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edit(1)			    General Commands Manual		       edit(1)

       edit - text editor (variant of ex for casual users)

       /usr/bin/edit [ - | -s ]	[-l] [-L] [-R] [ -r [ filename]]
	    [ -t tag ] [-v] [-V] [-x] [	-wn ] [-C]
	    [ +command | -c command ] filename...

       /usr/xpg4/bin/edit [ - |	-s ] [-l] [-L] [-R]
	    [ -r [ filename]] [	-t tag ] [-v] [-V] [-x]	[ -wn ]
	    [-C] [ +command | -c command ] filename...



       edit  is	 a variant of the text editor ex recommended for new or	casual
       users who wish to use a command-oriented	editor.	 It operates precisely
       as ex with the following	options	automatically set:

	      novice	    ON

	      report	    ON

	      showmode	    ON

	      magic	    OFF

       The following brief introduction	should help you	get started with edit.
       If you are using	a CRT terminal you may want to learn about the display
       editor vi.

       To  edit	 the  contents	of an existing file you	begin with the command
       edit name to the	shell.	edit makes a copy of the  file	that  you  can
       then edit, and tells you	how many lines and characters are in the file.
       To create a new file, you also begin with the command edit with a file-
       name: edit name;	the editor will	tell you it is a [New File].

       The  edit  command  prompt is the colon (:), which you should see after
       starting	the editor.  If	you are	editing	an  existing  file,  then  you
       will  have  some	 lines	in edit's buffer (its name for the copy	of the
       file you	are editing).  When you	start editing,	edit  makes  the  last
       line  of	the file the current line.  Most commands to edit use the cur-
       rent line if you	do not tell them which line to use.  Thus if  you  say
       print  (which  can  be  abbreviated p) and type carriage	return (as you
       should after all	edit commands),	the current line will be printed.   If
       you  delete (d) the current line, edit will print the new current line,
       which is	usually	the next line in the file.  If	you  delete  the  last
       line, then the new last line becomes the	current	one.

       If you start with an empty file or wish to add some new lines, then the
       append (a) command can be used.	After you execute this command (typing
       a  carriage  return  after  the word append), edit will read lines from
       your terminal until you type a line consisting of just a	 dot  (.);  it
       places these lines after	the current line.  The last line you type then
       becomes the current line.  The insert (i) command is like  append,  but
       places the lines	you type before, rather	than after, the	current	line.

       edit numbers the	lines in the buffer, with the first line having	number
       1.  If you execute the command 1, then edit will	type the first line of
       the  buffer.   If  you then execute the command d, edit will delete the
       first line, line	2 will become line 1, and edit will print the  current
       line  (the  new	line 1)	so you can see where you are.  In general, the
       current line will always	be the last line affected by a command.

       You can make a change to	some text within the current line by using the
       substitute  (s)	command: s/old/new/ where old is the string of charac-
       ters you	want to	replace	and new	is the string of characters  you  want
       to replace old with.

       The  filename (f) command will tell you how many	lines there are	in the
       buffer you are editing and will say [Modified] if you have changed  the
       buffer.	 After modifying a file, you can save the contents of the file
       by executing a write (w)	command.  You can leave	the editor by  issuing
       a  quit	(q) command.  If you run edit on a file, but do	not change it,
       it is not necessary (but	does no	harm) to write the file	back.  If  you
       try  to	quit  from  edit after modifying the buffer without writing it
       out, you	will receive the message No write since	 last  change  (:quit!
       overrides), and edit will wait for another command.  If you do not want
       to write	the buffer out,	issue the quit command followed	by an exclama-
       tion  point  (q!).   The	buffer is then irretrievably discarded and you
       return to the shell.

       By using	the d and a commands and giving	line numbers to	see  lines  in
       the file, you can make any changes you want.  You should	learn at least
       a few more things, however, if you will use edit	more than a few	times.

       The change (c) command changes the current line to a sequence of	 lines
       you  supply  (as	 in  append, you type lines up to a line consisting of
       only a dot (.).	You can	tell change to change more than	 one  line  by
       giving the line numbers of the lines you	want to	change,	that is, 3,5c.
       You can print lines this	way too: 1,23p prints the first	 23  lines  of
       the file.

