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environ(5)	      Standards, Environments, and Macros	    environ(5)

       environ - user environment

       When  a	process	 begins	execution, one of the exec family of functions
       makes available	an  array  of  strings	called	the  environment;  see
       exec(2).	By convention, these strings have the form variable=value, for
       example,	PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin. These environmental variables provide  a
       way to make information about a program's environment available to pro-

       A name may be placed in the  environment	 by  the  export  command  and
       name=value  arguments  in sh(1),	or by one of the exec functions. It is
       unwise to conflict with certain shell variables such as MAIL, PS1, PS2,
       and IFS that are	frequently exported by .profile	files; see profile(4).

       The  following  environmental variables can be used by applications and
       are expected to be set in the target run-time environment.

       HOME  The name of the user's login directory, set by login(1) from  the
	     password file; see	passwd(4).

       LANG  The  string used to specify internationalization information that
	     allows users to work with	different  national  conventions.  The
	     setlocale(3C)  function checks the	LANG environment variable when
	     it	is called with "" as the locale	argument.  LANG	is used	as the
	     default  locale  if  the corresponding environment	variable for a
	     particular	category is unset or null. If, however,	 LC_ALL	is set
	     to	 a  valid,  non-empty value, its contents are used to override
	     both the LANG and the other LC_* variables. For example, when in-
	     voked  as	setlocale(LC_CTYPE,  ""),  setlocale()	will query the
	     LC_CTYPE environment variable first to see	if it is set and  non-
	     null. If LC_CTYPE is not set or null, then	setlocale() will check
	     the LANG environment variable to see if it	is set	and  non-null.
	     If	 both LANG and LC_CTYPE	are unset or NULL, the default "C" lo-
	     cale will be used to set the LC_CTYPE category.

	     Most commands will	invoke	setlocale(LC_ALL,  "")	prior  to  any
	     other processing. This allows the command to be used with differ-
	     ent national conventions by setting the  appropriate  environment

	     The  following  environment variables correspond to each category
	     of	setlocale(3C):

		   If set to a valid, non-empty	 string	 value,	 override  the
		   values of LANG and all the other LC_*variables.

		   This	 category  specifies  the character collation sequence
		   being used.	The information	corresponding to this category
		   is  stored  in a database  created by the localedef(1) com-
		   mand.   This	environment variable affects  strcoll(3C)  and

		   This	category specifies character classification, character
		   conversion,	and  widths  of	 multibyte  characters.	  When
		   LC_CTYPE  is	 set to	a valid	value, the calling utility can
		   display and handle text and	file  names  containing	 valid
		   characters  for  that  locale;    Extended  Unix Code (EUC)
		   characters where any	individual character can be 1, 2, or 3
		   bytes wide; and EUC characters of 1,	2, or 3	column widths.
		   The default "C" locale corresponds to the 7-bit ASCII char-
		   acter  set;	only characters	from ISO 8859-1	are valid. The
		   information corresponding to	this category is stored	 in  a
		   database created by the localedef() command.	 This environ-
		   ment	variable is used by  ctype(3C),	 mblen(3C),  and  many
		   commands, such as cat(1), ed(1), ls(1), and vi(1).

		   This	 category  specifies the language of the message data-
		   base	being used. For	example, an application	may  have  one
		   message database with French	messages, and another database
		   with	German messages. Message databases are created by  the
		   mkmsgs(1)  command.	This  environment  variable is used by
		   exstr(1),  gettxt(1),  srchtxt(1),  gettxt(3C),  and	  get-

		   This	category specifies the monetary	symbols	and delimiters
		   used	for a particular locale.  The information  correspond-
		   ing to this category	is stored in a database	created	by the
		   localedef(1)	command. This environment variable is used  by

		   This	 category  specifies  the decimal and thousands	delim-
		   iters. The information corresponding	to  this  category  is
		   stored  in  a database  created by the localedef() command.
		   The default C locale	corresponds to "." as the decimal  de-
		   limiter  and	no thousands delimiter.	This environment vari-
		   able	is used	by localeconv(3C), printf(3C), and strtod(3C).

		   This	category specifies date	and time formats. The informa-
		   tion	corresponding to this category is stored in a database
		   specified in	localedef(). The default C locale  corresponds
		   to U.S. date	and time formats. This environment variable is
		   used	by many	commands and functions;	 for  example:	at(1),
		   calendar(1),	date(1), strftime(3C), and getdate(3C).

	     Controls  which standard format message components	fmtmsg selects
	     when  messages  are  displayed  to	 stderr;  see	fmtmsg(1)  and

	     A	colon-separated	list of	network	identifiers. A network identi-
	     fier is a character string	used by	the Network  Selection	compo-
	     nent  of  the system to provide application-specific default net-
	     work search paths.	A network identifier must consist of  non-null
	     characters	 and  must  have  a  length  of	at least 1. No maximum
	     length is specified. Network identifiers are normally  chosen  by
	     the  system administrator.	A network identifier is	also the first
	     field in any /etc/netconfig file entry. NETPATH thus  provides  a
	     link  into	 the  /etc/netconfig  file and the information about a
	     network contained in  that	 network's  entry.  /etc/netconfig  is
	     maintained	 by the	system administrator. The library routines de-
	     scribed in	getnetpath(3NSL) access	the NETPATH environment	 vari-

	     Contains  a  sequence  of	templates  which  catopen(3C) and get-
	     text(3C) use when attempting to  locate  message  catalogs.  Each
	     template consists of an optional prefix, one or more substitution
	     fields, a filename	and an optional	suffix.	For example:


	     defines that catopen() should look	for all	 message  catalogs  in
	     the  directory  /system/nlslib,  where the	catalog	name should be
	     constructed from the name parameter passed	to catopen(), %N, with
	     the suffix	.cat.

