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DUPLICITY(1)			 User Manuals			  DUPLICITY(1)

       duplicity - Encrypted incremental backup	to local or remote storage.

       For detailed descriptions for each command see chapter ACTIONS.

       duplicity [full|incremental] [options] source_directory target_url

       duplicity verify	[options] [--compare-data] [--file-to-restore
       _relpath_] [--time time]	source_url target_directory

       duplicity collection-status [options] [--file-changed _relpath_]

       duplicity list-current-files [options] [--time time] target_url

       duplicity [restore] [options] [--file-to-restore	_relpath_] [--time
       time] source_url	target_directory

       duplicity remove-older-than <time> [options] [--force] target_url

       duplicity remove-all-but-n-full <count> [options] [--force] target_url

       duplicity remove-all-inc-of-but-n-full <count> [options]	[--force]

       duplicity cleanup [options] [--force] [--extra-clean] target_url

       Duplicity incrementally backs up	files and folders into tar-format
       volumes encrypted with GnuPG and	places them to a remote	(or local)
       storage backend.	 See chapter URL FORMAT	for a list of all supported
       backends	and how	to address them.  Because duplicity uses librsync,
       incremental backups are space efficient and only	record the parts of
       files that have changed since the last backup.  Currently duplicity
       supports	deleted	files, full Unix permissions, uid/gid, directories,
       symbolic	links, fifos, etc., but	not hard links.

       If you are backing up the root directory	/, remember to --exclude
       /proc, or else duplicity	will probably crash on the weird stuff in

       Here is an example of a backup, using sftp to back up /home/me to
       some_dir	on the machine:

	      duplicity	/home/me s

       If the above is run repeatedly, the first will be a full	backup,	and
       subsequent ones will be incremental. To force a full backup, use	the
       full action:

	      duplicity	full /home/me s

       or enforcing a full every other time via	--full-if-older-than _time_ ,
       e.g. a full every month:

	      duplicity	--full-if-older-than 1M	/home/me

       Now suppose we accidentally delete /home/me and want to restore it the
       way it was at the time of last backup:

	      duplicity	s /home/me

       Duplicity enters	restore	mode because the URL comes before the local
       directory.  If we wanted	to restore just	the file "Mail/article"	in
       /home/me	as it was three	days ago into /home/me/restored_file:

	      duplicity	-t 3D --file-to-restore	Mail/article
	      s /home/me/restored_file

       The following command compares the latest backup	with the current

	      duplicity	verify s /home/me

       Finally,	duplicity recognizes several include/exclude options.  For
       instance, the following will backup the root directory, but exclude
       /mnt, /tmp, and /proc:

	      duplicity	--exclude /mnt --exclude /tmp --exclude	/proc /

       Note that in this case the destination is the local directory
       /usr/local/backup.  The following will backup only the /home and	/etc
       directories under root:

	      duplicity	--include /home	--include /etc --exclude '**' /

       Duplicity can also access a repository via ftp.	If a user name is
       given, the environment variable FTP_PASSWORD is read to determine the

	      FTP_PASSWORD=mypassword duplicity	/local/dir

       Duplicity knows action commands,	which can be finetuned with options.
       The actions for backup (full,incr) and restoration (restore) can	as
       well be left out	as duplicity detects in	what mode it should switch to
       by the order of target URL and local folder. If the target URL comes
       before the local	folder a restore is in order, is the local folder
       before target URL then this folder is about to be backed	up to the
       target URL.
       If a backup is in order and old signatures can be found duplicity
       automatically performs an incremental backup.