       The  undo  (u) command reverses the effect of the last command you exe-
       cuted that changed the buffer.  Thus if you execute a  substitute  com-
       mand that does not do what you want, type u and the old contents	of the
       line will be restored.  You can also undo an undo command.   edit  will
       give you	a warning message when a command affects more than one line of
       the buffer.  Note that commands such as write and quit  cannot  be  un-

       To  look	at the next line in the	buffer,	type carriage return.  To look
       at a number of lines, type ^D (while  holding  down  the	 control  key,
       press d)	rather than carriage return.  This will	show you a half-screen
       of lines	on a CRT or 12 lines on	a hardcopy terminal.  You can look  at
       nearby  text  by	executing the z	command.  The current line will	appear
       in the middle of	the text displayed, and	the last line  displayed  will
       become  the  current  line; you can get back to the line	where you were
       before you executed the z command by typing  ''.	  The  z  command  has
       other  options:	z-  prints a screen of text (or	24 lines) ending where
       you are;	z+ prints the next screenful.  If you want less	than a screen-
       ful  of	lines,	type z.11 to display five lines	before and  five lines
       after the current line.	(Typing	z.n, when n is an odd number, displays
       a  total	of n lines, centered about the current line; when n is an even
       number, it displays n-1 lines, so that the lines	displayed are centered
       around  the  current  line.)  You can give counts after other commands;
       for example, you	can delete 5 lines starting with the current line with
       the command d5.

       To  find	 things	in the file, you can use line numbers if you happen to
       know them; since	the line numbers change	when  you  insert  and	delete
       lines  this  is somewhat	unreliable.  You can search backwards and for-
       wards in	the file for strings by	giving commands	of the form /text/  to
       search  forward for text	or ?text?  to search backward for text .  If a
       search reaches the end of the  file  without  finding  text,  it	 wraps
       around  and continues to	search back to the line	where you are.	A use-
       ful feature here	is a search of the form	 /^text/  which	 searches  for
       text  at	 the beginning of a line.  Similarly /text$/ searches for text
       at the end of a line.  You can leave off	the trailing / or ?  in	 these

       The  current line has the symbolic name dot (.);	this is	most useful in
       a range of lines	as in .,$p which prints	the current line plus the rest
       of  the	lines  in the file.  To	move to	the last line in the file, you
       can refer to it by its symbolic name $.	Thus the  command  $d  deletes
       the  last line in the file, no matter what the current line is.	Arith-
       metic with line references is also possible.  Thus the line $-5 is  the
       fifth before the	last and .+20 is 20 lines after	the current line.

       You  can	 find  out the current line by typing `.='.  This is useful if
       you wish	to move	or copy	a section of text within  a  file  or  between
       files.	Find the first and last	line numbers you wish to copy or move.
       To move lines 10	through	20, type 10,20d	a to delete these  lines  from
       the  file and place them	in a buffer named a.  edit has 26 such buffers
       named a through z.  To put the contents of buffer a after  the  current
       line,  type  put	a.  If you want	to move	or copy	these lines to another
       file, execute an	edit (e) command after copying	the  lines;  following
       the  e  command	with the name of the other file	you wish to edit, that
       is, edit	chapter2.  To copy lines without deleting them,	use  yank  (y)
       in  place of d.	If the text you	wish to	move or	copy is	all within one
       file, it	is not necessary to use	named buffers.	For example,  to  move
       lines 10	through	20 to the end of the file, type	10,20m $.

       These options can be turned on or off using the set command in ex(1).

       - | -s	     Suppress  all  interactive	user feedback.	This is	useful
		     when processing editor scripts.

       -l	     Set up for	editing	LISP programs.

       -L	     List the name of all files	saved as the result of an edi-
		     tor or system crash.

       -R	     Readonly mode; the	readonly flag is set, preventing acci-
		     dental overwriting	of the file.

       -r filename   Edit filename after an editor or system crash.  (Recovers
		     the  version  of filename that was	in the buffer when the
		     crash occurred.)

       -t tag	     Edit the file containing the tag and position the	editor
		     at	its definition.

       -v	     Start  up	in  display  editing  state using vi.  You can
		     achieve the same effect by	simply typing the  vi  command

       -V	     Verbose.	Any  non-tty  input will be echoed on standard
		     error.  This may be useful	when  processing  editor  com-
		     mands within shell	scripts.

       -x	     Encryption	 option;  when used, edit simulates the	X com-
		     mand of ex	and prompts the	user for a key.	 This  key  is
		     used  to  encrypt and decrypt text	using the algorithm of
		     the crypt command.	 The X command makes an	educated guess
		     to	 determine  whether  text read in is encrypted or not.
		     The temporary buffer file	is  encrypted  also,  using  a
		     transformed  version  of  the key typed in	for the	-x op-

       -wn	     Set the default window size to n.	This  is  useful  when
		     using the editor over a slow speed	line.

       -C	     Encryption	 option; same as the -x	option,	except that vi
		     simulates the C command of	ex.  The C command is like the
		     X	command	of ex, except that all text read in is assumed
		     to	have been encrypted.

       +command	| -c  command
		     Begin editing by executing	the specified  editor  command
		     (usually a	search or positioning command).

       The filename argument indicates one or more files to be edited.

       ed(1), ex(1), vi(1)

       The  encryption	options	 are provided with the Security	Administration
       Utilities package, which	is available only in the United	States.

       /usr/xpg4/bin/edit is identical to /usr/bin/edit.

				  10 Apr 1995			       edit(1)


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