	and can	therefore  be  grabbed
	      by  a  mouse  and	placed directly	into a file for	use as a shell
	      script, without further editing being necessary.

	      Contains a list of the signals which es traps.  Any signal  name
	      which  is	 added	to this	list causes that signal	to raise an es
	      exception.  For example, to run some commands and	make sure some
	      cleanup routine is called	even if	the user interrupts or discon-
	      nects during the script, one can use the form:

		   local (signals = $signals sighup sigint) {
			catch @	e {
			     throw $e
			} {

	      A	signal name prefixed by	a hyphen (-) causes that signal	to  be
	      ignored by es and	all of its child processes, unless one of them
	      resets its handler.  A signal prefixed by	a slash	(/) is ignored
	      in the current shell, but	retains	default	behavior in child pro-
	      cesses.  In addition, the	signal sigint may be preceeded by  the
	      prefix  (.)   to indicate	that normal shell interrupt processing
	      (i.e., the printing of an	extra newline) occurs.	By default  es
	      starts up	with the values

		   .sigint /sigquit /sigterm

	      in  $signals;  other  values  will  be  on the list if the shell
	      starts up	with some signals ignored.

       The values of path and home are derived from the	environment values  of
       PATH  and  HOME if those	values are present.  This is for compatibility
       with other Unix programs, such as sh(1).	 $PATH	is  assumed  to	 be  a
       colon-separated list.

       Es  internally  rewrites	much of	the syntax presented thus far in terms
       of calls	to shell functions.  Most features of es that resemble	tradi-
       tional  shell  features	are included in	this category.	This rewriting
       occurs at parse time, as	commands are recognized	 by  the  interpreter.
       The  shell  functions that are the results of rewriting are some	of the
       hook functions documented below.

       The following tables list all of	the major  rewriting  which  es	 does,
       with  the forms typically entered by the	user on	the left and their in-
       ternal form on the right.  There	is no reason for the user to avoid us-
       ing the right-hand side forms, except that they are usually less	conve-
       nient.  To see the internal form	of a specific command, a user can  run
       es  with	 the  -n  and  -x options; when	invoked	in this	way, the shell
       prints the internal form	of its commands	rather than executing them.

   Control Flow
	    ! cmd		   %not	{cmd}
	    cmd	&		   %background {cmd}
	    cmd1 ; cmd2		   %seq	{cmd1} {cmd2}
	    cmd1 && cmd2	   %and	{cmd1} {cmd2}
	    cmd1 || cmd2	   %or {cmd1} {cmd2}
	    fn name args { cmd }   fn-^name = @	args {cmd}

   Input/Output	Commands
	    cmd	< file		   %open 0 file	{cmd}
	    cmd	> file		   %create 1 file {cmd}
	    cmd	>[n] file	   %create n file {cmd}
	    cmd	>> file		   %append 1 file {cmd}
	    cmd	<> file		   %open-write 0 file {cmd}
	    cmd	<>> file	   %open-append	0 file {cmd}
	    cmd	>< file		   %open-create	1 file {cmd}
	    cmd	>>< file	   %open-append	1 file {cmd}
	    cmd	>[n=]		   %close n {cmd}
	    cmd	>[m=n]		   %dup	m n {cmd}
	    cmd	<< tag input tag   %here 0 input {cmd}
	    cmd	<<< string	   %here 0 string {cmd}
	    cmd1 | cmd2		   %pipe {cmd1}	1 0 {cmd2}
	    cmd1 |[m=n]	cmd2	   %pipe {cmd1}	m n {cmd2}
	    cmd1 >{ cmd2 }	   %writeto var	{cmd2} {cmd1 $var}
	    cmd1 <{ cmd2 }	   %readfrom var {cmd2}	{cmd1 $var}

	    $#var		   <={%count $var}
	    $^var		   <={%flatten ' ' $var}
	    `{cmd args}		   <={%backquote <={%flatten ''	$ifs} {cmd args}}
	    ``ifs {cmd args}	   <={%backquote <={%flatten ''	ifs} {cmd args}}

       Builtin commands	are shell functions that exist at shell	startup	 time.
       Most builtins are indistinguishable from	external commands, except that
       they run	in the context of the shell itself  rather  than  as  a	 child
       process.	 Many builtins are implemented with primitives (see above).

