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ED(1)			FreeBSD	General	Commands Manual			 ED(1)

NAME
     ed	-- text	editor

SYNOPSIS
     ed	[-] [-s] [-p string] [file]

DESCRIPTION
     ed	is a line-oriented text	editor.	 It is used to create, display,	mod-
     ify, and otherwise	manipulate text	files.	If invoked with	a file argu-
     ment, then	a copy of file is read into the	editor's buffer.  Changes are
     made to this copy and not directly	to file	itself.	 Upon quitting ed, any
     changes not explicitly saved with a w command are lost.

     Editing is	done in	two distinct modes: command and	input.	When first in-
     voked, ed is in command mode.  In this mode, commands are read from the
     standard input and	executed to manipulate the contents of the editor buf-
     fer.

     A typical command might look like:

	   ,s/old/new/g

     which replaces all	occurrences of the string "old"	with "new".

     When an input command, such as a (append),	i (insert), or c (change) is
     given, ed enters input mode.  This	is the primary means of	adding text to
     a file.  In this mode, no commands	are available; instead,	the standard
     input is written directly to the editor buffer.  Lines consist of text up
     to	and including a	newline	character.  Input mode is terminated by	enter-
     ing a single period (`.') on a line.

     All ed commands operate on	whole lines or ranges of lines;	e.g., the d
     command deletes lines; the	m command moves	lines, and so on.  It is pos-
     sible to modify only a portion of a line by means of replacement, as in
     the example above.	 However, even here, the s command is applied to whole
     lines at a	time.

     In	general, ed commands consist of	zero or	more line addresses, followed
     by	a single character command and possibly	additional parameters; i.e.,
     commands have the structure:

	   [address[,address]]command[parameters]

     The address(es) indicate the line or range	of lines to be affected	by the
     command.  If fewer	addresses are given than the command accepts, then de-
     fault addresses are supplied.

     Many ed commands and line addresses support basic regular expressions
     (BREs).  See re_format(7) for more	information on regular expressions.

     The options are as	follows:

     -		Same as	the -s option (deprecated).

     -p	string	Specifies a command prompt.  This may be toggled on and	off
		with the P command.

     -s		Suppress diagnostics.  This should be used if ed standard in-
		put is from a script.

     file	Specifies the name of a	file to	read.  If file is prefixed
		with a bang (`!'), then	it is interpreted as a shell command.
		In this	case, what is read is the standard output of file exe-
		cuted via sh(1).  To read a file whose name begins with	a
		bang, prefix the name with a backslash (`\').  The default
		filename is set	to file	only if	it is not prefixed with	a
		bang.

   LINE	ADDRESSING
     An	address	represents the number of a line	in the buffer.	ed maintains a
     current address which is typically	supplied to commands as	the default
     address when none is specified.  When a file is first read, the current
     address is	set to the last	line of	the file.  In general, the current ad-
     dress is set to the last line affected by a command.

     A line address is constructed from	one of the bases in the	list below,
     optionally	followed by a numeric offset.  The offset may include any com-
     bination of digits, operators (e.g., `+', `-', and	`^'), and whitespace.
     Addresses are read	from left to right, and	their values are computed rel-
     ative to the current address.

     One exception to the rule that addresses represent	line numbers is	the
     address 0 (zero).	This means "before the first line", and	is legal wher-
     ever it makes sense.

     An	address	range is two addresses separated either	by a comma or semi-
     colon.  The value of the first address in a range cannot exceed the value
     of	the second.  If	only one address is given in a range, then the second
     address is	set to the given address.  If an n-tuple of addresses is given
     where n > 2, then the corresponding range is determined by	the last two
     addresses in the n-tuple.	If only	one address is expected, then the last
     address is	used.

     Each address in a comma-delimited range is	interpreted relative to	the
     current address.  In a semi-colon-delimited range,	the first address is
     used to set the current address, and the second address is	interpreted
     relative to the first.

     The following address symbols are recognized:

     .	     The current line (address)	in the buffer.

     $	     The last line in the buffer.

     n	     The nth line in the buffer, where n is a number in	the range
	     [0,$].

     - or ^  The previous line.	 This is equivalent to -1 and may be repeated
	     with cumulative effect.

