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environ(5)		      File Formats Manual		    environ(5)

       environ - user environment

       When  a process begins execution, exec routines make available an array
       of strings called the environment; see exec(2).	By  convention,	 these
       strings	   have	    the	    form    variable=value,    for    example,
       PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin.  These environmental variables provide a  way  to
       make information	about a	program's environment available	to programs.

       A  name	may  be	 placed	 in  the environment by	the export command and
       name=value arguments in sh(1), or by exec(2).  It is unwise to conflict
       with  certain  shell variables that are frequently exported by .profile
       files: MAIL, PS1, PS2, IFS; see profile(4).

       The following environmental variables can be used by  applications  and
       are expected to be set in the target run-time environment.

       HOME	   The	name  of  the  user's login directory, set by login(1)
		   from	the password file; see passwd(4).

       LANG	   The string used to specify internationalization information
		   that	 allows	 users to work with different national conven-
		   tions.  The setlocale(3C) function checks the LANG environ-
		   ment	variable when it is called with	"" as the locale argu-
		   ment.  LANG is used as the default  locale  if  the	corre-
		   sponding  environment variable for a	particular category is
		   unset or null.  If, however,	LC_ALL is set to a valid, non-
		   empty  value,  its  contents	 are used to override both the
		   LANG	and the	other LC_* variables.

		   For example,	when setlocale() is invoked as

			setlocale(LC_CTYPE, ""),

		   setlocale() will query the  LC_CTYPE	 environment  variable
		   first to see	if it is set and non-null.  If LC_CTYPE	is not
		   set or null,	then setlocale() will check the	LANG  environ-
		   ment	 variable  to  see if it is set	and non-null.  If both
		   LANG	and LC_CTYPE are unset or NULL,	the default "C"	locale
		   will	be used	to set the LC_CTYPE category.

		   Most	commands will invoke
			setlocale(LC_ALL, "")

		   prior  to any other processing.  This allows	the command to
		   be used with	different national conventions by setting  the
		   appropriate environment variables.

		   The following environment variables correspond to each cat-
		   egory of setlocale(3C):

		   LC_ALL	  If set to a valid, non-empty	string	value,
				  override  the	 values	 of  LANG  and all the
				  other	LC_* variables.

		   LC_COLLATE	  This category	specifies the character	colla-
				  tion	sequence  being	used.  The information
				  corresponding	to this	category is stored  in
				  a  database  created by the colltbl(1M) com-
				  mand.	  This	environment  variable  affects
				  strcoll(3C) and strxfrm(3C).

		   LC_CTYPE	  This	category specifies character classifi-
				  cation, character conversion,	and widths  of
				  multibyte  characters.  When LC_CTYPE	is set
				  to a valid value, the	 calling  utility  can
				  display  and handle text and file names con-
				  taining valid	characters  for	 that  locale;
				  Extended  Unix  Code	(EUC) characters where
				  any individual character can be 1, 2,	 or  3
				  bytes	wide; and EUC characters of 1, 2, or 3
				  column widths.  The default "C" locale  cor-
				  responds  to	the 7-bit ASCII	character set;
				  only characters from ISO 8859-1  are	valid.
				  The  information corresponding to this cate-
				  gory is stored in a database created by  the
				  chrtbl(1M)  command.	This environment vari-
				  able is used by ctype(3C),  mbchar(3C),  and
				  many commands, such as cat(1), ed(1),	ls(1),
				  and vi(1).

		   LC_MESSAGES	  This category	specifies the language of  the
				  message  database  being used.  For example,
				  an application may have one message database
				  with	French	messages, and another database
				  with German messages.	 Message databases are
				  created  by the mkmsgs(1) command.  This en-
				  vironment variable is	used by	exstr(1), get-
				  txt(1),  srchtxt(1),	gettxt(3C),  and  get-

		   LC_MONETARY	  This category	specifies the monetary symbols
				  and delimiters used for a particular locale.
				  The information corresponding	to this	 cate-
				  gory	is stored in a database	created	by the
				  montbl(1M) command.  This environment	 vari-
				  able is used by localeconv(3C).