       Some  builtin  functions	have names that	begin with a percent character
       (%).  These are commands	with some special meaning to the shell,	or are
       meant  for  use only by users customizing the shell.  (This distinction
       is somewhat fuzzy, and the decisions about which	functions have %-names
       are somewhat arbitrary.)

       All builtins can	be redefined and extended by the user.

   Builtin Commands
       . [-einvx]  file	[args ...]
	      Reads  file  as  input to	es and executes	its contents.  The op-
	      tions are	a subset of the	invocation options for the shell  (see

       access [-n name]	[-1e] [-rwx]  [-fdcblsp] path ...
	      Tests if the named paths are accessible according	to the options
	      presented.  Normally, access returns zero	(true) for files which
	      are accessible and a printable error message (which evaluates as
	      false, according to shell	rules) for files which are not	acces-
	      sible.   If  the	-1  option is used, the	name of	the first file
	      which the	test succeeds for is returned; if  the	test  succeeds
	      for no file, the empty list is returned.	However, if the	-e op-
	      tion was used, access raises an error exception.	If the -n  op-
	      tion  is	used,  the pathname arguments are treated as a list of
	      directories, and the name	option argument	is used	as a  file  in
	      those directories	(i.e., -n is used for path searching).

	      The default test is whether a file exists.  These	options	change
	      the test:

	      -r     Is	the file readable (by the current user)?

	      -w     Is	the file writable?

	      -x     Is	the file executable?

	      -f     Is	the file a plain file?

	      -d     Is	the file a directory?

	      -c     Is	the file a character device?

	      -b     Is	the file a block device?

	      -l     Is	the file a symbolic link?

	      -s     Is	the file a socket?

	      -p     Is	the file a named pipe (FIFO)?

       break value
	      Exits the	current	loop.  Value is	used as	the return  value  for
	      the loop command.

       catch catcher body
	      Runs body.  If it	raises an exception, catcher is	run and	passed
	      the exception as an argument.

       cd [directory]
	      Changes the current directory to directory.  With	 no  argument,
	      cd changes the current directory to $home.

       echo [-n] [--] args ...
	      Prints  its  arguments  to standard output, terminated by	a new-
	      line.  Arguments are separated by	spaces.	 If the	first argument
	      is -n no final newline is	printed.  If the first argument	is --,
	      then all other arguments are echoed literally; this is used  for
	      echoing a	literal	-n.

       eval list
	      Concatenates  the	elements of list with spaces and feeds the re-
	      sulting string to	the interpreter	for rescanning and execution.

       exec cmd
	      Replaces es with the given command.  If the exec	contains  only
	      redirections, then these redirections apply to the current shell
	      and the shell does not exit.  For	example,

		   exec	{>[2] err.out}

	      places further output to standard	error  in  the	file  err.out.
	      Unlike  some  other  shells, es requires that redirections in an
	      exec be enclosed in a program fragment.

       exit [status]
	      Causes the current shell to exit with the	given exit status.  If
	      no  argument  is given, zero (true) is used.  (This is different
	      from other shells, that often use	the status of the last command

       false  Always returns a false (non-zero)	return value.

       forever cmd
	      Runs  the	 command repeatedly, until the shell exits or the com-
	      mand raises an exception.	 This is equivalent to a while	{true}
	      {cmd}  loop  except  that	forever	does not catch any exceptions,
	      including	break.

       fork cmd
	      Runs a command in	a subshell.  This insulates the	 parent	 shell
	      from  the	 effects  of  state changing operations	such as	cd and
	      variable assignments.  For example:

		   fork	{cd ..;	make}

	      runs make(1) in the parent directory (..), but leaves the	 shell
	      in the current directory.

       if [test	then] ... [else]
	      Evaluates	 the command test.  If the result is true, the command
	      then is run and if completes.  If	the  result  of	 the  test  is
	      false,  the  next	test-then pair is checked, until one where the
	      test is true is found.  If none of the tests are true, the  else
	      command is run.

       limit [-h] [resource [value]]
	      Similar  to the csh(1) limit builtin, this command operates upon
	      the resource limits of a	process.   With	 no  arguments,	 limit
	      prints  all  the current limits; with one	argument, limit	prints
	      the named	limit; with two	arguments, it sets the named limit  to
	      the  given  value.  The -h flag displays/alters the hard limits.
	      The resources which can be shown or altered are  cputime,	 file-
	      size,  datasize, stacksize, coredumpsize and memoryuse.  For ex-

		   limit coredumpsize 0

	      disables core dumps.

