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ED(1)			NetBSD General Commands	Manual			 ED(1)

NAME
     ed	-- text	editor

SYNOPSIS
     ed	[-] [-ESsx] [-p	string]	[file]

DESCRIPTION
     ed	is a line-oriented text	editor.	 It is used to create, display,	mod-
     ify, and otherwise	manipulate text	files.	If invoked with	a file argu-
     ment, then	a copy of file is read into the	editor's buffer.  Changes are
     made to this copy and not directly	to file	itself.	 Upon quitting ed, any
     changes not explicitly saved with a w command are lost.

     Editing is	done in	two distinct modes: command and	input.	When first
     invoked, ed is in command mode.  In this mode, commands are read from the
     standard input and	executed to manipulate the contents of the editor
     buffer.

     A typical command might look like:

	   ,s/old/new/g

     which replaces all	occurrences of the string old with new.

     When an input command, such as a (append),	i (insert), or c (change) is
     given, ed enters input mode.  This	is the primary means of	adding text to
     a file.  In this mode, no commands	are available; instead,	the standard
     input is written directly to the editor buffer.  Lines consist of text up
     to	and including a	newline	character.  Input mode is terminated by	enter-
     ing a single period (`.') on a line.

     All ed commands operate on	whole lines or ranges of lines;	e.g., the d
     command deletes lines; the	m command moves	lines, and so on.  It is pos-
     sible to modify only a portion of a line by means of replacement, as in
     the example above.	 However, even here, the s command is applied to whole
     lines at a	time.

     In	general, ed commands consist of	zero or	more line addresses, followed
     by	a single character command and possibly	additional parameters; i.e.,
     commands have the structure:

	   [address [,address]]command[parameters]

     The address(es) indicate the line or range	of lines to be affected	by the
     command.  If fewer	addresses are given than the command accepts, then
     default addresses are supplied.

     The options are as	follows:

     -	     Same as the -s option (deprecated).

     -E	     Enables the use of	extended regular expressions instead of	the
	     basic regular expressions that are	normally used.

     -S	     Disables using of the ``''!  command (execuring a subshell).
	     Intended to be used by batch jobs like patch(1).

     -p	string
	     Specifies a command prompt.  This may be toggled on and off with
	     the P command.

     -s	     Suppress diagnostics.  This should	be used	if ed standard input
	     is	from a script.

     -x	     Prompt for	an encryption key to be	used in	subsequent reads and
	     writes (see the x command).

     file    Specifies the name	of a file to read.  If file is prefixed	with a
	     bang (`!'), then it is interpreted	as a shell command.  In	this
	     case, what	is read	is the standard	output of file executed	via
	     sh(1).  To	read a file whose name begins with a bang, prefix the
	     name with a backslash (`\').  The default filename	is set to file
	     only if it	is not prefixed	with a bang.

   LINE	ADDRESSING
     An	address	represents the number of a line	in the buffer.	ed maintains a
     current address which is typically	supplied to commands as	the default
     address when none is specified.  When a file is first read, the current
     address is	set to the last	line of	the file.  In general, the current
     address is	set to the last	line affected by a command.

     A line address is constructed from	one of the bases in the	list below,
     optionally	followed by a numeric offset.  The offset may include any com-
     bination of digits, operators (i.e., `+', `-', and	`^'), and whitespace.
     Addresses are read	from left to right, and	their values are computed rel-
     ative to the current address.

     One exception to the rule that addresses represent	line numbers is	the
     address 0 (zero).	This means ``before the	first line'', and is legal
     wherever it makes sense.

     An	address	range is two addresses separated either	by a comma or semi-
     colon.  The value of the first address in a range cannot exceed the value
     of	the second.  If	only one address is given in a range, then the second
     address is	set to the given address.  If an n-tuple of addresses is given
     where n _ 2, then the corresponding range is determined by	the last two
     addresses in the n-tuple. If only one address is expected,	then the last
     address is	used.

     Each address in a comma-delimited range is	interpreted relative to	the
     current address.  In a semi-colon-delimited range,	the first address is
     used to set the current address, and the second address is	interpreted
     relative to the first.

