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environ(5)            Standards, Environments, and Macros           environ(5)

       environ - user environment

       When a process begins execution, one of the exec family of functions
       makes available an array of strings called the environment; see
       exec(2). By convention, these strings have the form variable=value, for
       example, PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin. These environmental variables provide a
       way to make information about a program's environment available to

       A name may be placed in the environment by the export command and
       name=value arguments in sh(1), or by one of the exec functions. It is
       unwise to conflict with certain shell variables such as MAIL, PS1, PS2,
       and IFS that are frequently exported by .profile files; see profile(4).

       The following environmental variables can be used by applications and
       are expected to be set in the target run-time environment.

       HOME  The name of the user's login directory, set by login(1) from the
             password file; see passwd(4).

       LANG  The string used to specify internationalization information that
             allows users to work with different national conventions. The
             setlocale(3C) function checks the LANG environment variable when
             it is called with "" as the locale argument.  LANG is used as the
             default locale if the corresponding environment variable for a
             particular category is unset or null. If, however,  LC_ALL is set
             to a valid, non-empty value, its contents are used to override
             both the LANG and the other LC_* variables. For example, when
             invoked as setlocale(LC_CTYPE, ""), setlocale() will query the
             LC_CTYPE environment variable first to see if it is set and non-
             null. If LC_CTYPE is not set or null, then setlocale() will check
             the LANG environment variable to see if it is set and non-null.
             If both LANG and LC_CTYPE are unset or NULL, the default "C"
             locale will be used to set the LC_CTYPE category.

             Most commands will invoke setlocale(LC_ALL, "") prior to any
             other processing. This allows the command to be used with
             different national conventions by setting the appropriate
             environment variables.

             The following environment variables correspond to each category
             of setlocale(3C):

                   If set to a valid, non-empty string value, override the
                   values of LANG and all the other LC_*variables.

                   This category specifies the character collation sequence
                   being used.  The information corresponding to this category
                   is stored in a database  created by the localedef(1)
                   command.   This environment variable affects strcoll(3C)
                   and strxfrm(3C).

                   This category specifies character classification, character
                   conversion, and widths of multibyte characters. When
                   LC_CTYPE is set to a valid value, the calling utility can
                   display and handle text and file names containing valid
                   characters for that locale;   Extended Unix Code (EUC)
                   characters where any individual character can be 1, 2, or 3
                   bytes wide; and EUC characters of 1, 2, or 3 column widths.
                   The default "C" locale corresponds to the 7-bit ASCII
                   character set; only characters from ISO 8859-1 are valid.
                   The information corresponding to this category is stored in
                   a database created by the localedef() command.  This
                   environment variable is used by ctype(3C), mblen(3C), and
                   many commands, such as cat(1), ed(1), ls(1), and vi(1).

                   This category specifies the language of the message
                   database being used. For example, an application may have
                   one message database with French messages, and another
                   database with German messages. Message databases are
                   created by the mkmsgs(1) command. This environment variable
                   is used by exstr(1), gettxt(1), srchtxt(1), gettxt(3C), and

                   This category specifies the monetary symbols and delimiters
                   used for a particular locale.  The information
                   corresponding to this category is stored in a database
                   created by the localedef(1) command. This environment
                   variable is used by localeconv(3C).

                   This category specifies the decimal and thousands
                   delimiters. The information corresponding to this category
                   is stored in a database  created by the localedef()
                   command. The default C locale corresponds to "." as the
                   decimal delimiter and no thousands delimiter. This
                   environment variable is used by localeconv(3C), printf(3C),
                   and strtod(3C).

                   This category specifies date and time formats. The
                   information corresponding to this category is stored in a
                   database specified in localedef(). The default C locale
                   corresponds to U.S. date and time formats. This environment
                   variable is used by many commands and functions; for
                   example: at(1), calendar(1), date(1), strftime(3C), and

             Controls which standard format message components fmtmsg selects
             when messages are displayed to stderr; see  fmtmsg(1) and

             A colon-separated list of network identifiers. A network
             identifier is a character string used by the Network Selection
             component of the system to provide application-specific default
             network search paths. A network identifier must consist of non-
             null characters and must have a length of at least 1. No maximum
             length is specified. Network identifiers are normally chosen by
             the system administrator. A network identifier is also the first
             field in any /etc/netconfig file entry. NETPATH thus provides a
             link into the /etc/netconfig file and the information about a
             network contained in that network's entry. /etc/netconfig is
             maintained by the system administrator. The library routines
             described in getnetpath(3NSL) access the NETPATH environment

             Contains a sequence of templates which catopen(3C) and
             gettext(3C) use when attempting to locate message catalogs. Each
             template consists of an optional prefix, one or more substitution
             fields, a filename and an optional suffix. For example:


             defines that catopen() should look for all message catalogs in
             the directory /system/nlslib, where the catalog name should be
             constructed from the name parameter passed to catopen(), %N, with
             the suffix .cat.