	      The limit	values must either be the word ``unlimited'' or	a num-
	      ber  with	an optional suffix indicating units.  For size limits,
	      the suffixes k (kilobytes), m (megabytes), and g (gigabytes) are
	      recognized.   For	 time  limits, s (seconds), m (minutes), and h
	      (hours) are known; in addition, times of the form	 hh:mm:ss  and
	      mm:ss  are  accepted.   See getrlimit(2) for details on resource
	      limit semantics.

	      Puts es into a new process group.	 This builtin  is  useful  for
	      making  es behave	like a job-control shell in a hostile environ-
	      ment.  One example is the	NeXT Terminal program,	which  implic-
	      itly assumes that	each shell it forks will put itself into a new
	      process group.  Note that	the controlling	tty  for  the  process
	      must  be	on standard error (file	descriptor 2) when this	opera-
	      tion is run.

       result value ...
	      Returns its arguments.  This is es's identity function.

       return value
	      Causes the current function to exit, returning the named value.

       throw exception arg ...
	      Raise the	named exception, passing all of	the arguments to throw
	      to the enclosing exception handler.

       time cmd	arg ...
	      Prints,  on the shell's standard error, the real,	user, and sys-
	      tem time consumed	by executing the command.

       true   Always returns a true (zero) return value.

       umask [mask]
	      Sets the current umask (see umask(2)) to the octal mask.	If  no
	      argument is present, the current mask value is printed.

       unwind-protect body cleanup
	      Runs  body  and,	when it	completes or raises an exception, runs

       var var ...
	      Prints definitions of the	named variables,  suitable  for	 being
	      used as input to the shell.

       vars [-vfs] [-epi]
	      Prints  all shell	variables, functions, and settor functions (in
	      a	form suitable for use as shell input), which match the	crite-
	      ria specified by the options.

	      -v     variables (that are not functions or settor functions)

	      -f     functions

	      -s     settor functions

	      -e     exported values

	      -p     private (not exported) values

	      -i     internal (predefined and builtin) values

	      -a     all of the	above

	      If  none of -v, -f, or -s	are specified, -v is used.  If none of
	      -e, -p, or -i are	specified, -e is used.

       wait [pid]
	      Waits for	the specified pid, which must have been	started	by es.
	      If no pid	is specified, waits for	any child process to exit.

       whatis progam ...
	      For  each	named program, prints the pathname, primitive, lambda,
	      or code fragment which would be run if the program  appeared  as
	      the first	word of	a command.

       while test body
	      Evaluates	 the  test  and,  if it	is true, runs the body and re-

       %read  Reads from standard input	and returns either the empty list  (in
	      the  case	 of end-of-file) or a single element string with up to
	      one line of data,	including possible redirections.   This	 func-
	      tion  reads  one	character  at a	time in	order to not read more
	      data out of a pipe than it should.  The terminating newline  (if
	      present) is not included in the returned string.

   Hook	Functions
       A subset	of the %-named functions are known as ``hook functions.''  The
       hook functions are called to implement some internal shell  operations,
       and  are	 available  as	functions  in  order  that their values	can be
       changed.	 Typically, a call to a	hook function is from  code  generated
       by the syntactic	sugar rewritings.

       %and cmd	...
	      Runs  the	 commands  in order, stopping after the	first one that
	      has a false return value.	 Returns the result of the  last  com-
	      mand run.

       %append fd file cmd
	      Runs the command with file descriptor fd set up to append	to the

       %background cmd
	      Runs the command in the background.   The	 shell	variable  apid
	      contains	the  process  ID  of  the background process, which is
	      printed if the shell is interactive (according  to  %is-interac-

       %backquote separator cmd
	      Runs  the	 command  in  a	child process and returns its standard
	      output as	a list,	separated (with	the same rules used in %split)
	      into elements according to separator.

