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ED(1)			    General Commands Manual			 ED(1)

       ed - text editor

       ed [ - ]	[ -x ] [ name ]

       Ed is the standard text editor.

       If  a  name argument is given, ed simulates an e	command	(see below) on
       the named file; that is to say, the file	is read	into  ed's  buffer  so
       that  it	 can  be  edited.  If -x is present, an	x command is simulated
       first to	handle an encrypted  file.   The  optional  -  suppresses  the
       printing	of character counts by e, r, and w commands.

       Ed  operates  on	 a copy	of any file it is editing; changes made	in the
       copy have no effect on the file until a w  (write)  command  is	given.
       The  copy  of  the text being edited resides in a temporary file	called
       the buffer.

       Commands	to ed have a simple and	regular	structure: zero	 or  more  ad-
       dresses	followed  by  a	single character command, possibly followed by
       parameters to the command.  These addresses specify one or  more	 lines
       in the buffer.  Missing addresses are supplied by default.

       In  general,  only  one command may appear on a line.  Certain commands
       allow the addition of text to the buffer.  While	ed is accepting	 text,
       it  is  said to be in input mode.  In this mode,	no commands are	recog-
       nized; all input	is merely collected.  Input mode is left by  typing  a
       period `.' alone	at the beginning of a line.

       Ed  supports  a limited form of regular expression notation.  A regular
       expression specifies a set of strings of	characters.  A member of  this
       set of strings is said to be matched by the regular expression.	In the
       following specification for regular expressions	the  word  `character'
       means any character but newline.

       1.     Any  character  except a special character matches itself.  Spe-
	      cial characters are the regular expression  delimiter  plus  \[.
	      and sometimes ^*$.

       2.     A	.  matches any character.

       3.     A	 \ followed by any character except a digit or () matches that

       4.     A	nonempty string	s bracketed [s]	(or [^s]) matches any  charac-
	      ter in (or not in) s.  In	s, \ has no special meaning, and ] may
	      only appear as the first letter.	A substring a-b, with a	and  b
	      in  ascending  ASCII  order,  stands  for	the inclusive range of
	      ASCII characters.

       5.     A	regular	expression of form 1-4 followed	by  *  matches	a  se-
	      quence of	0 or more matches of the regular expression.

       6.     A	 regular  expression,  x, of form 1-8, bracketed \(x\) matches
	      what x matches.

       7.     A	\ followed by a	digit n	matches	a copy of the string that  the
	      bracketed	regular	expression beginning with the nth \( matched.

       8.     A	 regular  expression of	form 1-8, x, followed by a regular ex-
	      pression of form 1-7, y matches a	match  for  x  followed	 by  a
	      match  for  y,  with the x match being as	long as	possible while
	      still permitting a y match.

       9.     A	regular	expression of form 1-8 preceded	by ^ (or  followed  by
	      $),  is constrained to matches that begin	at the left (or	end at
	      the right) end of	a line.

       10.    A	regular	expression of form 1-9 picks out the longest among the
	      leftmost matches in a line.

       11.    An  empty	regular	expression stands for a	copy of	the last regu-
	      lar expression encountered.

       Regular expressions are used in addresses to specify lines and  in  one
       command (see s below) to	specify	a portion of a line which is to	be re-
       placed.	If it  is  desired  to	use  one  of  the  regular  expression
       metacharacters as an ordinary character,	that character may be preceded
       by `\'.	This also applies to the character bounding  the  regular  ex-
       pression	(often `/') and	to `\' itself.

       To understand addressing	in ed it is necessary to know that at any time
       there is	a current line.	 Generally speaking, the current line  is  the
       last  line affected by a	command; however, the exact effect on the cur-
       rent line is discussed under the	description of the command.  Addresses
       are constructed as follows.

       1.     The character `.'	addresses the current line.

       2.     The character `$'	addresses the last line	of the buffer.

       3.     A	decimal	number n addresses the n-th line of the	buffer.

       4.     `'x'  addresses the line marked with the name x, which must be a
	      lower-case letter.  Lines	are marked  with  the  k  command  de-
	      scribed below.

       5.     A	 regular expression enclosed in	slashes	`/' addresses the line
	      found by searching forward from the current line and stopping at
	      the  first line containing a string that matches the regular ex-
	      pression.	 If necessary the search wraps around to the beginning
	      of the buffer.

       6.     A	 regular expression enclosed in	queries	`?' addresses the line
	      found by searching backward from the current line	 and  stopping
	      at  the  first line containing a string that matches the regular
	      expression.  If necessary	the search wraps around	to the end  of
	      the buffer.

       7.     An  address followed by a	plus sign `+' or a minus sign `-' fol-
	      lowed by a decimal number	specifies that address plus (resp. mi-
	      nus)  the	indicated number of lines.  The	plus sign may be omit-

       8.     If an address begins with	`+' or `-' the addition	or subtraction
	      is  taken	 with respect to the current line; e.g.	`-5' is	under-
	      stood to mean `.-5'.

