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EMACS(1)							      EMACS(1)

       emacs - GNU project Emacs

       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ... ]

       GNU  Emacs is a version of Emacs, written by the	author of the original
       (PDP-10)	Emacs, Richard Stallman.  The user functionality of GNU	 Emacs
       encompasses  everything	other  editors do, and it is easily extensible
       since its editing commands are written in Lisp.

       The primary documentation of GNU	Emacs is  in  the  GNU	Emacs  Manual,
       which  you  can	read  using Info, either from Emacs or as a standalone
       program.	 Please	look there for complete	and up-to-date	documentation.
       This man	page is	updated	only when someone volunteers to	do so.

       Emacs  has  an  extensive  interactive  help facility, but the facility
       assumes that you	know how to  manipulate	 Emacs	windows	 and  buffers.
       CTRL-h or F1 enters the Help facility.  Help Tutorial (CTRL-h t)	starts
       an interactive tutorial to quickly teach	beginners the fundamentals  of
       Emacs.	Help  Apropos  (CTRL-h	a)  helps you find a command given its
       functionality, Help Key (CTRL-h k) describes a given key	sequence,  and
       Help Function (CTRL-h f)	describes a given Lisp function.

       GNU Emacs's many	special	packages handle	mail reading (RMail) and send-
       ing (Mail), outline editing  (Outline),	compiling  (Compile),  running
       subshells  within Emacs windows (Shell),	running	a Lisp read-eval-print
       loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode),  automated	 psychotherapy	(Doctor),  and
       much more.

   Emacs Options
       The following options are of general interest:

	      file    Edit file.

	      --file file, --find-file file, --visit file
		      The same as specifying file directly as an argument.

	      +number Go  to  the  line	 specified  by number (do not insert a
		      space between  the  "+"  sign  and  the  number).	  This
		      applies only to the next file specified.

		      Go to the	specified line and column.

	      -q, --no-init-file
		      Do not load an init file.

		      Do not load the site-wide	startup	file.

		      Do not load a saved desktop.

	      -Q, --quick
		      Similar to "-q --no-site-file --no-splash".  Also, avoid
		      processing X resources.

		      Do not display a splash screen during start-up.

		      Enable Emacs Lisp	debugger during	the processing of  the
		      user  init  file ~/.emacs.  This is useful for debugging
		      problems in the init file.

	      -u user, --user user
		      Load user's init file.

	      -t file, --terminal file
		      Use specified file as  the  terminal  instead  of	 using
		      stdin/stdout.  This must be the first argument specified
		      in the command line.

		      Start Emacs as a daemon, enabling	the Emacs  server  and
		      disconnecting  from  the terminal.  You can then use the
		      emacsclient command to connect to	the server (see	 emac-

		      Display Emacs version information	and exit.

	      --help  Display this help	and exit.

       The following options are Lisp-oriented (these options are processed in
       the order encountered):

	      -f function, --funcall function
		      Execute the lisp function	function.

	      -l file, --load file
		      Load the lisp code in the	file file.

	      --eval expr, --execute expr
		      Evaluate the Lisp	expression expr.

       The following options are useful	when running Emacs as a	batch editor:

	      --batch Edit in batch mode.  The editor will  send  messages  to
		      stderr.  You must	use -l and -f options to specify files
		      to execute and functions to call.

	      --script file
		      Run file as an Emacs Lisp	script.

	      --insert file
		      Insert contents of file into the current buffer.

	      --kill  Exit Emacs while in batch	mode.

	      -L dir, --directory dir
		      Add dir to the list of directories  Emacs	 searches  for
		      Lisp files.

   Using Emacs with X
       Emacs  has been tailored	to work	well with the X	window system.	If you
       run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X	window to dis-
       play  in.   You	will probably want to start the	editor as a background
       process so that you can continue	using your original window.

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

	      --name name
		      Specify the name which should be assigned	to the initial
		      Emacs  window.   This controls looking up	X resources as
		      well as the window title.

	      -T name, --title name
		      Specify the title	for the	initial	X window.

	      -r, -rv, --reverse-video
		      Display the Emacs	window in reverse video.

	      -fn font,	--font font
		      Set the Emacs window's font to that specified  by	 font.
		      You   will   find	  the	various	  X   fonts   in   the
		      /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory.  Note that Emacs will only
		      accept fixed width fonts.	 Under the X11 Release 4 font-
		      naming conventions, any font with	the value "m"  or  "c"
		      in  the eleventh field of	the font name is a fixed width
		      font.  Furthermore, fonts	whose name  are	 of  the  form
		      widthxheight  are	 generally fixed width,	as is the font
		      fixed.  See xlsfonts(1) for more information.

		      When you specify a font, be sure to put a	space  between
		      the switch and the font name.

	      --xrm resources
		      Set additional X resources.

	      --color, --color=mode
		      Override	 color	mode  for  character  terminals;  mode
		      defaults to `auto', and can  also	 be  `never',  `auto',
		      `always',	or a mode name like `ansi8'.

	      -bw pixels, --border-width pixels
		      Set  the	Emacs  window's	 border	width to the number of
		      pixels specified by pixels.  Defaults to	one  pixel  on
		      each side	of the window.