       Note: The following explanations	explain	some but not all options that
       can be used in connection with that action command.  Consult the
       OPTIONS section for more	detailed informations.

       full _folder_ _url_
	      Perform a	full backup. A new backup chain	is started even	if
	      signatures are available for an incremental backup.

       incr _folder_ _url_
	      If this is requested an incremental backup will be performed.
	      Duplicity	will abort if no old signatures	can be found.

       verify [--compare-data] [--time _time_] [--file-to-restore _rel_path_]
       _url_ _local_path_
	      Restore backup contents temporarily file by file and compare
	      against the local	path's contents.  duplicity will exit with a
	      non-zero error level if any files	are different.	On verbosity
	      level info (4) or	higher,	a message for each file	that has
	      changed will be logged.
	      The --file-to-restore option restricts verify to that file or
	      folder.  The --time option allows	to select a backup to verify
	      against.	The --compare-data option enables data comparison (see

       collection-status [--file-changed _relpath_]<url>
	      Summarize	the status of the backup repository by printing	the
	      chains and sets found, and the number of volumes in each.

       list-current-files [--time _time_] _url_
	      Lists the	files contained	in the most current backup or backup
	      at time.	The information	will be	extracted from the signature
	      files, not the archive data itself. Thus the whole archive does
	      not have to be downloaded, but on	the other hand if the archive
	      has been deleted or corrupted, this command will not detect it.

       restore [--file-to-restore _relpath_] [--time _time_] _url_
	      You can restore the full monty or	selected folders/files from a
	      specific time.  Use the relative path as it is printed by	list-
	      current-files.  Usually not needed as duplicity enters restore
	      mode when	it detects that	the URL	comes before the local folder.

       remove-older-than _time_	[--force] _url_
	      Delete all backup	sets older than	the given time.	 Old backup
	      sets will	not be deleted if backup sets newer than time depend
	      on them.	See the	TIME FORMATS section for more information.
	      Note, this action	cannot be combined with	backup or other
	      actions, such as cleanup.	 Note also that	--force	will be	needed
	      to delete	the files instead of just listing them.

       remove-all-but-n-full _count_ [--force] _url_
	      Delete all backups sets that are older than the count:th last
	      full backup (in other words, keep	the last count full backups
	      and associated incremental sets).	 count must be larger than
	      zero. A value of 1 means that only the single most recent	backup
	      chain will be kept.  Note	that --force will be needed to delete
	      the files	instead	of just	listing	them.

       remove-all-inc-of-but-n-full _count_ [--force] _url_
	      Delete incremental sets of all backups sets that are older than
	      the count:th last	full backup (in	other words, keep only old
	      full backups and not their increments).  count must be larger
	      than zero. A value of 1 means that only the single most recent
	      backup chain will	be kept	intact.	 Note that --force will	be
	      needed to	delete the files instead of just listing them.

       cleanup [--force] [--extra-clean] _url_
	      Delete the extraneous duplicity files on the given backend.
	      Non-duplicity files, or files in complete	data sets will not be
	      deleted.	This should only be necessary after a duplicity
	      session fails or is aborted prematurely.	Note that --force will
	      be needed	to delete the files instead of just listing them.

	      Do not abort on attempts to use the same archive dir or remote
	      backend to back up different directories.	duplicity will tell
	      you if you need this switch.

       --archive-dir path
	      The archive directory.  NOTE: This option	changed	in 0.6.0.  The
	      archive directory	is now necessary in order to manage
	      persistence for current and future enhancements.	As such, this
	      option is	now used only to change	the location of	the archive
	      directory.  The archive directory	should not be deleted, or
	      duplicity	will have to recreate it from the remote repository
	      (which may require decrypting the	backup contents).

	      When backing up or restoring, this option	specifies that the
	      local archive directory is to be created in path.	 If the
	      archive directory	is not specified, the default will be to
	      create the archive directory in ~/.cache/duplicity/.

	      The archive directory can	be shared between backups to multiple
	      targets, because a subdirectory of the archive dir is used for
	      individual backups (see --name ).

	      The combination of archive directory and backup name must	be
	      unique in	order to separate the data of different	backups.

	      The interaction between the --archive-dir	and the	--name options
	      allows for four possible combinations for	the location of	the
	      archive dir:

	      1.     neither specified (default)

	      2.     --archive-dir=/arch, no --name

	      3.     no	--archive-dir, --name=foo

	      4.     --archive-dir=/arch, --name=foo

	      (EXPERIMENTAL) Perform file uploads asynchronously in the
	      background, with respect to volume creation. This	means that
	      duplicity	can upload a volume while, at the same time, preparing
	      the next volume for upload. The intended end-result is a faster
	      backup, because the local	CPU and	your bandwidth can be more
	      consistently utilized. Use of this option	implies	additional
	      need for disk space in the temporary storage location; rather
	      than needing to store only one volume at a time, enough storage
	      space is required	to store two volumes.

