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EMACS(1)		    General Commands Manual		      EMACS(1)

       emacs - GNU project Emacs

       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ...  ]

       GNU  Emacs is a version of Emacs, written by the	author of the original
       (PDP-10)	Emacs, Richard Stallman.
       The primary documentation of GNU	Emacs is  in  the  GNU	Emacs  Manual,
       which  you  can	read on	line using Info, a subsystem of	Emacs.	Please
       look there for complete and up-to-date documentation.  This man page is
       updated	only  when someone volunteers to do so;	the Emacs maintainers'
       priority	goal is	to minimize the	amount of time	this  man  page	 takes
       away from other more useful projects.
       The  user functionality of GNU Emacs encompasses	everything other Emacs
       editors do, and it is easily extensible since its editing commands  are
       written in Lisp.

       Emacs  has an extensive interactive help	facility, but the facility as-
       sumes that you know how to manipulate Emacs windows and buffers.	 CTRL-
       h (backspace or CTRL-h) enters the Help facility.  Help Tutorial	(CTRL-
       h t) requests an	interactive tutorial which  can	 teach	beginners  the
       fundamentals  of	Emacs in a few minutes.	 Help Apropos (CTRL-h a) helps
       you find	a command given	its functionality, Help	Character  (CTRL-h  c)
       describes  a given character's effect, and Help Function	(CTRL-h	f) de-
       scribes a given Lisp function specified by name.

       Emacs's Undo can	undo several steps of modification to your buffers, so
       it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.

       GNU Emacs's many	special	packages handle	mail reading (RMail) and send-
       ing (Mail), outline editing  (Outline),	compiling  (Compile),  running
       subshells  within Emacs windows (Shell),	running	a Lisp read-eval-print
       loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode), and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).

       There is	an extensive reference manual,	but  users  of	other  Emacses
       should  have little trouble adapting even without a copy.  Users	new to
       Emacs will be able to use basic features	fairly rapidly by studying the
       tutorial	and using the self-documentation features.

       Emacs Options

       The following options are of general interest:

       file    Edit file.

       +number Go  to  the line	specified by number (do	not insert a space be-
	       tween the "+" sign and the number).

       -q      Do not load an init file.

       -u user Load user's init	file.

       -t file Use specified file as the terminal instead of using  stdin/std-
	       out.   This must	be the first argument specified	in the command

       The following options are lisp-oriented (these options are processed in
       the order encountered):

       -f function
	       Execute the lisp	function function.

       -l file Load the	lisp code in the file file.

       The following options are useful	when running Emacs as a	batch editor:

       -batch  Edit  in	 batch mode.  The editor will send messages to stderr.
	       This option must	be the first in	the argument list.   You  must
	       use -l and -f options to	specify	files to execute and functions
	       to call.

       -kill   Exit Emacs while	in batch mode.

       Using Emacs with	X

       Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system.  If  you
       run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X	window to dis-
       play in.	 You will probably want	to start the editor  as	 a  background
       process so that you can continue	using your original window.

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

       -name name
	       Specifies  the  name  which  should  be assigned	to the initial
	       Emacs window.  This controls looking up X resources as well  as
	       the window title.

       -title name
	       Specifies the title for the initial X window.

       -r      Display the Emacs window	in reverse video.

       -i      Use  the	 "kitchen  sink" bitmap	icon when iconifying the Emacs

       -font font, -fn font
	       Set the Emacs window's font to that  specified  by  font.   You
	       will  find the various X	fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts	direc-
	       tory.  Note that	Emacs will only	accept fixed width fonts.  Un-
	       der  the	 X11  Release 4	font-naming conventions, any font with
	       the value "m" or	"c" in the eleventh field of the font name  is
	       a  fixed	 width font.  Furthermore, fonts whose name are	of the
	       form widthxheight are generally fixed width,  as	 is  the  font
	       fixed.  See xlsfonts(1) for more	information.

	       When  you  specify  a  font, be sure to put a space between the
	       switch and the font name.