	      Parses  commands	from  the  current input source	and passes the
	      commands to the function %dispatch, which	is usually  a  dynami-
	      cally bound identifier.  This function catches the exception eof
	      which causes it to return.  This	function  is  invoked  by  the
	      shell  on	 startup and from the dot (.)  and eval	commands, when
	      the input	source is not interactive.   (See  also	 %interactive-

       %close fd cmd
	      Runs the command with the	given file descriptor closed.

       %count list
	      Returns the number of arguments to the primitive.

       %create fd file cmd
	      Runs  the	command	with file descriptor fd	set up to write	to the

       %dup newfd oldfd	cmd
	      Runs the command with the	 file  descriptor  oldfd  copied  (via
	      dup(2)) to file descriptor newfd.

       %eval-noprint cmd
	      Run  the	command.   (Passed  as the argument to %batch-loop and

       %eval-print cmd
	      Print and	run the	command.  (Passed as the argument  to  %batch-
	      loop and %interactive-loop when the -x option is used.)

       %exec-failure file argv0	args ...
	      This function, if	it exists, is called in	the context of a child
	      process if an executable file was	found but execve(2) could  not
	      run  it.	 If  the function returns, an error message is printed
	      and the shell exits, but the function can	exec a program	if  it
	      thinks  it  knows	what to	do.  Note that the name	of the program
	      appears twice in the arguments to	%exec-failure, once as a file-
	      name  and	 once  as the first element of the argv	array; in some
	      cases the	two will be identical, but in others the  former  will
	      be  a  full  pathname  and the latter will just be the basename.
	      Some versions of es may provide a	builtin	version	of this	 func-
	      tion to handle #!-style shell scripts if the kernel does not.

       %exit-on-false cmd
	      Runs the command,	and exits if any command (except those execut-
	      ing as the tests of conditional statements) returns  a  non-zero
	      status.	(This  function	 is used as an argument	to %batch-loop
	      and %interactive-loop when the shell is invoked with the -e  op-

       %flatten	separator list
	      Concatenate  the	elements of list into one string, separated by
	      the string separator.

       %here fd	word ... cmd
	      Runs the command with the	words passed as	input on file descrip-
	      tor fd.

       %home [user]
	      Returns  the home	directory of the named user, or	$home if there
	      are no arguments.

	      Prompts, parses commands	from  the  current  input  source  and
	      passes  the commands to the function %dispatch, which is usually
	      a	dynamically bound identifier.  This function catches  the  ex-
	      ception eof which	causes it to return.  This function is invoked
	      by the shell on startup and from the dot (.)  commands, when the
	      input source is interactive.  (See also %batch-loop.)

       %noeval-noprint cmd
	      Do  nothing.  (Passed as the argument to %batch-loop and %inter-
	      active-loop when the -n option is	used.)

       %noeval-print cmd
	      Print but	don't run the command.	(Passed	 as  the  argument  to
	      %batch-loop and %interactive-loop	when the -x and	-n options are

       %not cmd
	      Runs the command and returns false if its	exit status was	 true,
	      otherwise	returns	true.

       %one list
	      If  list	is one element long, %one returns its value; otherwise
	      it raises	an exception.  %one is used to ensure that redirection
	      operations get passed exactly one	filename.

       %open fd	file cmd
	      Runs  the	 command with file open	for reading on file descriptor

       %open-append fd file cmd
	      Runs the command with file open for  reading  and	 appending  on
	      file descriptor fd.

       %open-create fd file cmd
	      Runs  the	command	with file open for reading and writing on file
	      descriptor fd.  If the file already exists, it is	truncated.

       %open-write fd file cmd
	      Runs the command with file open for reading and writing on  file
	      descriptor fd.

       %openfile mode fd file cmd
	      Runs  the	command	with file opened according to mode on file de-
	      scriptor fd.  The	modes (r, w, a,	r+, w+,	and a+)	have the  same
	      meanings	in %openfile as	they do	in fopen(3).  %openfile	is in-
	      voked by	the  redirection  hook	functions:  %append,  %create,
	      %open, %open-append, %open-create, and %open-write.