       --backend-retry-delay number
	      Specifies	the number of seconds that duplicity waits after an
	      error has	occured	before attempting to repeat the	operation.

       --cf-backend backend
	      Allows the explicit selection of a cloudfiles backend. Defaults
	      to pyrax.	 Alternatively you might choose	cloudfiles.

	      Enable data comparison of	regular	files on action	verify.	 This
	      is disabled by default for performance reasons.

	      Resolve symlinks during backup.  Enabling	this will resolve &
	      back up the symlink's file/folder	data instead of	the symlink
	      itself, potentially increasing the size of the backup.

	      Calculate	what would be done, but	do not perform any backend

       --encrypt-key key-id
	      When backing up, encrypt to the given public key,	instead	of
	      using symmetric (traditional) encryption.	 Can be	specified
	      multiple times.  The key-id can be given in any of the formats
	      supported	by GnuPG; see gpg(1), section "HOW TO SPECIFY A	USER
	      ID" for details.

       --encrypt-secret-keyring	filename
	      This option can only be used with	--encrypt-key, and changes the
	      path to the secret keyring for the encrypt key to	filename This
	      keyring is not used when creating	a backup. If not specified,
	      the default secret keyring is used which is usually located at

       --encrypt-sign-key key-id
	      Convenience parameter. Same as --encrypt-key key-id --sign-key

       --exclude shell_pattern
	      Exclude the file or files	matched	by shell_pattern.  If a
	      directory	is matched, then files under that directory will also
	      be matched.  See the FILE	SELECTION section for more

	      Exclude all device files.	 This can be useful for
	      security/permissions reasons or if rdiff-backup is not handling
	      device files correctly.

       --exclude-filelist filename
	      Excludes the files listed	in filename, with each line of the
	      filelist interpreted according to	the same rules as --include
	      and --exclude.  See the FILE SELECTION section for more

       --exclude-if-present filename
	      Exclude directories if filename is present. Allows the user to
	      specify folders that they	do not wish to backup by adding	a
	      specified	file (e.g. ".nobackup")	instead	of maintaining a
	      comprehensive exclude/include list. This option needs to come
	      before any other include or exclude options.

       --exclude-older-than time
	      Exclude any files	whose modification date	is earlier than	the
	      specified	time.  This can	be used	to produce a partial backup
	      that contains only recently changed files. See the TIME FORMATS
	      section for more information.

	      Exclude files on file systems (identified	by device number)
	      other than the file system the root of the source	directory is

       --exclude-regexp	regexp
	      Exclude files matching the given regexp.	Unlike the --exclude
	      option, this option does not match files in a directory it
	      matches.	See the	FILE SELECTION section for more	information.

	      When cleaning up,	be more	aggressive about saving	space.	For
	      example, this may	delete signature files for old backup chains.

	      Caution: Without signature files those old backup	chains are
	      unrestorable. Do not use --extra-clean unless you	know what
	      you're doing.

	      See the cleanup argument for more	information.

       --file-changed path
	      This option may be given in collection-status mode, causing only
	      path status to be	collect	instead	of the entire contents of the
	      backup archive.  path should be given relative to	the root of
	      the directory backed up.

       --file-prefix, --file-prefix-manifest, --file-prefix-archive, --file-
	      Adds a prefix to all files, manifest files, archive files,
	      and/or signature files.

	      The same set of prefixes must be passed in on backup and

	      If both global and type-specific prefixes	are set, global	prefix
	      will go before type-specific prefixes.


       --file-to-restore path
	      This option may be given in restore mode,	causing	only path to
	      be restored instead of the entire	contents of the	backup
	      archive.	path should be given relative to the root of the
	      directory	backed up.

       --full-if-older-than time
	      Perform a	full backup if an incremental backup is	requested, but
	      the latest full backup in	the collection is older	than the given
	      time.  See the TIME FORMATS section for more information.