		   LC_NUMERIC	  This	category  specifies  the  decimal  and
				  thousands delimiters.	 The information  cor-
				  responding  to  this category	is stored in a
				  database created by the chrtbl(1M)  command.
				  The  default	C locale corresponds to	"." as
				  the decimal delimiter	and no	thousands  de-
				  limiter.   This environment variable is used
				  by  localeconv(3C),  printf(3S),  and	  str-

		   LC_TIME	  This	category  specifies date and time for-
				  mats.	 The information corresponding to this
				  category  is	stored in a database specified
				  in strftime(4).  The default C locale	corre-
				  sponds  to U.S. date and time	formats.  This
				  environment variable is used	by  many  com-
				  mands	 and  functions;  for  example:	at(1),
				  calendar(1), date(1),	strftime(3C), and get-

       MSGVERB	   Controls  which  standard  format message components	fmtmsg
		   selects  when  messages  are	 displayed  to	 stderr;   see
		   fmtmsg(1) and fmtmsg(3C).

       NETPATH	   A  colon-separated  list of network identifiers.  A network
		   identifier is a character string used by the	Network	Selec-
		   tion	 component  of	the system to provide application-spe-
		   cific default network search	paths.	A  network  identifier
		   must	 consist of non-NULL characters	and must have a	length
		   of at least 1.  No maximum length  is  specified.   Network
		   identifiers	are  normally chosen by	the system administra-
		   tor.	 A network identifier is also the first	field  in  any
		   /etc/netconfig  file	 entry.	  NETPATH thus provides	a link
		   into	the /etc/netconfig file	and the	 information  about  a
		   network  contained in that network's	entry.	/etc/netconfig
		   is maintained by the	 system	 administrator.	  The  library
		   routines described in getnetpath(3N)	access the NETPATH en-
		   vironment variable.

       NLSPATH	   Contains a sequence of templates which catopen(3C) and get-
		   text(3I)  use  when	attempting to locate message catalogs.
		   Each	template consists of an	optional prefix, one  or  more
		   substitution	fields,	a filename and an optional suffix.

		   For example:


		   defines that	catopen() should look for all message catalogs
		   in the directory /system/nlslib,  where  the	 catalog  name
		   should  be  constructed  from  the name parameter passed to
		   catopen(), %N, with the suffix .cat.

		   Substitution	fields consist of a % symbol,  followed	 by  a
		   single-letter  keyword.   The  following  keywords are cur-
		   rently defined:

		   %N	The value of the name parameter	passed to
		   %L	The value of LANG.
		   %l	The language element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.	%t     The territory element from LANG.
		   %c	The codeset element from LANG.
		   %%	A single % character.

		   An empty string is substituted if the  specified  value  is
		   not	currently defined.  The	separators ``_'' and ``.'' are
		   not included	in %t and %c substitutions.

		   Templates defined in	NLSPATH	are separated by  colons  (:).
		   A  leading  colon or	two adjacent colons (::) is equivalent
		   to specifying %N.

		   For example:

		   indicates to	catopen() that it  should  look	 for  the  re-
		   quested   message   catalog	in  name,  and  /nl-
		   slib/$LANG/	 For gettext(),	%N automatically  maps
		   to "messages".

		   If  NLSPATH	is unset or NULL, catopen() and	gettext() call
		   setlocale(3C), which	checks LANG and	the LC_* variables  to
		   locate the message catalogs.

		   NLSPATH  will normally be set up on a system	wide basis (in
		   /etc/profile) and thus makes	the location and  naming  con-
		   ventions  associated	 with  message catalogs	transparent to
		   both	programs and users.

       PATH	   The sequence	of directory  prefixes	that  sh(1),  time(1),
		   nice(1),  nohup(1),	and other utilities apply in searching
		   for a file known by an incomplete path name.	 The  prefixes
		   are	separated by colons (:).  login(1) sets	PATH=/usr/bin.
		   For more detail, see	sh(1).

       SEV_LEVEL   Define severity levels and associate	and print strings with
		   them	 in  standard  format  error  messages;	 see addsever-
		   ity(3C), fmtmsg(1), and fmtmsg(3C).