       %or cmd ...
	      Runs  the	 commands  in order, stopping after the	first one that
	      has a true return	value.	Returns	the result of the last command

       %parse prompt1 prompt2
	      Reads  input from	the current input source, printing prompt1 be-
	      fore reading  anything  and  prompt2  before  reading  continued
	      lines.   Returns a code fragment suitable	for execution.	Raises
	      the exception eof	on end of input.

       %pathsearch program
	      Looks for	an executable file named program  in  the  directories
	      listed  in  $path.   If such a file is found, it is returned; if
	      one is not found,	an error exception is raised.

       %pipe cmd [outfd	infd cmd] ...
	      Runs the commands, with the file descriptor outfd	in  the	 left-
	      hand  process connected by a pipe	to the file descriptor infd in
	      the right-hand process.  If there	are more than two commands,  a
	      multi-stage pipeline is created.

	      Called  by  %interactive-loop before every call to %parse.  This
	      function allows the user to provide any actions that he  or  she
	      may  wish	to have	executed before	being prompted (e.g., updating
	      the value	of the prompt variable to contain all or part  of  the
	      current working directory).

       %readfrom var input cmd
	      Runs  cmd	 with  the variable var	locally	bound to the name of a
	      file which contains the output of	running	the command input.

       %seq cmd	...
	      Runs the commands, in order.

       %whatis program ...
	      For each named program, returns the pathname, primitive, lambda,
	      or  code	fragment which would be	run if the program appeared as
	      the first	word of	a command.

       %writeto	var output cmd
	      Runs cmd with the	variable var locally bound to the  name	 of  a
	      file which is used as the	input for the command output.

   Utility Functions
       These  functions	 are  useful  for people customizing the shell,	may be
       used by other builtin commands, and probably don't make much  sense  to
       replace,	though that is always possible.

       %apids Returns  the  process  IDs  of all background processes that the
	      shell has	not yet	waited for.

       %fsplit separator [args ...]
	      Splits its arguments into	separate strings at  every  occurrence
	      of  any of the characters	in the string separator.  Repeated in-
	      stances of separator characters cause null strings to appear  in
	      the result.  (This function is used by some builtin settor func-

	      Returns true if the current interpreter context is  interactive;
	      that  is,	if shell command input is currently coming from	an in-
	      teractive	user.  More precisely, this is true if	the  innermost
	      enclosing	 read-eval-print loop is %interactive-loop rather than

       %newfd Returns a	file descriptor	that the shell thinks is not currently
	      in use.

       %run program argv0 args ...
	      Run  the named program, which is not searched for	in $path, with
	      the argument  vector  set	 to  the  remaining  arguments.	  This
	      builtin  can  be used to set argv[0] (by convention, the name of
	      the program) to something	other than file	name.

       %split separator	[args ...]
	      Splits its arguments into	separate strings at  every  occurrence
	      of  any of the characters	in the string separator.  Repeated in-
	      stances of separator characters are coalesced.   Backquote  sub-
	      stitution	splits with the	same rules.

       %var var	...
	      For  each	named variable,	returns	a string which,	if interpreted
	      by es would assign to the	variable its current value.

       Primitives exist	in es so that, in the presence of spoofing and redefi-
       nitions,	 there	is a way to refer to built-in behaviors.  This ability
       is necessary for	the shell to be	able to	unambiguously refer to itself,
       but  is also useful for users who have otherwise	made their environment
       unnecessary but don't want to kill the current shell.

       Primitives are referenced with the


       notation.  In this section, the ``$&'' prefixes will  be	 omitted  when
       primitive  names	 are  mentioned.   Note	that, by convention, primitive
       names follow C identifier names where es	variable  and  function	 names
       often contain ``%'' and ``-'' characters.

       The  following primitives directly implement the	builtin	functions with
       the same	names:

	    access	     forever	       throw
	    catch	     fork	       umask
	    echo	     if		       wait
	    exec	     newpgrp
	    exit	     result

       In addition, the	primitive dot implements the ``.''  builtin function.

       The cd primitive	is used	in the implementation of the cd	 builtin,  but
       does  not  understand no	arguments to imply $home.  The vars and	inter-
       nals primitives are used	by the implementation of the vars builtin.

