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getprotobyname(3SOCKET)	   Sockets Library Functions   getprotobyname(3SOCKET)

NAME
       getprotobyname, getprotobyname_r, getprotobynumber, getprotobynumber_r,
       getprotoent, getprotoent_r, setprotoent,	endprotoent - get protocol en-
       try

SYNOPSIS
       cc [ flag ... ] file ...	-lsocket -lnsl [ library ... ]
       #include	<netdb.h>

       struct protoent *getprotobyname(const char *name);

       struct  protoent	 *getprotobyname_r(const  char	*name, struct protoent
       *result,	char *buffer, int buflen);

       struct protoent *getprotobynumber(int proto);

       struct protoent *getprotobynumber_r(int proto, struct protoent *result,
       char *buffer, int buflen);

       struct protoent *getprotoent(void);

       struct  protoent	 *getprotoent_r(struct protoent	*result, char *buffer,
       int buflen);

       int setprotoent(int stayopen);

       int endprotoent(void);

DESCRIPTION
       These routines return a protocol	entry.	Two types  of  interfaces  are
       supported:  reentrant  (getprotobyname_r(),  getprotobynumber_r(),  and
       getprotoent_r())	and  non-reentrant  (getprotobyname(),	getprotobynum-
       ber(),  and  getprotoent()). The	reentrant routines may be used in sin-
       gle-threaded applications and are safe for multi-threaded applications,
       making them the preferred interfaces.

       The  reentrant routines require additional parameters which are used to
       return results data. result is a	pointer	to a struct protoent structure
       and  will  be where the returned	results	will be	stored.	buffer is used
       as storage space	for elements of	the returned results.  buflen  is  the
       size of buffer and should be large enough to contain all	returned data.
       buflen must be at least 1024 bytes.

       getprotobyname_r(), getprotobynumber_r(), and getprotoent_r() each  re-
       turn a protocol entry.

       The  entry  may	come  from one of the following	sources: the protocols
       file (see protocols(4)),	the NIS	maps ``protocols.byname'' and ``proto-
       cols.bynumber'',	 and  the  NIS+	 table	``protocols''. The sources and
       their lookup order are specified	in the	/etc/nsswitch.conf  file  (see
       nsswitch.conf(4)	 for details). Some name services such as NIS will re-
       turn only one name for a	host, whereas others such as NIS+ or DNS  will
       return all aliases.

       getprotobyname_r()  and	getprotobynumber_r()  sequentially search from
       the beginning of	the file until a matching protocol  name  or  protocol
       number is found,	or until an EOF	is encountered.

       getprotobyname()	 and getprotobynumber()	have the same functionality as
       getprotobyname_r() and getprotobynumber_r() except that a static	buffer
       is  used	 to  store  returned  results.	These routines are unsafe in a
       multi-threaded application.

       getprotoent_r() enumerates protocol entries:  successive	calls to  get-
       protoent_r()  will  return  either successive protocol entries or NULL.
       Enumeration may not be supported	by some	sources.  Note that if	multi-
       ple  threads  call  getprotoent_r(), each will retrieve a subset	of the
       protocol	database.

       getprotent() has	the same functionality as getprotent_r() except	that a
       static  buffer  is used to store	returned results.  This	routine	is un-
       safe in a multi-threaded	application.

       setprotoent() "rewinds" to the beginning	of the enumeration of protocol
       entries.	 If the	stayopen flag is non-zero, resources such as open file
       descriptors are not deallocated after each call to getprotobynumber_r()
       and  getprotobyname_r().	Calls to getprotobyname_r() , getprotobyname()
       , getprotobynumber_r() and getprotobynumber() may leave the enumeration
       in an indeterminate state, so setprotoent() should be called before the
       first getprotoent_r() or	getprotoent().	Note  that  setprotoent()  has
       process-wide  scope,  and  ``rewinds''  the  protocol  entries  for all
       threads calling getprotoent_r() as well as main-thread calls to getpro-
       toent().

       endprotoent()  may  be  called  to indicate that	protocol processing is
       complete; the system may	then close any open protocols file, deallocate
       storage,	 and so	forth.	It is legitimate, but possibly less efficient,
       to call more protocol routines after endprotoent().

       The internal representation of a	protocol entry is a protoent structure
       defined in <netdb.h> with the following members:

       char  *p_name;
       char  **p_aliases;
       int   p_proto;

RETURN VALUES
       getprotobyname_r(), getprotobyname(), getprotobynumber_r(), and getpro-
       tobynumber() return a pointer to	a struct protoent if they successfully
       locate the requested entry; otherwise they return NULL.

       getprotoent_r() and getprotoent() return	a pointer to a struct protoent
       if they successfully enumerate an entry;	otherwise  they	 return	 NULL,
       indicating the end of the enumeration.

ERRORS
       getprotobyname_r(), getprotobynumber_r(), and getprotoent_r() will fail
       if the following	is true:

	      ERANGE
		    length of the buffer  supplied  by	caller	is  not	 large
		    enough to store the	result.

FILES
       /etc/protocols

       /etc/nsswitch.conf

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |MT-Level		     |See NOTES	below.		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       intro(3), nsswitch.conf(4), protocols(4), attributes(5),	netdb(3HEAD)

NOTES
       Although	 getprotobyname_r(), getprotobynumber_r(), and getprotoent_r()
       are not mentioned by POSIX 1003.1c, they	were  added  to	 complete  the
       functionality provided by similar thread-safe functions.

       When compiling multithreaded applications, see  intro(3), Notes On Mul-
       tithread	Applications, for information about the	use of the  _REENTRANT
       flag.

       The  routines  getprotobyname_r(),  getprotobynumber_r(),  and  getpro-
       toent_r() are reentrant and multi-thread	safe.	The  reentrant	inter-
       faces can be used in single-threaded as well as multi-threaded applica-
       tions and are therefore the preferred interfaces.

       The routines getprotobyname(), getprotobyaddr(),	and getprotoent()  use
       static  storage,	 so returned data must be copied if it is to be	saved.
       Because of their	use of static storage for returned  data,  these  rou-
       tines are not safe for multi-threaded applications.

       setprotoent() and endprotoent() have process-wide scope,	and are	there-
       fore not	safe in	multi-threaded applications.

       Use of getprotoent_r() and getprotoent()	is discouraged;	enumeration is
       well-defined  for  the  protocols file and is supported (albeit ineffi-
       ciently)	for NIS	and NIS+, but in general may not be well-defined.  The
       semantics of enumeration	are discussed in nsswitch.conf(4).

BUGS
       Only the	Internet protocols are currently understood.

       Programs	that call  getprotobyname_r() or getprotobynumber_r() routines
       cannot be linked	statically since the implementation of these  routines
       requires	 dynamic  linker functionality to access shared	objects	at run
       time.

SunOS 5.9			  25 Jul 2000	       getprotobyname(3SOCKET)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUES | ERRORS | FILES | ATTRIBUTES | SEE ALSO | NOTES | BUGS

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