	     Substitution  fields consist of a % symbol, followed by a single-
	     letter keyword. The following keywords are	currently defined:

	     %N	   The value of	the name parameter passed to catopen().

	     %L	   The value of	LANG or	LC_MESSAGES.

	     %l	   The language	element	from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

	     %t	   The territory element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

	     %c	   The codeset element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

	     %%	   A single % character.

       An empty	string is substituted if the specified value is	not  currently
       defined.	 The separators	"_" and	"." are	not included in	%t and %c sub-

       Templates defined in NLSPATH are	separated by  colons  (:).  A  leading
       colon  or  two adjacent colons (::) is equivalent to specifying %N. For


       indicates to catopen() that it should look for  the  requested  message
       catalog in name, and /nlslib/$LANG/ For gettext(), %N
       automatically maps to "messages".

       If NLSPATH is unset or  NULL,  catopen()	 and  gettext()	 call	setlo-
       cale(3C),  which	checks LANG and	the  LC_* variables to locate the mes-
       sage catalogs.

	     NLSPATH will normally be set  up  on  a  system  wide  basis  (in
	     /etc/profile)  and	thus makes the location	and naming conventions
	     associated	with message catalogs transparent to both programs and

       PATH  The  sequence of directory	prefixes that sh(1), time(1), nice(1),
	     nohup(1), and other utilities apply in searching for a file known
	     by	 an incomplete path name. The prefixes are separated by	colons
	     (:). login(1) sets	PATH=/usr/bin. For more	detail,	see  sh(1).

	     Define severity levels and	associate and print strings with  them
	     in	  standard   format   error  messages;	see   addseverity(3C),
	     fmtmsg(1),	and  fmtmsg(3C).

       TERM  The kind of terminal for which output is to be prepared. This in-
	     formation	is  used by commands, such as vi(1), which may exploit
	     special capabilities of that terminal.

       TZ    Timezone information. The contents	of this	 environment  variable
	     are used by the functions ctime(3C), localtime(3C), strftime(3C),
	     and mktime(3C) to override	the default timezone. If TZ is not  in
	     the  following form, it designates	a path to a  timezone database
	     file relative to  /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/,  ignoring  the	 first
	     character if it is	a colon	(:). Otherwise,	TZ has the form:


	      std and dst
		    Three or more bytes	that are the designation for the stan-
		    dard (std) and daylight savings time (dst) timezones. Only
		    std	 is required. If dst is	missing, then daylight savings
		    time does not apply	in this	locale.	Upper- and  lower-case
		    letters from the portable character	set are	explicitly al-
		    lowed. Any graphic characters from the portable  character
		    set	 except	 a leading colon (:) or	digits,	the comma (,),
		    the	minus (-), the plus (+), and the  null	character  are
		    permitted  to appear in these fields, but their meaning is

		    Indicates the value	one must add to	the local time to  ar-
		    rive  at  Coordinated  Universal  Time. The	offset has the


		    The	minutes	(mm) and seconds (ss) are optional.  The  hour
		    (hh)  is  required	and  may be a single digit. The	offset
		    following std is required. If no offset follows dst	, day-
		    light  savings  time  is  assumed  to be one hour ahead of
		    standard time. One or more digits may be used.  The	 value
		    is	always	interpreted as a decimal number. The hour must
		    be between 0 and 24, and the  minutes  (and	 seconds),  if
		    present, must be between 0 and 59. Out of range values may
		    cause unpredictable	behavior. If preceded by  a  "-",  the
		    timezone  is  east of the Prime Meridian. Otherwise, it is
		    west of the	Prime Meridian (which may be indicated	by  an
		    optional preceding "+" sign).

		    Indicate  when to change to	and back from daylight savings
		    time, where	start/time  describes  when  the  change  from
		    standard   time  to	 daylight  savings  time  occurs,  and
		    end/time describes when the	 change	 back  happens.	  Each
		    time  field	 describes  when,  in  current local time, the
		    change is made.

		    The	formats	of start and end are one of the	following:

		    Jn	  The Julian day n (1 <= n <= 365). Leap days are  not
			  counted.   That is, in all years, February 28	is day
			  59 and March 1 is day	60. It is impossible to	 refer
			  to the occasional February 29.

		    n	  The zero-based Julian	day (0 <= n <= 365). Leap days
			  are counted, and it is possible to refer to February

			  The d**th day, (0 <= d <= 6) of week n of month m of
			  the year (1 <= n <= 5, 1 <= m	<= 12),	where  week  5
			  means	"the last d-day	in month m" which may occur in
			  either the fourth or the fifth week).	Week 1 is  the
			  first	 week in which the  d**th day occurs. Day zero
			  is Sunday.

	      Implementation specific defaults are used	for  start and end  if
	      these optional fields are	not given.

		    The	 time  has  the	 same  format as offset	except that no
		    leading sign ("-" or "+" is	allowed. The default, if  time
		    is not given is 02:00:00.

       cat(1),	date(1),  ed(1),  fmtmsg(1),  localedef(1),  login(1),	ls(1),
       mkmsgs(1), nice(1), nohup(1), sh(1), sort(1), time(1), vi(1),  exec(2),
       addseverity(3C),	 catopen(3C),  ctime(3C),  ctype(3C), fmtmsg(3C), get-
       date(3C), getnetpath(3NSL),  gettext(3C),  gettxt(3C),  localeconv(3C),
       mblen(3C),  mktime(3C),	printf(3C),  setlocale(3C), strcoll(3C), strf-
       time(3C),   strtod(3C),	 strxfrm(3C),	 TIMEZONE(4),	 netconfig(4),
       passwd(4), profile(4)

SunOS 5.9			  25 Oct 2001			    environ(5)


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