       -bw pixels
	       Set the Emacs window's border width to  the  number  of	pixels
	       specified by pixels.  Defaults to one pixel on each side	of the

       -ib pixels
	       Set the window's	internal border	width to the number of	pixels
	       specified  by pixels.  Defaults to one pixel of padding on each
	       side of the window.

       -geometry geometry
	       Set the Emacs window's width, height, and  position  as	speci-
	       fied.   The geometry specification is in	the standard X format;
	       see X(1)	for more information.  The width and height are	speci-
	       fied in characters; the default is 80 by	24.

       -fg color
	       On color	displays, sets the color of the	text.

	       See  the	 file  /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt  for a list	of valid color

       -bg color
	       On color	displays, sets the color of the	window's background.

       -bd color
	       On color	displays, sets the color of the	window's border.

       -cr color
	       On color	displays, sets the color of the	window's text cursor.

       -ms color
	       On color	displays, sets the color of the	window's mouse cursor.

       -d displayname, -display	displayname
	       Create the Emacs	window on the display  specified  by  display-
	       name.  Must be the first	option specified in the	command	line.

       -nw     Tells  Emacs not	to use its special interface to	X.  If you use
	       this switch when	invoking Emacs from an xterm(1)	 window,  dis-
	       play  is	 done  in  that	window.	 This must be the first	option
	       specified in the	command	line.

       You can set X default values for	your Emacs windows in your .Xresources
       file (see xrdb(1)).  Use	the following format:


       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set
       default values for the following	keywords:

       font (class Font)
	       Sets the	window's text font.

       reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
	       If reverseVideo's value is set to on, the window	will  be  dis-
	       played in reverse video.

       bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
	       If  bitmapIcon's	 value	is  set	to on, the window will iconify
	       into the	"kitchen sink."

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
	       Sets the	window's border	width in pixels.

       internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
	       Sets the	window's internal border width in pixels.

       foreground (class Foreground)
	       For color displays, sets	the window's text color.

       background (class Background)
	       For color displays, sets	the window's background	color.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
	       For color displays, sets	the color of the window's border.

       cursorColor (class Foreground)
	       For color displays, sets	the color of the window's text cursor.

       pointerColor (class Foreground)
	       For color displays, sets	the color of the window's  mouse  cur-

       geometry	(class Geometry)
	       Sets the	geometry of the	Emacs window (as described above).

       title (class Title)
	       Sets the	title of the Emacs window.

       iconName	(class Title)
	       Sets the	icon name for the Emacs	window icon.

       If  you	try to set color values	while using a black and	white display,
       the window's characteristics will default as  follows:  the  foreground
       color  will be set to black, the	background color will be set to	white,
       the border color	will be	set to grey, and the text  and	mouse  cursors
       will be set to black.

       Using the Mouse

       The  following lists the	mouse button bindings for the Emacs window un-
       der X11.

       left		    Set	point.
       middle		    Paste text.
       right		    Cut	text into X cut	buffer.
       SHIFT-middle	    Cut	text into X cut	buffer.
       SHIFT-right	    Paste text.
       CTRL-middle	    Cut	text into X cut	buffer and kill	it.
       CTRL-right	    Select this	window,	then split it  into  two  win-
			    dows.  Same	as typing CTRL-x 2.
       CTRL-SHIFT-left	    X  buffer  menu--hold  the	buttons	and keys down,
			    wait for menu to appear, select  buffer,  and  re-
			    lease.  Move mouse out of menu and release to can-
       CTRL-SHIFT-middle    X help menu--pop up	 index	card  menu  for	 Emacs
       CTRL-SHIFT-right	    Select  window  with  mouse,  and delete all other
			    windows.  Same as typing CTRL-x 1.

       You can order printed copies of the GNU	Emacs  Manual  from  the  Free
       Software	 Foundation, which develops GNU	software.  See the file	ORDERS
       for ordering information.
       Your local Emacs	maintainer might also have copies available.  As  with
       all  software  and publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make
       and distribute copies of	the Emacs manual.  The TeX source to the  man-
       ual is also included in the Emacs source	distribution.