     The following address symbols are recognized:

     .	     The current line (address)	in the buffer.

     $	     The last line in the buffer.

     n	     The nth line in the buffer	where n	is a number in the range
	     [0,$].

     - or ^  The previous line.	 This is equivalent to -1 and may be repeated
	     with cumulative effect.

     -n	or ^n
	     The nth previous line, where n is a non-negative number.

     +	     The next line.  This is equivalent	to +1 and may be repeated with
	     cumulative	effect.

     +n	     The nth next line,	where n	is a non-negative number.

     whitespace	n
	     whitespace	followed by a number n is interpreted as `+n'.

     , or %  The first through last lines in the buffer.  This is equivalent
	     to	the address range 1,$.

     ;	     The current through last lines in the buffer.  This is equivalent
	     to	the address range .,$.

     /re/    The next line containing the regular expression re.  The search
	     wraps to the beginning of the buffer and continues	down to	the
	     current line, if necessary.  // repeats the last search.

     ?re?    The previous line containing the regular expression re.  The
	     search wraps to the end of	the buffer and continues up to the
	     current line, if necessary.  ?? repeats the last search.

     'lc     The line previously marked	by a k (mark) command, where lc	is a
	     lower case	letter.

   REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
     Regular expressions are patterns used in selecting	text.  For example,
     the ed command

	   g/string/

     prints all	lines containing string.  Regular expressions are also used by
     the s command for selecting old text to be	replaced with new.

     In	addition to specifying string literals,	regular	expressions can	repre-
     sent classes of strings.  Strings thus represented	are said to be matched
     by	the corresponding regular expression.  If it is	possible for a regular
     expression	to match several strings in a line, then the leftmost longest
     match is the one selected.

     The following symbols are used in constructing regular expressions:

     c	       Any character c not listed below, including `{',	`}', `(', `)',
	       `<', and	`>' matches itself.

     \c	       Any backslash-escaped character c, except for `{', `}', `(',
	       `)', `<', and `>' matches itself.

     .	       Matches any single character.

     [char-class]
	       Matches any single character in the character class char-class.
	       See CHARACTER CLASSES below for further information.

     [^char-class]
	       Matches any single character, other than	newline, not in	the
	       character class char-class.

     ^	       If ^ is the first character of a	regular	expression, then it
	       anchors the regular expression to the beginning of a line.
	       Otherwise, it matches itself.

     $	       If $ is the last	character of a regular expression, it anchors
	       the regular expression to the end of a line.  Otherwise,	it
	       matches itself.

     \_	       Anchors the single character regular expression or subexpres-
	       sion immediately	following it to	the beginning of a word.
	       (This may not be	available.)

     \_	       Anchors the single character regular expression or subexpres-
	       sion immediately	following it to	the end	of a word.  (This may
	       not be available.)

     \(re\)    Defines a subexpression re.  Subexpressions may be nested.  A
	       subsequent backreference	of the form \n,	where n	is a number in
	       the range [1,9],	expands	to the text matched by the nth subex-
	       pression.  For example, the regular expression \(.*\)\1 matches
	       any string consisting of	identical adjacent substrings.	Subex-
	       pressions are ordered relative to their left delimiter.

     *	       Matches the single character regular expression or subexpres-
	       sion immediately	preceding it zero or more times.  If * is the
	       first character of a regular expression or subexpression, then
	       it matches itself.  The * operator sometimes yields unexpected
	       results.	 For example, the regular expression b*	matches	the
	       beginning of the	string abbb (as	opposed	to the substring bbb),
	       since a null match is the only leftmost match.

     \{n,m\} \{n,\} \{n\}
	       Matches the single character regular expression or subexpres-
	       sion immediately	preceding it at	least n	and at most m times.
	       If m is omitted,	then it	matches	at least n times.  If the
	       comma is	also omitted, then it matches exactly n	times.

     Additional	regular	expression operators may be defined depending on the
     particular	regex(3) implementation.