	      -ib pixels, --internal-border pixels
		      Set  the window's	internal border	width to the number of
		      pixels specified by pixels.  Defaults to	one  pixel  of
		      padding on each side of the window.

	      -g geometry, --geometry geometry
		      Set  the	Emacs  window's	width, height, and position as
		      specified.  The geometry specification is	in  the	 stan-
		      dard X format; see X(7) for more information.  The width
		      and height are specified in characters; the  default  is
		      80  by  24.   See	the Emacs manual, section "Options for
		      Window Size and Position", for information on how	window
		      sizes  interact  with  selecting or deselecting the tool
		      bar and menu bar.

	      -lsp pixels, --line-spacing pixels
		      Additional space to put between lines.

	      -vb, --vertical-scroll-bars
		      Enable vertical scrollbars.

	      -fh, --fullheight
		      Make the first frame as high as the screen.

	      -fs, --fullscreen
		      Make the first frame fullscreen.

	      -fw, --fullwidth
		      Make the first frame as wide as the screen.

	      -mm, --maximized
		      Maximize the first frame,	like "-fw -fh".

	      -fg color, --foreground-color color
		      On color displays, set the color of the text.

		      Use the command M-x list-colors-display for  a  list  of
		      valid color names.

	      -bg color, --background-color color
		      On  color	 displays, set the color of the	window's back-

	      -bd color, --border-color	color
		      On color displays, set the color of the window's border.

	      -cr color, --cursor-color	color
		      On  color	 displays,  set	the color of the window's text

	      -ms color, --mouse-color color
		      On color displays, set the color of the  window's	 mouse

	      -d displayname, --display	displayname
		      Create the Emacs window on the display specified by dis-
		      playname.	 Must be the first  option  specified  in  the
		      command line.

	      -nbi, --no-bitmap-icon
		      Do not use picture of gnu	for Emacs icon.

		      Start Emacs in iconified state.

	      -nbc, --no-blinking-cursor
		      Disable blinking cursor.

	      -nw, --no-window-system
		      Tell  Emacs not to create	a graphical frame.  If you use
		      this switch when invoking	Emacs from an xterm(1) window,
		      display is done in that window.

	      -D, --basic-display
		      This  option  disables many display features; use	it for
		      debugging	Emacs.

       You can set X default values for	your Emacs windows in your .Xresources
       file (see xrdb(1)).  Use	the following format:


       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set
       default values for the following	keywords:

	      background (class	Background)
		      For color	displays, sets the window's background	color.

	      bitmapIcon (class	BitmapIcon)
		      If  bitmapIcon's	value  is  set	to on, the window will
		      iconify into the "kitchen	sink."

	      borderColor (class BorderColor)
		      For color	displays, sets the color of the	window's  bor-

	      borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
		      Sets the window's	border width in	pixels.

	      cursorColor (class Foreground)
		      For  color displays, sets	the color of the window's text

	      cursorBlink (class CursorBlink)
		      Specifies	whether	to make	the cursor blink.  The default
		      is on.  Use off or false to turn cursor blinking off.

	      font (class Font)
		      Sets the window's	text font.

	      foreground (class	Foreground)
		      For color	displays, sets the window's text color.

	      fullscreen (class	Fullscreen)
		      The  desired  fullscreen	size.  The value can be	one of
		      fullboth,	fullwidth, or fullheight, which	correspond  to
		      the   command-line  options  `-fs',  `-fw',  and	`-fh',
		      respectively.  Note that this  applies  to  the  initial
		      frame only.

	      geometry (class Geometry)
		      Sets  the	 geometry  of  the  Emacs window (as described

	      iconName (class Title)
		      Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

	      internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
		      Sets the window's	internal border	width in pixels.

	      lineSpacing (class LineSpacing)
		      Additional space ("leading") between lines, in pixels.

	      menuBar (class MenuBar)
		      Gives frames menu	bars if	on; don't have	menu  bars  if
		      off.   See  the Emacs manual, sections "Lucid Resources"
		      and "LessTif Resources", for how to control the  appear-
		      ance of the menu bar if you have one.

	      minibuffer (class	Minibuffer)
		      If none, don't make a minibuffer in this frame.  It will
		      use a separate minibuffer	frame instead.

	      paneFont (class Font)
		      Font name	for menu pane titles, in non-toolkit  versions
		      of Emacs.

	      pointerColor (class Foreground)
		      For color	displays, sets the color of the	window's mouse

	      privateColormap (class PrivateColormap)
		      If on, use a private color map, in the  case  where  the
		      "default visual" of class	PseudoColor and	Emacs is using

	      reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
		      If reverseVideo's	value is set to	on, the	window will be
		      displayed	in reverse video.

	      screenGamma (class ScreenGamma)
		      Gamma  correction	 for  colors,  equivalent to the frame
		      parameter	`screen-gamma'.

	      scrollBarWidth (class ScrollBarWidth)
		      The scroll bar width in pixels, equivalent to the	 frame
		      parameter	`scroll-bar-width'.