     -n	or  ^n
	     The nth previous line, where n is a non-negative number.

     +	     The next line.  This is equivalent	to +1 and may be repeated with
	     cumulative	effect.

     +n	     The nth next line,	where n	is a non-negative number.

     , or %  The first through last lines in the buffer.  This is equivalent
	     to	the address range 1,$.

     ;	     The current through last lines in the buffer.  This is equivalent
	     to	the address range .,$.

     /re/    The next line containing the regular expression re.  The search
	     wraps to the beginning of the buffer and continues	down to	the
	     current line, if necessary.  The second slash can be omitted if
	     it	ends a line.  "//" repeats the last search.

     ?re?    The previous line containing the regular expression re.  The
	     search wraps to the end of	the buffer and continues up to the
	     current line, if necessary.  The second question mark can be
	     omitted if	it ends	a line.	 "??" repeats the last search.

     'lc     The line previously marked	by a k (mark) command, where lc	is a
	     lower case	letter.

   COMMANDS
     All ed commands are single	characters, though some	require	additional pa-
     rameters.	If a command's parameters extend over several lines, then each
     line except for the last must be terminated with a	backslash (`\').

     In	general, at most one command is	allowed	per line.  However, most com-
     mands accept a print suffix, which	is any of p (print), l (list), or n
     (enumerate), to print the last line affected by the command.

     ed	recognizes the following commands.  The	commands are shown together
     with the default address or address range supplied	if none	is specified
     (in parentheses), and other possible arguments on the right.

     (.)a  Appends text	to the buffer after the	addressed line.	 Text is en-
	   tered in input mode.	 The current address is	set to last line en-
	   tered.

     (.,.)c
	   Changes lines in the	buffer.	 The addressed lines are deleted from
	   the buffer, and text	is appended in their place.  Text is entered
	   in input mode.  The current address is set to last line entered.

     (.,.)d
	   Deletes the addressed lines from the	buffer.	 If there is a line
	   after the deleted range, then the current address is	set to this
	   line.  Otherwise the	current	address	is set to the line before the
	   deleted range.

     e file
	   Edits file, and sets	the default filename.  If file is not speci-
	   fied, then the default filename is used.  Any lines in the buffer
	   are deleted before the new file is read.  The current address is
	   set to the last line	read.

     e !command
	   Edits the standard output of	!command, (see !command	below).	 The
	   default filename is unchanged.  Any lines in	the buffer are deleted
	   before the output of	command	is read.  The current address is set
	   to the last line read.

     E file
	   Edits file unconditionally.	This is	similar	to the e command, ex-
	   cept	that unwritten changes are discarded without warning.  The
	   current address is set to the last line read.

     f file
	   Sets	the default filename to	file.  If file is not specified, then
	   the default unescaped filename is printed.

     (1,$)g/re/command-list
	   Mark	each addressed line matching the regular expression re for
	   modification.  The current address is set to	each marked line in
	   turn, and then the command-list is executed each time.  The com-
	   mand-list can change	the current line number, and it	is not changed
	   back	after the command-list ended.  When a marked line is changed,
	   it is unmarked and the command-list won't be	executed for it	any
	   more.  If no	lines were matched, the	current	line number remains
	   unchanged.

	   Each	command	in command-list	must be	on a separate line, and	every
	   line	except for the last must be terminated by a backslash (`\').
	   Any commands	are allowed, except for	g, G, v, and V.	 An empty
	   command-list	is equivalent to a p command --	unlike for the G com-
	   mand, where an empty	command-list does nothing, and unlike an empty
	   command, which is equivalent	to the command +p.  If the
	   command-list	is empty, the trailing slash can be omitted.

     (1,$)G/re/
	   Interactively edits the addressed lines matching a regular expres-
	   sion	re.  The trailing slash	after re can be	omitted.  For each
	   matching line, the line is printed, the current address is set, and
	   the user is prompted	to enter a command-list.  At the end of	the G
	   command, the	current	address	is set to the last line	affected by
	   (the	last) command-list.  If	no lines were matched, the current
	   line	number remains unchanged.

	   The format of command-list is the same as that of the g command,
	   but an empty	command	list does nothing.  A single `&' repeats the
	   last	non-empty command list.