   CHARACTER CLASSES
     A character class specifies a set of characters. It is written within
     square brackets ([]) and in its most basic	form contains just the charac-
     ters in the set.

     To	include	a `]' in a character class, it must be the first character.  A
     range of characters may be	specified by separating	the end	characters of
     the range with a `-', e.g., `a-z' specifies the lower case	characters.

     The following literals can	also be	used within character classes as
     shorthand for particular sets of characters:
	   [:alnum:]	 Alphanumeric characters.
	   [:cntrl:]	 Control characters.
	   [:lower:]	 Lowercase alphabetic characters.
	   [:space:]	 Whitespace (space, tab, newline, form feed, etc.)
	   [:alpha:]	 Alphabetic characters.
	   [:digit:]	 Numeric characters (digits).
	   [:print:]	 Printable characters.
	   [:upper:]	 Uppercase alphabetic characters.
	   [:blank:]	 Blank characters (space and tab).
	   [:graph:]	 Graphical characters (printing	nonblank characters).
	   [:punct:]	 Punctuation characters.
	   [:xdigit:]	 Hexadecimal digits.
     If	`-' appears as the first or last character of a	character class, then
     it	matches	itself.	 All other characters in a character class match them-
     selves.

     Patterns in a character class of the form [.col-elm.] or [=col-elm=]
     where col-elm is a	collating element are interpreted according to
     locale(5) (not currently supported).  See regex(3)	for an explanation of
     these constructs.

   COMMANDS
     All ed commands are single	characters, though some	require	additional
     parameters.  If a command's parameters extend over	several	lines, then
     each line except for the last must	be terminated with a backslash (`\').

     In	general, at most one command is	allowed	per line.  However, most com-
     mands accept a print suffix, which	is any of p (print), l (list), or n
     (enumerate), to print the last line affected by the command.

     An	interrupt (typically ^C) has the effect	of aborting the	current	com-
     mand and returning	the editor to command mode.

     ed	recognizes the following commands.  The	commands are shown together
     with the default address or address range supplied	if none	is specified
     (in parentheses), and other possible arguments on the right.

     (.)a  Appends text	to the buffer after the	addressed line.	 Text is
	   entered in input mode.  The current address is set to last line
	   entered.

     (.,.)c
	   Changes lines in the	buffer.	 The addressed lines are deleted from
	   the buffer, and text	is appended in their place.  Text is entered
	   in input mode.  The current address is set to last line entered.

     (.,.)d
	   Deletes the addressed lines from the	buffer.	 If there is a line
	   after the deleted range, then the current address is	set to this
	   line.  Otherwise the	current	address	is set to the line before the
	   deleted range.

     e file
	   Edits file, and sets	the default filename.  If file is not speci-
	   fied, then the default filename is used.  Any lines in the buffer
	   are deleted before the new file is read.  The current address is
	   set to the last line	read.

     e !command
	   Edits the standard output of	command, (see !	command	below).	 The
	   default filename is unchanged.  Any lines in	the buffer are deleted
	   before the output of	command	is read.  The current address is set
	   to the last line read.

     E file
	   Edits file unconditionally.	This is	similar	to the e command,
	   except that unwritten changes are discarded without warning.	 The
	   current address is set to the last line read.

     f file
	   Sets	the default filename to	file.  If file is not specified, then
	   the default unescaped filename is printed.

     (1,$)g/re/command-list
	   Applies command-list	to each	of the addressed lines matching	a reg-
	   ular	expression re.	The current address is set to the line cur-
	   rently matched before command-list is executed.  At the end of the
	   g command, the current address is set to the	last line affected by
	   command-list.

	   Each	command	in command-list	must be	on a separate line, and	every
	   line	except for the last must be terminated by a backslash (`\').
	   Any commands	are allowed, except for	g, G, v, and V.	 A newline
	   alone in command-list is equivalent to a p command.

     (1,$)G/re/
	   Interactively edits the addressed lines matching a regular expres-
	   sion	re.  For each matching line, the line is printed, the current
	   address is set, and the user	is prompted to enter a command-list.
	   At the end of the G command,	the current address is set to the last
	   line	affected by (the last) command-list.