	      Proceed even if data loss	might result.  Duplicity will let the
	      user know	when this option is required.

	      Use passive (PASV) data connections.  The	default	is to use
	      passive, but to fallback to regular if the passive connection
	      fails or times out.

	      Use regular (PORT) data connections.

       --gio  Use the GIO backend and interpret	any URLs as GIO	would.

       --hidden-encrypt-key key-id
	      Same as --encrypt-key, but it hides user's key id	from encrypted
	      file. It uses the	gpg's --hidden-recipient command to obfuscate
	      the owner	of the backup. On restore, gpg will automatically try
	      all available secret keys	in order to decrypt the	backup.	See
	      gpg(1) for more details.

	      Try to ignore certain errors if they happen. This	option is only
	      intended to allow	the restoration	of a backup in the face	of
	      certain problems that would otherwise cause the backup to	fail.
	      It is not	ever recommended to use	this option unless you have a
	      situation	where you are trying to	restore	from backup and	it is
	      failing because of an issue which	you want duplicity to ignore.
	      Even then, depending on the issue, this option may not have an

	      Please note that while ignored errors will be logged, there will
	      be no summary at the end of the operation	to tell	you what was
	      ignored, if anything. If this is used for	emergency restoration
	      of data, it is recommended that you run the backup in such a way
	      that you can revisit the backup log (look	for lines containing
	      the string IGNORED_ERROR).

	      If you ever have to use this option for reasons that are not
	      understood or understood but not your own	responsibility,	please
	      contact duplicity	maintainers. The need to use this option under
	      production circumstances would normally be considered a bug.

       --imap-full-address email_address
	      The full email address of	the user name when logging into	an
	      imap server.  If not supplied just the user name part of the
	      email address is used.

       --imap-mailbox option
	      Allows you to specify a different	mailbox.  The default is
	      "INBOX".	Other languages	may require a different	mailbox	than
	      the default.

       --gpg-binary file_path
	      Allows you to force duplicity to use file_path as	gpg command
	      line binary. Can be an absolute or relative file path or a file
	      name.  Default value is 'gpg'. The binary	will be	localized via
	      the PATH environment variable.

       --gpg-options options
	      Allows you to pass options to gpg	encryption.  The options list
	      should be	of the form "--opt1 --opt2=parm" where the string is
	      quoted and the only spaces allowed are between options.

       --include shell_pattern
	      Similar to --exclude but include matched files instead.  Unlike
	      --exclude, this option will also match parent directories	of
	      matched files (although not necessarily their contents).	See
	      the FILE SELECTION section for more information.

       --include-filelist filename
	      Like --exclude-filelist, but include the listed files instead.
	      See the FILE SELECTION section for more information.

       --include-regexp	regexp
	      Include files matching the regular expression regexp.  Only
	      files explicitly matched by regexp will be included by this
	      option.  See the FILE SELECTION section for more information.

       --log-fd	number
	      Write specially-formatted	versions of output messages to the
	      specified	file descriptor.  The format used is designed to be
	      easily consumable	by other programs.

       --log-file filename
	      Write specially-formatted	versions of output messages to the
	      specified	file.  The format used is designed to be easily
	      consumable by other programs.

       --max-blocksize number
	      determines the number of the blocks examined for changes during
	      the diff process.	 For files < 1MB the blocksize is a constant
	      of 512.  For files over 1MB the size is given by:

	      file_blocksize = int((file_len / (2000 * 512)) * 512)
	      return min(file_blocksize, globals.max_blocksize)

	      where globals.max_blocksize defaults to 2048.  If	you specify a
	      larger max_blocksize, your difftar files will be larger, but
	      your sigtar files	will be	smaller.  If you specify a smaller
	      max_blocksize, the reverse occurs.  The --max-blocksize option
	      should be	in multiples of	512.