       /usr/local/info - files for the Info documentation browser (a subsystem
       of Emacs) to refer to.  Currently not much of Unix is documented	 here,
       but  the	 complete  text	of the Emacs reference manual is included in a
       convenient tree structured form.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/src - C source files and	object files

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp - Lisp source files	 and  compiled
       files  that  define  most editing commands.  Some are preloaded;	others
       are autoloaded from this	directory when used.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc - various programs  that  are  used
       with GNU	Emacs, and some	files of information.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.*  - contains the documentation
       strings for the Lisp primitives and preloaded  Lisp  functions  of  GNU
       Emacs.  They are	stored here to reduce the size of Emacs	proper.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/OTHER.EMACSES  discusses  GNU Emacs
       vs. other versions of Emacs.
       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE lists people	offering vari-
       ous  services  to assist	users of GNU Emacs, including education, trou-
       bleshooting, porting and	customization.
       These files also	have information useful	to  anyone  wishing  to	 write
       programs	 in  the Emacs Lisp extension language,	which has not yet been
       fully documented.

       /usr/local/com/emacs/lock - holds lock files  that  are	made  for  all
       files  being modified in	Emacs, to prevent simultaneous modification of
       one file	by two users.

       /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt - list of valid X color names.

       There is	a mailing list, on the  internet
       (ucbvax!!bug-gnu-emacs  on UUCPnet), for reporting Emacs
       bugs and	fixes.	But before reporting something as a bug, please	try to
       be sure that it really is a bug,	not a misunderstanding or a deliberate
       feature.	 We ask	you to read the	section	``Reporting Emacs Bugs''  near
       the  end	 of the	reference manual (or Info system) for hints on how and
       when to report bugs.  Also, include the version number of the Emacs you
       are running in every bug	report that you	send in.

       Do  not	expect	a personal answer to a bug report.  The	purpose	of re-
       porting bugs is to get them fixed for everyone in the next release,  if
       possible.   For	personal  assistance,  look  in	 the SERVICE file (see
       above) for a list of people who offer it.

       Please do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list.  Send
       requests	 to  be	 added	to mailing lists to the	special	list info-gnu- (or the corresponding UUCP	address).  For
       more  information  about	 Emacs	mailing	 lists,	 see the file /usr/lo-
       cal/emacs/etc/MAILINGLISTS.  Bugs tend actually to be fixed if they can
       be  isolated,  so  it  is in your interest to report them in such a way
       that they can be	easily reproduced.

       Bugs that I know	about are: shell will not work with  programs  running
       in Raw mode on some Unix	versions.

       Emacs  is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under
       the terms stated	in the Emacs General Public License, a copy  of	 which
       accompanies  each copy of Emacs and which also appears in the reference

       Copies of Emacs may sometimes be	received packaged  with	 distributions
       of  Unix	 systems, but it is never included in the scope	of any license
       covering	those systems.	Such inclusion violates	 the  terms  on	 which
       distribution is permitted.  In fact, the	primary	purpose	of the General
       Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other  restric-
       tions to	redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard	Stallman encourages you	to improve and extend Emacs, and urges
       that you	contribute your	extensions to the GNU library.	Eventually GNU
       (Gnu's Not Unix)	will be	a complete replacement for Berkeley Unix.  Ev-
       eryone will be free to use, copy, study and change the GNU system.

       X(1), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

       Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.
       Joachim Martillo	and Robert Krawitz added the X features.

       Copyright (c) 1995, 1999, 2000, 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission  is  granted to copy,	distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version  1.1  or
       any  later  version  published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
       Invariant Sections, with	no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover	Texts.

       This document is	part of	a collection distributed under	the  GNU  Free
       Documentation  License.	 If you	want to	distribute this	document sepa-
       rately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of  the  li-
       cense  to  the  document,  as described in section 6 of the license.  A
       copy of the license is included in the gfdl(1) man  page,  and  in  the
       section entitled	"GNU Free Documentation	License" in the	Emacs manual.

4th Berkeley Distribution	1995 December 7			      EMACS(1)


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