	   The format of command-list is the same as that of the g command.  A
	   newline alone acts as a null	command	list.  A single	`&' repeats
	   the last non-null command list.

     H	   Toggles the printing	of error explanations.	By default, explana-
	   tions are not printed.  It is recommended that ed scripts begin
	   with	this command to	aid in debugging.

     h	   Prints an explanation of the	last error.

     (.)i  Inserts text	in the buffer before the current line.	Text is
	   entered in input mode.  The current address is set to the last line
	   entered.

     (.,.+1)j
	   Joins the addressed lines.  The addressed lines are deleted from
	   the buffer and replaced by a	single line containing their joined
	   text.  The current address is set to	the resultant line.

     (.)klc
	   Marks a line	with a lower case letter lc.  The line can then	be
	   addressed as	'lc (i.e., a single quote followed by lc) in subse-
	   quent commands.  The	mark is	not cleared until the line is deleted
	   or otherwise	modified.

     (.,.)l
	   Prints the addressed	lines unambiguously.  If a single line fills
	   more	than one screen	(as might be the case when viewing a binary
	   file, for instance),	a ``--More--'' prompt is printed on the	last
	   line.  ed waits until the RETURN key	is pressed before displaying
	   the next screen.  The current address is set	to the last line
	   printed.

     (.,.)m(.)
	   Moves lines in the buffer.  The addressed lines are moved to	after
	   the right-hand destination address, which may be the	address	0
	   (zero).  The	current	address	is set to the last line	moved.

     (.,.)n
	   Prints the addressed	lines along with their line numbers.  The cur-
	   rent	address	is set to the last line	printed.

     (.,.)p
	   Prints the addressed	lines.	The current address is set to the last
	   line	printed.

     P	   Toggles the command prompt on and off.  Unless a prompt was speci-
	   fied	with the command-line option -p	string,	the command prompt is
	   by default turned off.

     q	   Quits ed.

     Q	   Quits ed unconditionally.  This is similar to the q command,	except
	   that	unwritten changes are discarded	without	warning.

     ($)r file
	   Reads file to after the addressed line.  If file is not specified,
	   then	the default filename is	used.  If there	was no default file-
	   name	prior to the command, then the default filename	is set to
	   file.  Otherwise, the default filename is unchanged.	 The current
	   address is set to the last line read.

     ($)r !command
	   Reads to after the addressed	line the standard output of command,
	   (see	the ! command below).  The default filename is unchanged.  The
	   current address is set to the last line read.

     (.,.)s/re/replacement/, (.,.)s/re/replacement/g, (.,.)s/re/replacement/n
	   Replaces text in the	addressed lines	matching a regular expression
	   re with replacement.	 By default, only the first match in each line
	   is replaced.	 If the	g (global) suffix is given, then every match
	   to be replaced.  The	n suffix, where	n is a positive	number,	causes
	   only	the nth	match to be replaced.  It is an	error if no substitu-
	   tions are performed on any of the addressed lines.  The current
	   address is set the last line	affected.

	   re and replacement may be delimited by any character	other than
	   space and newline (see the s	command	below).	 If one	or two of the
	   last	delimiters is omitted, then the	last line affected is printed
	   as though the print suffix p	were specified.

	   An unescaped	`&' in replacement is replaced by the currently
	   matched text.  The character	sequence \m, where m is	a number in
	   the range [1,9], is replaced	by the mth backreference expression of
	   the matched text.  If replacement consists of a single `%', then
	   replacement from the	last substitution is used.  Newlines may be
	   embedded in replacement if they are escaped with a backslash	(`\').

     (.,.)s
	   Repeats the last substitution.  This	form of	the s command accepts
	   a count suffix n, or	any combination	of the characters r, g,	and p.
	   If a	count suffix n is given, then only the nth match is replaced.
	   The r suffix	causes the regular expression of the last search to be
	   used	instead	of that	of the last substitution.  The g suffix	tog-
	   gles	the global suffix of the last substitution.  The p suffix tog-
	   gles	the print suffix of the	last substitution.  The	current
	   address is set to the last line affected.