     H	   Toggles the printing	of error explanations.	By default, explana-
	   tions are not printed.  It is recommended that ed scripts begin
	   with	this command to	aid in debugging.

     h	   Prints an explanation of the	last error.

     (.)i  Inserts text	in the buffer before the current line.	Text is	en-
	   tered in input mode.	 The current address is	set to the last	line
	   entered.

     (.,+)j
	   Joins the addressed lines.  The addressed lines are deleted from
	   the buffer and replaced by a	single line containing their joined
	   text.  The current address is set to	the resultant line.

     (.)klc
	   Marks a line	with a lower case letter lc.  The line can then	be ad-
	   dressed as 'lc (i.e., a single quote	followed by lc)	in subsequent
	   commands.  The mark is not cleared until the	line is	deleted	or
	   otherwise modified.

     (.,.)l
	   Prints the addressed	lines unambiguously.  The current address is
	   set to the last line	printed.

     (.,.)m(.)
	   Moves lines in the buffer.  The addressed lines are moved to	after
	   the right-hand destination address, which may be the	address	0
	   (zero).  The	current	address	is set to the last line	moved.

     (.,.)n
	   Prints the addressed	lines along with their line numbers.  The cur-
	   rent	address	is set to the last line	printed.

     (.,.)p
	   Prints the addressed	lines.	The current address is set to the last
	   line	printed.

     P	   Toggles the command prompt on and off.  Unless a prompt was speci-
	   fied	with the command-line option -p	string,	the command prompt is
	   by default turned off.

     q	   Quits ed.

     Q	   Quits ed unconditionally.  This is similar to the q command,	except
	   that	unwritten changes are discarded	without	warning.

     ($)r file
	   Reads file to after the addressed line.  If file is not specified,
	   then	the default filename is	used.  If there	was no default file-
	   name	prior to the command, then the default filename	is set to
	   file.  Otherwise, the default filename is unchanged.	 The current
	   address is set to the last line read.

     ($)r !command
	   Reads to after the addressed	line the standard output of !command,
	   (see	!command below).  The default filename is unchanged.  The cur-
	   rent	address	is set to the last line	read.

     (.,.)s/re/replacement/ (.,.)s/re/replacement/g (.,.)s/re/replacement/n
	   Replaces text in the	addressed lines	matching a regular expression
	   re with replacement.	 By default, only the first match in each line
	   is replaced.	 If the	g (global) suffix is given, then every match
	   is replaced.	 The n suffix, where n is a positive number, causes
	   only	the nth	match to be replaced.  It is an	error if no substitu-
	   tions are performed on any of the addressed lines.  The current ad-
	   dress is set	the last line affected.

	   re and replacement may be delimited by any character	other than
	   space and newline (see the s	command	below).	 If one	or two of the
	   last	delimiters is omitted, then the	last line affected is printed
	   as though the print suffix p	were specified.

	   An unescaped	`&' in replacement is replaced by the currently
	   matched text.  The character	sequence \m, where m is	a number in
	   the range [1,9], is replaced	by the mth backreference expression of
	   the matched text.  If replacement consists of a single `%', then
	   replacement from the	last substitution is used.  Newlines may be
	   embedded in replacement if they are escaped with a backslash	(`\').

     (.,.)s
	   Repeats the last substitution.  This	form of	the s command accepts
	   a count suffix n, or	any combination	of the characters r, g,	and p.
	   If a	count suffix n is given, then only the nth match is replaced.
	   The r suffix	causes the regular expression of the last search to be
	   used	instead	of that	of the last substitution.  The g suffix	tog-
	   gles	the global suffix of the last substitution.  The p suffix tog-
	   gles	the print suffix of the	last substitution.  The	current	ad-
	   dress is set	to the last line affected.

     (.,.)t(.)
	   Copies (i.e., transfers) the	addressed lines	to after the right-
	   hand	destination address, which may be the address 0	(zero).	 The
	   current address is set to the last line copied.

     u	   Undoes the last command and restores	the current address to what it
	   was before the command.  The	global commands	g, G, v, and V are
	   treated as a	single command by undo.	 u is its own inverse.

     (1,$)v/re/command-list
	   The same as the g command, except that it applies command-list to
	   each	of the addressed lines not matching the	regular	expression re.