       9.     If an address ends with `+' or `-', then 1 is added (resp.  sub-
	      tracted).	 As a consequence of this rule and rule	8, the address
	      `-' refers to the	 line  before  the  current  line.   Moreover,
	      trailing	`+' and	`-' characters have cumulative effect, so `--'
	      refers to	the current line less 2.

       10.    To maintain compatibility	with earlier versions of  the  editor,
	      the character `^'	in addresses is	equivalent to `-'.

       Commands	 may  require zero, one, or two	addresses.  Commands which re-
       quire no	addresses regard the presence of an address as an error.  Com-
       mands  which  accept one	or two addresses assume	default	addresses when
       insufficient are	given.	If more	addresses are given than such  a  com-
       mand  requires, the last	one or two (depending on what is accepted) are

       Addresses are separated from each other typically by a comma `,'.  They
       may  also  be  separated	 by a semicolon	`;'.  In this case the current
       line `.'	is set to the previous address before the next address is  in-
       terpreted.  This	feature	can be used to determine the starting line for
       forward and backward searches (`/', `?').  The second  address  of  any
       two-address  sequence must correspond to	a line following the line cor-
       responding to the first address.

       In the following	list of	ed commands, the default addresses  are	 shown
       in  parentheses.	  The parentheses are not part of the address, but are
       used to show that the given addresses are the default.

       As mentioned, it	is generally illegal for more than one command to  ap-
       pear  on	 a  line.  However, most commands may be suffixed by `p' or by
       `l', in which case the current line is either printed or	listed respec-
       tively in the way discussed below.

	    The	 append	 command reads the given text and appends it after the
	    addressed line.  `.' is left on the	last line input, if there were
	    any,  otherwise  at	 the addressed line.  Address `0' is legal for
	    this command; text is placed at the	beginning of the buffer.

       (., .)c
	    The	change command deletes the addressed lines, then accepts input
	    text which replaces	these lines.  `.' is left at the last line in-
	    put; if there were none, it	is left	 at  the  line	preceding  the
	    deleted lines.

       (., .)d
	    The	 delete	 command  deletes the addressed	lines from the buffer.
	    The	line originally	after the last line deleted becomes  the  cur-
	    rent  line;	 if  the lines deleted were originally at the end, the
	    new	last line becomes the current line.

       e filename
	    The	edit command causes the	entire contents	of the	buffer	to  be
	    deleted, and then the named	file to	be read	in.  `.' is set	to the
	    last line of the buffer.  The number of characters read is	typed.
	    `filename'	is  remembered for possible use	as a default file name
	    in a subsequent r or w command.  If	`filename' is missing, the re-
	    membered name is used.

       E filename
	    This  command  is the same as e, except that no diagnostic results
	    when no w has been given since the last buffer alteration.

       f filename
	    The	filename command prints	the currently  remembered  file	 name.
	    If	`filename'  is	given,	the  currently remembered file name is
	    changed to `filename'.

       (1,$)g/regular expression/command list
	    In the global command, the first step is to	mark every line	 which
	    matches  the  given	regular	expression.  Then for every such line,
	    the	given command list is executed with `.'	initially set to  that
	    line.   A single command or	the first of multiple commands appears
	    on the same	line with the global command.  All lines of  a	multi-
	    line  list except the last line must be ended with `\'.  A,	i, and
	    c commands and associated input are	permitted; the `.' terminating
	    input  mode	 may be	omitted	if it would be on the last line	of the
	    command list.  The commands	g and v	are not	permitted in the  com-
	    mand list.


	    This  command  inserts  the	 given text before the addressed line.
	    `.'	is left	at the last line input,	or, if there were none,	at the
	    line  before  the addressed	line.  This command differs from the a
	    command only in the	placement of the text.

       (., .+1)j
	    This command joins the addressed lines into	a single line;	inter-
	    mediate  newlines  simply disappear.  `.' is left at the resulting

       ( . )kx
	    The	mark command marks the addressed line with name	x, which  must
	    be a lower-case letter.  The address form `'x' then	addresses this

       (., .)l
	    The	list command prints the	addressed lines	in an unambiguous way:
	    non-graphic	 characters  are  printed in two-digit octal, and long
	    lines are folded.  The l command may be placed on  the  same  line
	    after any non-i/o command.

       (., .)ma
	    The	 move  command	repositions the	addressed lines	after the line
	    addressed by a.  The last of the moved lines becomes  the  current

       (., .)p
	    The	print command prints the addressed lines.  `.'	is left	at the
	    last line printed.	The p command may be placed on the  same  line
	    after any non-i/o command.

       (., .)P
	    This command is a synonym for p.

       q    The	 quit command causes ed	to exit.  No automatic write of	a file
	    is done.