     (.,.)t(.)
	   Copies (i.e., transfers) the	addressed lines	to after the right-
	   hand	destination address, which may be the address 0	(zero).	 The
	   current address is set to the last line copied.

     u	   Undoes the last command and restores	the current address to what it
	   was before the command.  The	global commands	g, G, v, and V are
	   treated as a	single command by undo.	 u is its own inverse.

     (1,$)v/re/command-list
	   Applies command-list	to each	of the addressed lines not matching a
	   regular expression re.  This	is similar to the g command.

     (1,$)V/re/
	   Interactively edits the addressed lines not matching	a regular
	   expression re.  This	is similar to the G command.

     (1,$)w file
	   Writes the addressed	lines to file.	Any previous contents of file
	   are lost without warning.  If there is no default filename, then
	   the default filename	is set to file,	otherwise it is	unchanged.  If
	   no filename is specified, then the default filename is used.	 The
	   current address is unchanged.

     (1,$)wq file
	   Writes the addressed	lines to file, and then	executes a q command.

     (1,$)w !command
	   Writes the addressed	lines to the standard input of command,	(see
	   the ! command below).  The default filename and current address are
	   unchanged.

     (1,$)W file
	   Appends the addressed lines to the end of file.  This is similar to
	   the w command, except that the previous contents of file are	not
	   clobbered.  The current address is unchanged.

     x	   Prompts for an encryption key which is used in subsequent reads and
	   writes.  If a newline alone is entered as the key, then encryption
	   is turned off.  Otherwise, echoing is disabled while	a key is read.
	   Encryption/decryption is done using the bdes(1) algorithm.

     (.+1)zn
	   Scrolls n lines at a	time starting at addressed line.  If n is not
	   specified, then the current window size is used.  The current
	   address is set to the last line printed.

     ($)=  Prints the line number of the addressed line.

     (.+1)newline
	   Prints the addressed	line, and sets the current address to that
	   line.

     !command
	   Executes command via	sh(1).	If the first character of command is
	   !, then it is replaced by text of the previous !command.  ed	does
	   not process command for `\' (backslash) escapes.  However, an
	   unescaped `%' is replaced by	the default filename.  When the	shell
	   returns from	execution, a `!' is printed to the standard output.
	   The current line is unchanged.

LIMITATIONS
     ed	processes file arguments for backslash escapes,	i.e., in a filename,
     any characters preceded by	a backslash (`\') are interpreted literally.

     If	a text (non-binary) file is not	terminated by a	newline	character,
     then ed appends one on reading/writing it.	 In the	case of	a binary file,
     ed	does not append	a newline on reading/writing.

ENVIRONMENT
     TMPDIR   The location used	to store temporary files.

FILES
     /tmp/ed.*	buffer file
     ed.hup	where ed attempts to write the buffer if the terminal hangs up

DIAGNOSTICS
     When an error occurs, ed prints a ``?'' and either	returns	to command
     mode or exits if its input	is from	a script.  An explanation of the last
     error can be printed with the h (help) command.

     Since the g (global) command masks	any errors from	failed searches	and
     substitutions, it can be used to perform conditional operations in
     scripts; e.g.,

	   g/old/s//new/

     replaces any occurrences of old with new.

     If	the u (undo) command occurs in a global	command	list, then the command
     list is executed only once.

     If	diagnostics are	not disabled, attempting to quit ed or edit another
     file before writing a modified buffer results in an error.	 If the	com-
     mand is entered a second time, it succeeds, but any changes to the	buffer
     are lost.

SEE ALSO
     bdes(1), sed(1), sh(1), vi(1), patch(1), regex(3)

     USD:09-10

     B.	W. Kernighan and P. J. Plauger,	Software Tools in Pascal, Addison-
     Wesley, 1981.

HISTORY
     An	ed command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

NetBSD 8.0			 April 5, 2018			    NetBSD 8.0

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | LIMITATIONS | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | DIAGNOSTICS | SEE ALSO | HISTORY

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