     (1,$)V/re/
	   The same as the G command, except that it interactively edits the
	   addressed lines not matching	the regular expression re.

     (1,$)w file
	   Writes the addressed	lines to file.	Any previous contents of file
	   are lost without warning.  If there is no default filename, then
	   the default filename	is set to file,	otherwise it is	unchanged.  If
	   no filename is specified, then the default filename is used.	 The
	   current address is unchanged.

     (1,$)wq file
	   Writes the addressed	lines to file, and then	executes a q command.

     (1,$)w !command
	   Writes the addressed	lines to the standard input of !command, (see
	   !command below).  The default filename and current address are un-
	   changed.

     (1,$)W file
	   Appends the addressed lines to the end of file.  This is similar to
	   the w command, except that the previous contents of file are	not
	   clobbered.  The current address is unchanged.

     (+)zn
	   Scrolls n lines at a	time starting at addressed line.  If n is not
	   specified, then the current window size is used.  The current ad-
	   dress is set	to the last line printed.

     ($)=  Prints the line number of the addressed line.

     (+)   An address without a	command	prints the addressed line and sets the
	   current address to that line.  If the address is also omitted, it
	   defaults to the next	line (+).

     !command
	   Executes command via	sh(1).	If the first character of command is
	   `!',	then it	is replaced by text of the previous !command.  ed does
	   not process command for `\' (backslash) escapes.  However, an un-
	   escaped `%' is replaced by the default filename.  When the shell
	   returns from	execution, a `!' is printed to the standard output.
	   The current line is unchanged.

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
     SIGHUP    If the current buffer has changed since it was last written, ed
	       attempts	to write the buffer to the file	ed.hup.	 Nothing is
	       written to the currently	remembered file, and ed	exits.

     SIGINT    When an interrupt occurs, ed prints `?\n' and returns to	com-
	       mand mode.  If interrupted during text input, the text already
	       input is	written	to the current buffer, as if text input	had
	       been normally terminated.

     SIGQUIT   This signal is ignored.

     SIGWINCH  The screen is resized.

FILES
     /tmp/ed.*	buffer file
     ed.hup	where ed attempts to write the buffer if the terminal hangs up

EXIT STATUS
     The ed utility exits 0 on success,	and >0 if an error occurs.

DIAGNOSTICS
     When an error occurs, ed prints a `?' and either returns to command mode
     or	exits if its input is from a script.  An explanation of	the last error
     can be printed with the h (help) command.

     Since the g (global) command masks	any errors from	failed searches	and
     substitutions, it can be used to perform conditional operations in
     scripts; e.g.,

	   g/old/s//new/

     replaces any occurrences of "old" with "new".

     If	the u (undo) command occurs in a global	command	list, then the command
     list is executed only once.

     If	diagnostics are	not disabled, attempting to quit ed or edit another
     file before writing a modified buffer results in an error.	 If the	com-
     mand is entered a second time, it succeeds, but any changes to the	buffer
     are lost.

SEE ALSO
     sed(1), sh(1), vi(1), re_format(7)

     B.	W. Kernighan, A	Tutorial Introduction to the UNIX Text Editor.

     B.	W. Kernighan, Advanced Editing on UNIX.

     B.	W. Kernighan and P. J. Plauger,	Software Tools in Pascal, 1981,
     Addison-Wesley.

STANDARDS
     The ed utility is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 ("POSIX.1")
     specification.

     The commands s (to	repeat the last	substitution), W, wq, and z as well as
     the address specifier `%' are extensions to that specification.

     The IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 ("POSIX.1") specification	says the `^' address
     specifier is neither required nor prohibited; additionally, it says be-
     haviour for the - option is "unspecified".

HISTORY
     An	ed command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

CAVEATS
     ed	processes file arguments for backslash escapes,	i.e., in a filename,
     any characters preceded by	a backslash (`\') are interpreted literally.

     If	a text (non-binary) file is not	terminated by a	newline	character,
     then ed appends one on reading/writing it.	 In the	case of	a binary file,
     ed	does not append	a newline on reading/writing.

FreeBSD	13.0			 March 8, 2021			  FreeBSD 13.0

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS | FILES | EXIT STATUS | DIAGNOSTICS | SEE ALSO | STANDARDS | HISTORY | CAVEATS

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