             Substitution fields consist of a % symbol, followed by a single-
             letter keyword. The following keywords are currently defined:

             %N    The value of the name parameter passed to catopen().

             %L    The value of LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

             %l    The language element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

             %t    The territory element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

             %c    The codeset element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

             %%    A single % character.

       An empty string is substituted if the specified value is not currently
       defined. The separators "_" and "." are not included in %t and %c

       Templates defined in NLSPATH are separated by colons (:). A leading
       colon or two adjacent colons (::) is equivalent to specifying %N. For


       indicates to catopen() that it should look for the requested message
       catalog in name, and /nlslib/$LANG/ For gettext(), %N
       automatically maps to "messages".

       If NLSPATH is unset or NULL, catopen() and gettext() call
       setlocale(3C), which checks LANG and the  LC_* variables to locate the
       message catalogs.

             NLSPATH will normally be set up on a system wide basis (in
             /etc/profile) and thus makes the location and naming conventions
             associated with message catalogs transparent to both programs and

       PATH  The sequence of directory prefixes that sh(1), time(1), nice(1),
             nohup(1), and other utilities apply in searching for a file known
             by an incomplete path name. The prefixes are separated by colons
             (:). login(1) sets PATH=/usr/bin. For more detail, see  sh(1).

             Define severity levels and associate and print strings with them
             in standard format error messages; see  addseverity(3C),
             fmtmsg(1), and  fmtmsg(3C).

       TERM  The kind of terminal for which output is to be prepared. This
             information is used by commands, such as vi(1), which may exploit
             special capabilities of that terminal.

       TZ    Timezone information. The contents of this environment variable
             are used by the functions ctime(3C), localtime(3C), strftime(3C),
             and mktime(3C) to override the default timezone. If TZ is not in
             the following form, it designates a path to a  timezone database
             file relative to /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/, ignoring the first
             character if it is a colon (:). Otherwise, TZ has the form:


              std and dst
                    Three or more bytes that are the designation for the
                    standard (std) and daylight savings time (dst) timezones.
                    Only std is required. If dst is missing, then daylight
                    savings time does not apply in this locale. Upper- and
                    lower-case letters from the portable character set are
                    explicitly allowed. Any graphic characters from the
                    portable character set except a leading colon (:) or
                    digits, the comma (,), the minus (-), the plus (+), and
                    the null character are permitted to appear in these
                    fields, but their meaning is unspecified.

                    Indicates the value one must add to the local time to
                    arrive at Coordinated Universal Time. The offset has the


                    The minutes (mm) and seconds (ss) are optional. The hour
                    (hh) is required and may be a single digit. The offset
                    following std is required. If no offset follows dst ,
                    daylight savings time is assumed to be one hour ahead of
                    standard time. One or more digits may be used. The value
                    is always interpreted as a decimal number. The hour must
                    be between 0 and 24, and the minutes (and seconds), if
                    present, must be between 0 and 59. Out of range values may
                    cause unpredictable behavior. If preceded by a "-", the
                    timezone is east of the Prime Meridian. Otherwise, it is
                    west of the Prime Meridian (which may be indicated by an
                    optional preceding "+" sign).

                    Indicate when to change to and back from daylight savings
                    time, where start/time describes when the change from
                    standard time to daylight savings time occurs, and
                    end/time describes when the change back happens.  Each
                    time field describes when, in current local time, the
                    change is made.

                    The formats of start and end are one of the following:

                    Jn    The Julian day n (1 <= n <= 365). Leap days are not
                          counted.  That is, in all years, February 28 is day
                          59 and March 1 is day 60. It is impossible to refer
                          to the occasional February 29.

                    n     The zero-based Julian day (0 <= n <= 365). Leap days
                          are counted, and it is possible to refer to February

                          The d **th
                           day, (0 <= d <= 6) of week n of month m of the year
                          (1 <= n <= 5, 1 <= m <= 12), where week 5 means "the
                          last d-day in month m" which may occur in either the
                          fourth or the fifth week). Week 1 is the first week
                          in which the  d **th
                           day occurs. Day zero is Sunday.

              Implementation specific defaults are used for  start and end if
              these optional fields are not given.

                    The time has the same format as offset except that no
                    leading sign ("-" or "+" is allowed. The default, if time
                    is not given is 02:00:00.

       cat(1), date(1), ed(1), fmtmsg(1), localedef(1), login(1), ls(1),
       mkmsgs(1), nice(1), nohup(1), sh(1), sort(1), time(1), vi(1), exec(2),
       addseverity(3C), catopen(3C), ctime(3C), ctype(3C), fmtmsg(3C),
       getdate(3C), getnetpath(3NSL), gettext(3C), gettxt(3C), localeconv(3C),
       mblen(3C), mktime(3C), printf(3C), setlocale(3C), strcoll(3C),
       strftime(3C), strtod(3C), strxfrm(3C), TIMEZONE(4), netconfig(4),
       passwd(4), profile(4)

SunOS 5.9                         25 Oct 2001                       environ(5)


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