       Q    This command is the	same as	q, except that no  diagnostic  results
	    when no w has been given since the last buffer alteration.

       ($)r filename
	    The	read command reads in the given	file after the addressed line.
	    If no file name is given, the remembered file  name,  if  any,  is
	    used (see e	and f commands).  The file name	is remembered if there
	    was	no remembered file name	already.  Address `0' is legal	for  r
	    and	causes the file	to be read at the beginning of the buffer.  If
	    the	read is	successful, the	number of characters  read  is	typed.
	    `.'	is left	at the last line read in from the file.

       ( ., .)s/regular	expression/replacement/	      or,
       ( ., .)s/regular	expression/replacement/g
	    The	 substitute command searches each addressed line for an	occur-
	    rence of the specified regular expression.	On each	line in	 which
	    a match is found, all matched strings are replaced by the replace-
	    ment specified, if the global replacement  indicator  `g'  appears
	    after  the command.	 If the	global indicator does not appear, only
	    the	first occurrence of the	matched	string is replaced.  It	is  an
	    error  for	the  substitution to fail on all addressed lines.  Any
	    character other than space or new-line may be used instead of  `/'
	    to	delimit	 the  regular  expression and the replacement.	`.' is
	    left at the	last line substituted.

	    An ampersand `&' appearing in the replacement is replaced  by  the
	    string  matching  the  regular expression.	The special meaning of
	    `&'	in this	context	may be suppressed by preceding it by `\'.  The
	    characters	`\n'  where  n	is  a  digit, are replaced by the text
	    matched by the n-th	regular	subexpression  enclosed	 between  `\('
	    and	 `\)'.	When nested, parenthesized subexpressions are present,
	    n is determined by counting	occurrences of `\(' starting from  the

	    Lines  may be split	by substituting	new-line characters into them.
	    The	new-line in the	replacement string must	be escaped by  preced-
	    ing	it by `\'.

       (., .)ta
	    This  command  acts	just like the m	command, except	that a copy of
	    the	addressed lines	is placed after	address	a (which  may  be  0).
	    `.'	is left	on the last line of the	copy.

       (., .)u
	    The	 undo  command	restores the preceding contents	of the current
	    line, which	must be	the last line  in  which  a  substitution  was

       (1, $)v/regular expression/command list
	    This  command  is the same as the global command g except that the
	    command list is executed g with `.'	initially set  to  every  line
	    except those matching the regular expression.

       (1, $)w filename
	    The	 write command writes the addressed lines onto the given file.
	    If the file	does not exist,	it is created mode 666	(readable  and
	    writable  by  everyone).  The file name is remembered if there was
	    no remembered file name already.  If no file name  is  given,  the
	    remembered file name, if any, is used (see e and f commands).  `.'
	    is unchanged.  If the command is successful, the number of charac-
	    ters written is printed.

       (1,$)W filename
	    This command is the	same as	w, except that the addressed lines are
	    appended to	the file.

       x    A key string is demanded from the standard input.  Later r,	e  and
	    w  commands	will encrypt and decrypt the text with this key	by the
	    algorithm of crypt(1).  An explicitly empty	key turns off  encryp-

       ($)= The	 line number of	the addressed line is typed.  `.' is unchanged
	    by this command.

       !<shell command>
	    The	remainder of the line after the	`!' is sent to sh(1) to	be in-
	    terpreted as a command.  `.'  is unchanged.

	    An	address	 alone	on  a  line  causes  the  addressed line to be
	    printed.  A	blank line alone is equivalent to `.+1p'; it is	useful
	    for	stepping through text.

       If an interrupt signal (ASCII DEL) is sent, ed prints a `?' and returns
       to its command level.

       Some size limitations: 512 characters  per  line,  256  characters  per
       global  command	list, 64 characters per	file name, and 128K characters
       in the temporary	file.  The limit on the	number of lines	depends	on the
       amount of core: each line takes 1 word.

       When  reading  a	file, ed discards ASCII	NUL characters and all charac-
       ters after the last newline.  It	refuses	to read	files containing  non-
       ASCII characters.

       ed.hup: work is saved here if terminal hangs up

       B. W. Kernighan,	A Tutorial Introduction	to the ED Text Editor
       B. W. Kernighan,	Advanced editing on UNIX
       sed(1), crypt(1)

       `?name'	for  inaccessible file;	`?' for	errors in commands; `?TMP' for
       temporary file overflow.

       To protect against throwing away	valuable work, a q  or	e  command  is
       considered  to be in error, unless a w has occurred since the last buf-
       fer change.  A second q or e will be obeyed regardless.

       The l command mishandles	DEL.
       A !  command cannot be subject to a g command.
       Because 0 is an illegal address for a w command,	it is not possible  to
       create an empty file with ed.



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