       TERM	   The kind of terminal	for which output is  to	 be  prepared.
		   This	 information is	used by	commands, such as vi(1), which
		   may exploit special capabilities of that terminal.

       TZ	   Timezone information.  The  contents	 of  this  environment
		   variable  are  used	by  the	 functions  ctime(3C),	local-
		   time(3C), strftime(3C), and mktime(3C) to override the  de-
		   fault  timezone.   If  TZ  is not in	the following form, it
		   designates a	path to	a timezone database file  relative  to
		   /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/,  ignoring	the first character if
		   it is a colon (:); otherwise, TZ has	the form:

		   std and dst Three or	more bytes that	 are  the  designation
			       for  the	 standard  (std)  and daylight savings
			       time (dst) timezones.  Only std is required. If
			       dst is missing, then daylight savings time does
			       not apply in this locale.   Upper-  and	lower-
			       case  letters  are allowed.  Any	characters ex-
			       cept a leading colon (:), digits, a comma  (,),
			       a minus (-) or a	plus (+) are allowed.

		   offset      Indicates  the  value one must add to the local
			       time to arrive at Coordinated  Universal	 Time.
			       The offset has the form:

			       The minutes (mm)	and seconds (ss) are optional.
			       The hour	(hh) is	required and may be  a	single
			       digit.	The  offset following std is required.
			       If no offset follows  dst  ,  daylight  savings
			       time  is	 assumed to be one hour	ahead of stan-
			       dard time.  One or more digits may be used; the
			       value  is  always interpreted as	a decimal num-
			       ber.  The hour must be between 0	 and  24,  and
			       the  minutes (and seconds) if present between 0
			       and 59.	Out of range values may	 cause	unpre-
			       dictable	behavior.  If preceded by a ``-'', the
			       timezone	is east	of the Prime Meridian;	other-
			       wise  it	 is west (which	may be indicated by an
			       optional	preceding ``+''	sign).

			       Indicate	when to	change to and back  from  day-
			       light  savings time, where start/time describes
			       when the	change from standard time to  daylight
			       savings	time  occurs,  and  end/time describes
			       when the	change back happens.  Each time	 field
			       describes  when,	 in  current  local  time, the
			       change is made.

			       The formats of start and	end  are  one  of  the

			       Jn	 The  Julian  day  n  (1 <= n <= 365).
					 Leap days are not counted.  That  is,
					 in  all  years, February 28 is	day 59
					 and March 1 is	day 60.	 It is	impos-
					 sible to refer	to the occasional Feb-
					 ruary 29.

			       n	 The zero-based	Julian day (0 <= n  <=
					 365).	 Leap days are counted,	and it
					 is possible to	refer to February 29.

			       Mm.n.d	 The dth day, (0 <= d <= 6) of week  n
					 of  month m of	the year (1 <= n <= 5,
					 1 <= m	<= 12),	 where	week  5	 means
					 ``the	last  d-day in month m'' which
					 may occur in either the fourth	or the
					 fifth	week).	 Week  1  is the first
					 week in which	the  dth  day  occurs.
					 Day zero is Sunday.

			       Implementation  specific	 defaults are used for
			       start and end if	these optional fields are  not

			       The  time  has the same format as offset	except
			       that no leading sign (``-'' or  ``+'')  is  al-
			       lowed.	The  default,  if time is not given is

       cat(1), date(1),	ed(1), fmtmsg(1), login(1), ls(1), mkmsgs(1), nice(1),
       nohup(1),  sh(1),  sort(1),  time(1),  vi(1),  chrtbl(1M), colltbl(1M),
       montbl(1M),   exec(2),	addseverity(3C),    catopen(3C),    ctime(3C),
       ctype(3C),  fmtmsg(3C),	getdate(3C), getnetpath(3N), gettext(3I), get-
       txt(3C),	localeconv(3C),	 mbchar(3C),  mktime(3C),  printf(3S),	setlo-
       cale(3C),  strcoll(3C),	strftime(3C), strtod(3C), strxfrm(3C), netcon-
       fig(4), passwd(4), profile(4), strftime(4), TIMEZONE(4)

				  8 Sep	1994			    environ(5)


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