       --name symbolicname
	      Set the symbolic name of the backup being	operated on. The
	      intent is	to use a separate name for each	logically distinct
	      backup. For example, someone may use "home_daily_s3" for the
	      daily backup of a	home directory to Amazon S3. The structure of
	      the name is up to	the user, it is	only important that the	names
	      be distinct. The symbolic	name is	currently only used to affect
	      the expansion of --archive-dir , but may be used for additional
	      features in the future. Users running more than one distinct
	      backup are encouraged to use this	option.

	      If not specified,	the default value is a hash of the backend

	      Do not use GZip to compress files	on remote system.

	      Do not use GnuPG to encrypt files	on remote system.

	      By default duplicity will	print statistics about the current
	      session after a successful backup.  This switch disables that

	      Use nulls	(\0) instead of	newlines (\n) as line separators,
	      which may	help when dealing with filenames containing newlines.
	      This affects the expected	format of the files specified by the
	      --{include|exclude}-filelist switches as well as the format of
	      the directory statistics file.

	      On restore always	use the	numeric	uid/gid	from the archive and
	      not the archived user/group names, which is the default
	      behaviour.  Recommended for restoring from live cds which	might
	      have the users with identical names but different	uids/gids.

       --num-retries number
	      Number of	retries	to make	on errors before giving	up.

	      Use the old filename format (incompatible	with Windows/Samba)
	      rather than the new filename format.

       --par2-options options
	      Verbatim options to pass to par2.

       --par2-redundancy percent
	      Adjust the level of redundancy in	percent	for Par2 recovery
	      files (default 10%).

	      When selected, duplicity will output the current upload progress
	      and estimated upload time. To annotate changes, it will perform
	      a	first dry-run before a full or incremental, and	then runs the
	      real operation estimating	the real upload	progress.

       --progress-rate number
	      Sets the update rate at which duplicity will output the upload
	      progress messages	(requires --progress option). Default is to
	      prompt the status	each 3 seconds.

       --rename	_original path_	_new path_
	      Treats the path orig in the backup as if it were the path	new.
	      Can be passed multiple times. An example:

	      duplicity	restore	--rename Documents/metal Music/metal
	      s /home/me

       --rsync-options options
	      Allows you to pass options to the	rsync backend.	The options
	      list should be of	the form "opt1=parm1 opt2=parm2" where the
	      option string is quoted and the only spaces allowed are between
	      options. The option string will be passed	verbatim to rsync,
	      after any	internally generated option designating	the remote
	      port to use. Here	is a possibly useful example:

	      duplicity	--rsync-options="--partial-dir=.rsync-partial"
	      /home/me rsync://

	      When using the Amazon S3 backend,	create buckets in Europe
	      instead of the default (requires --s3-use-new-style ). Also see
	      the EUROPEAN S3 BUCKETS section.

	      Don't use	SSL for	connections to S3.

	      This may be much faster, at some cost to confidentiality.

	      With this	option,	anyone who can observe traffic between your
	      computer and S3 will be able to tell: that you are using
	      Duplicity, the name of the bucket, your AWS Access Key ID, the
	      increment	dates and the amount of	data in	each increment.

	      This option affects only the connection, not the GPG encryption
	      of the backup increment files.  Unless that is disabled, an
	      observer will not	be able	to see the file	names or contents.

	      When operating on	Amazon S3 buckets, use new-style subdomain
	      bucket addressing. This is now the preferred method to access
	      Amazon S3, but is	not backwards compatible if your bucket	name
	      contains upper-case characters or	other characters that are not
	      valid in a hostname.

	      Store volumes using Reduced Redundancy Storage when uploading to
	      Amazon S3.  This will lower the cost of storage but also lower
	      the durability of	stored volumes to 99.99% instead the
	      99.999999999% durability offered by Standard Storage on S3.

	      Store volumes using Standard - Infrequent	Access when uploading
	      to Amazon	S3.  This storage class	has a lower storage cost but a
	      higher per-request cost, and the storage cost is calculated
	      against a	30-day storage minimum.	According to Amazon, this
	      storage is ideal for long-term file storage, backups, and
	      disaster recovery.

	      Allow multipart volumne uploads to S3 through multiprocessing.
	      This option requires Python 2.6 and can be used to make uploads
	      to S3 more efficient.  If	enabled, files duplicity uploads to S3
	      will be split into chunks	and uploaded in	parallel. Useful if
	      you want to saturate your	bandwidth or if	large files are
	      failing during upload.