	      selectionFont (class SelectionFont)
		      Font name	for pop-up menu	items, in non-toolkit versions
		      of Emacs.	 (For toolkit versions,	see the	Emacs  manual,
		      sections "Lucid Resources" and "LessTif Resources".)

	      selectionTimeout (class SelectionTimeout)
		      Number of	milliseconds to	wait for a selection reply.  A
		      value of 0 means wait as long as necessary.

	      synchronous (class Synchronous)
		      Run Emacs	in synchronous mode if on.   Synchronous  mode
		      is useful	for debugging X	problems.

	      title (class Title)
		      Sets the title of	the Emacs window.

	      toolBar (class ToolBar)
		      Number of	lines to reserve for the tool bar.

	      useXIM (class UseXIM)
		      Turns  off use of	X input	methods	(XIM) if false or off.

	      verticalScrollBars (class	ScrollBars)
		      Gives frames scroll bars if on; suppresses  scroll  bars
		      if off.

	      visualClass (class VisualClass)
		      Specify  the  "visual"  that X should use.  This tells X
		      how to handle colors.  The value should start  with  one
		      of  TrueColor,  PseudoColor,  DirectColor,  StaticColor,
		      GrayScale, and StaticGray,  followed  by	-depth,	 where
		      depth is the number of color planes.

       You  can	 order	printed	 copies	 of the	GNU Emacs Manual from the Free
       Software	Foundation, which develops GNU software.  See the file	ORDERS
       for ordering information.
       Your  local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available.  As with
       all software and	publications from FSF, everyone	is permitted  to  make
       and  distribute copies of the Emacs manual.  The	TeX source to the man-
       ual is also included in the Emacs source	distribution.

       /usr/local/share/info --	files for the Info documentation browser.  The
       complete	text of	the Emacs reference manual is included in a convenient
       tree structured form.  Also includes the	Emacs Lisp  Reference  Manual,
       useful  to anyone wishing to write programs in the Emacs	Lisp extension

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp -- Lisp source files and  compiled
       files  that  define  most editing commands.  Some are preloaded;	others
       are autoloaded from this	directory when used.

       /usr/local/libexec/emacs/$VERSION/$ARCH -- various  programs  that  are
       used with GNU Emacs.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc -- various files of information.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.* -- contains the documentation
       strings for the Lisp primitives and preloaded  Lisp  functions  of  GNU
       Emacs.  They are	stored here to reduce the size of Emacs	proper.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE lists people	offering vari-
       ous services to assist users of GNU Emacs, including  education,	 trou-
       bleshooting, porting and	customization.

       There  is  a  mailing  list,, for reporting Emacs
       bugs and	fixes.	But before reporting something as a bug, please	try to
       be sure that it really is a bug,	not a misunderstanding or a deliberate
       feature.	 We ask	you to read the	section	``Reporting Emacs Bugs''  near
       the  end	 of the	reference manual (or Info system) for hints on how and
       when to report bugs.  Also, include the version number of the Emacs you
       are  running  in	every bug report that you send in.  Bugs tend actually
       to be fixed if they can be isolated, so	it  is	in  your  interest  to
       report them in such a way that they can be easily reproduced.

       Do  not	expect	a  personal  answer  to	 a bug report.	The purpose of
       reporting bugs is to get	them fixed for everyone	in the	next  release,
       if  possible.   For  personal assistance, look in the SERVICE file (see
       above) for a list of people who offer it.

       Please do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list.   For
       more   information   about   Emacs   mailing   lists,   see   the  file

       Emacs is	free; anyone may redistribute copies of	Emacs to anyone	 under
       the  terms  stated in the Emacs General Public License, a copy of which
       accompanies each	copy of	Emacs and which	also appears in	the  reference

       Copies  of  Emacs may sometimes be received packaged with distributions
       of Unix systems,	but it is never	included in the	scope of  any  license
       covering	 those	systems.   Such	 inclusion violates the	terms on which
       distribution is permitted.  In fact, the	primary	purpose	of the General
       Public  License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any	other restric-
       tions to	redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard Stallman	encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and	 urges
       that you	contribute your	extensions to the GNU library.	Eventually GNU
       (Gnu's Not Unix)	will be	a complete  replacement	 for  Unix.   Everyone
       will be free to use, copy, study	and change the GNU system.

       emacsclient(1), etags(1), X(7), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

       Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.
       For detailed credits and	acknowledgements, see the GNU Emacs manual.

       Copyright (C) 1995, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002,  2003,  2004,  2005,	 2006,
       2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Free Software Foundation,	Inc.

       Permission  is  granted	to make	and distribute verbatim	copies of this
       document	provided the copyright notice and this permission  notice  are
       preserved on all	copies.

       Permission  is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
       document	under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided  that  the
       entire  resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of	a per-
       mission notice identical	to this	one.

       Permission is granted to	copy and distribute translations of this docu-
       ment  into  another  language,  under the above conditions for modified
       versions, except	that this permission notice may	be stated in a	trans-
       lation approved by the Free Software Foundation.

GNU Emacs 23.2			 2007 April 13			      EMACS(1)


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