       The following primitives	implement  the	hook  functions	 of  the  same
       names, with ``%'' prefixes:

	    apids	     here	       read
	    close	     home	       run
	    count	     newfd	       seq
	    dup		     openfile	       split
	    flatten	     parse	       var
	    fsplit	     pipe	       whatis

       The  following  primitives  implement the similar named hook functions,
       with ``%'' prefixes and internal	hyphens:

	    batchloop	     exitonfalse       isinteractive

       The background primitive	is used	 to  implement	the  %background  hook
       function,  but  does not	print the process ID of	the background process
       or set $apid.  The backquote primitive is used to implement the	%back-
       quote  hook  function,  but returns the exit status of the child	as the
       first value of its result instead of setting $bqstatus to it.

       The following primitives	implement the  similarly  named	 settor	 func-

	    sethistory	     setnoexport       setsignals

       Some primitives are included in es conditionally, based on compile-time
       configuration options.  Those primitives, and the  functions  to	 which
       they are	bound, are

	    execfailure		%exec-failure
	    limit		limit
	    readfrom		%readfrom
	    time		time
	    writeto		%writeto

       The  primitive  resetterminal is	if es is compiled with support for the
       readline	or editline libraries.	It is used in  the  implementation  of
       settor  functions  of the TERM and TERMCAP variables to notify the line
       editing packages	that the terminal configuration	has changed.

       Several primitives are not directly  associated	with  other  function.
       They are:

	      Invokes the garbage collector.  The garbage collector in es runs
	      rather frequently; there should be no reason for a user to issue
	      this command.

       $&noreturn lambda args ...
	      Call  the	 lambda,  but in such a	way that it does not catch the
	      return exception.	 This primitive	exists in order	that some con-
	      trol-flow	 operations  in	 es (e.g., while and &&) can be	imple-
	      mented as	lambdas	rather than primitives.

	      Returns a	list of	the names of es	primitives.

	      Returns the current version number and release date for es.

       -c     Run the given command, placing the rest of the arguments	to  es
	      in $*.

       -s     Read  commands from standard input; i.e.,	put the	first argument
	      to es in $* rather than using it	as  the	 name  of  a  file  to

       -i     Force es to be an	interactive shell.  Normally es	is only	inter-
	      active if	it is run with commands	coming from standard input and
	      standard input is	connected to a terminal.

       -l     Run  $home/.esrc	on startup, i.e., be a login shell.  -l	is im-
	      plied if the name	the shell was run  under  (that	 is,  argv[0])
	      starts with a dash (-).

       -e     Exit if any command (except those	executing as the tests of con-
	      ditional statements) returns a non-zero status.

       -v     Echo all input to	standard error.

       -x     Print commands to	standard error before executing	them.

       -n     Turn off execution of commands.  This can	be used	 for  checking
	      the syntax of scripts.  When combined with -x, es	prints the en-
	      tered command based on the internal (parsed) representation.

       -p     Don't initialize functions from the environment.	This  is  used
	      to  help make scripts that don't break unexpectedly when the en-
	      vironment	contains functions that	would override	commands  used
	      in the script.

       -o     Don't  open /dev/null on file descriptors	0, 1, and 2, if	any of
	      those descriptors	are inherited closed.

       -d     Don't trap SIGQUIT or SIGTERM.  This is used for debugging.

       $home/.esrc, /dev/null

       Lexical scope which is shared by	two variables (or closures) in a  par-
       ent shell is split in child shells.

       The  interpreter	should be properly tail	recursive; that	is, tail calls
       should not consume stack	space.

       break and return	should have lexical scope.

       Woe betide the environment string set by	some other program to  contain
       either  the  character  control-a or the	sequence control-b followed by
       control-a or control-b.

       -x is not nearly	as useful as it	should be.

       Line numbers in error messages refer to the last	 line  parsed,	rather
       than something more useful.

       Too many	creatures have fept in.

       Please send bug reports to and

       history(1),  rc(1),  sh(1),  execve(2),	getrlimit(2),  fopen(3), getp-

       Paul Haahr and Byron Rakitzis, Es -- A shell  with  higher-order	 func-
       tions, Proceedings of the Winter	1993 Usenix Conference,	San Diego, CA.

       Tom Duff, Rc -- A Shell for Plan	9 and UNIX Systems, Unix Research Sys-
       tem, 10th Edition, Volume 2.  (Saunders College Publishing)

				 5 March 1992				 ES(1)


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