	      Allow use	of server side encryption in S3

	      Chunk size (in MB) used for S3 multipart uploads.	Make this
	      smaller than --volsize to	maximize the use of your bandwidth.
	      For example, a chunk size	of 10MB	with a volsize of 30MB will
	      result in	3 chunks per volume upload.

	      Specify the maximum number of processes to spawn when performing
	      a	multipart upload to S3.	By default, this will choose the
	      number of	processors detected on your system (e.g. 4 for a
	      4-core system). You can adjust this number as required to	ensure
	      you don't	overload your system while maximizing the use of your

	      You can control the maximum time (in seconds) a multipart	upload
	      can spend	on uploading a single chunk to S3. This	may be useful
	      if you find your system hanging on multipart uploads or if you'd
	      like to control the time variance	when uploading to S3 to	ensure
	      you kill connections to slow S3 endpoints.

       --scp-command command
	      (only ssh	pexpect	backend	with --use-scp enabled)	The command
	      will be used instead of "scp" to send or receive files.  To list
	      and delete existing files, the sftp command is used.
	      See also A NOTE ON SSH BACKENDS section SSH pexpect backend.

       --sftp-command command
	      (only ssh	pexpect	backend) The command will be used instead of
	      See also A NOTE ON SSH BACKENDS section SSH pexpect backend.

	      If this option is	specified, the names of	the files duplicity
	      writes will be shorter (about 30 chars) but less understandable.
	      This may be useful when backing up to MacOS or another OS	or FS
	      that doesn't support long	filenames.

       --sign-key key-id
	      This option can be used when backing up, restoring or verifying.
	      When backing up, all backup files	will be	signed with keyid key.
	      When restoring, duplicity	will signal an error if	any remote
	      file is not signed with the given	key-id.	The key-id can be
	      given in any of the formats supported by GnuPG; see gpg(1),
	      section "HOW TO SPECIFY A	USER ID" for details.  Should be
	      specified	only once because currently only one signing key is
	      supported. Last entry overrides all other	entries.

	      Tells the	ssh backend to prompt the user for the remote system
	      password,	if it was not defined in target	url and	no
	      FTP_PASSWORD env var is set.  This password is also used for
	      passphrase-protected ssh keys.

       --ssh-options options
	      Allows you to pass options to the	ssh backend.  Can be specified
	      multiple times or	as a space separated options list.  The
	      options list should be of	the form "-oOpt1='parm1'
	      -oOpt2='parm2'" where the	option string is quoted	and the	only
	      spaces allowed are between options. The option string will be
	      passed verbatim to both scp and sftp, whose command line syntax
	      differs slightly hence the options should	therefore be given in
	      the long option format described in ssh_config(5).

	      example of a list:

	      duplicity	--ssh-options="-oProtocol=2
	      -oIdentityFile='/my/backup/id'" /home/me

	      example with multiple parameters:

	      duplicity	--ssh-options="-oProtocol=2" --ssh-
	      options="-oIdentityFile='/my/backup/id'" /home/me

	      NOTE: The	ssh paramiko backend currently supports	only the -i or
	      -oIdentityFile setting. If needed	provide	more host specific
	      options via ssh_config file.

       --ssl-cacert-file file
	      (only webdav & lftp backend) Provide a cacert file for ssl
	      certificate verification.

       --ssl-cacert-path path/to/certs/
	      (only webdav backend and python 2.7.9+ OR	lftp+webdavs and a
	      recent lftp) Provide a path to a folder containing cacert	files
	      for ssl certificate verification.

	      (only webdav & lftp backend) Disable ssl certificate

       --tempdir directory
	      Use this existing	directory for duplicity	temporary files
	      instead of the system default, which is usually the /tmp
	      directory. This option supersedes	any environment	variable.

       -ttime, --time time, --restore-time time
	      Specify the time from which to restore or	list files.

       --time-separator	char
	      Use char as the time separator in	filenames instead of colon

       --timeout seconds
	      Use seconds as the socket	timeout	value if duplicity begins to
	      timeout during network operations.  The default is 30 seconds.

	      If this option is	specified, then	--use-agent is passed to the
	      GnuPG encryption process and it will try to connect to gpg-agent
	      before it	asks for a passphrase for --encrypt-key	or --sign-key
	      if needed.
	      Note: Contrary to	previous versions of duplicity,	this option
	      will also	be honored by GnuPG 2 and newer	versions. If GnuPG 2
	      is in use, duplicity passes the option --pinentry-mode=cancel to
	      the the gpg process unless --use-agent is	specified on the
	      duplicity	command	line. This has the effect that GnuPG 2 uses
	      the agent	only if	--use-agent is given, just like	GnuPG 1.

       --verbosity level, -vlevel
	      Specify output verbosity level (log level).  Named levels	and
	      corresponding values are 0 Error,	2 Warning, 4 Notice (default),
	      8	Info, 9	Debug (noisiest).
	      level may	also be
	      a	character: e, w, n, i, d
	      a	word: error, warning, notice, info, debug

	      The options -v4, -vn and -vnotice	are functionally equivalent,
	      as are the mixed/upper-case versions -vN,	-vNotice and -vNOTICE.

	      Print duplicity's	version	and quit.

       --volsize number
	      Change the volume	size to	number MB. Default is 200MB.

	      In decreasing order of importance, specifies the directory to
	      use for temporary	files (inherited from Python's tempfile
	      module).	Eventually the option --tempdir	supercedes any of

	      Supported	by most	backends which are password capable. More
	      secure than setting it in	the backend url	(which might be
	      readable in the operating	systems	process	listing	to other users
	      on the same machine).

	      This passphrase is passed	to GnuPG. If this is not set, the user
	      will be prompted for the passphrase.

	      The passphrase to	be used	for --sign-key.	 If ommitted and sign
	      key is also one of the keys to encrypt against PASSPHRASE	will
	      be reused	instead.  Otherwise, if	passphrase is needed but not
	      set the user will	be prompted for	it.

       Duplicity uses the URL format (as standard as possible) to define data
       locations.  The generic format for a URL	is:


       It is not recommended to	expose the password on the command line	since
       it could	be revealed to anyone with permissions to do process listings,
       it is permitted however.	 Consider setting the environment variable
       FTP_PASSWORD instead, which is used by most, if not all backends,
       regardless of it's name.

       In protocols that support it, the path may be preceded by a single
       slash, '/path', to represent a relative path to the target home
       directory, or preceded by a double slash, '//path', to represent	an
       absolute	filesystem path.

	      Scheme (protocol)	access may be provided by more than one
	      backend.	In case	the default backend is buggy or	simply not
	      working in a specific case it might be worth trying an
	      alternative implementation.  Alternative backends	can be
	      selected by prefixing the	scheme with the	name of	the
	      alternative backend e.g.	ncftp+ftp:// and are mentioned below
	      the scheme's syntax summary.

       Formats of each of the URL schemes follow:



	      See also A NOTE ON AZURE ACCESS



       Cloud Files (Rackspace)



       Copy cloud storage




	      Make sure	to read	A NOTE ON DROPBOX ACCESS first!

       Local file path


       FISH (Files transferred over Shell protocol) over ssh




	      NOTE: use	lftp+, ncftp+ prefixes to enforce a specific backend,
	      default is lftp+ftp://...

       Google Docs


	      NOTE: use	pydrive+, gdata+ prefixes to enforce a specific
	      backend, default is pydrive+gdocs://...

       Google Cloud Storage






	      See also A NOTE ON HUBIC

       IMAP email storage


	      See also A NOTE ON IMAP

       Mega cloud storage


       OneDrive	Backend


       Par2 Wrapper Backend



       Rsync via daemon


       Rsync over ssh (only key	auth)


       S3 storage (Amazon)



       SCP/SFTP	access

	      scp://.. or

	      defaults are paramiko+scp:// and paramiko+sftp://
	      alternatively try	pexpect+scp://,	pexpect+sftp://, lftp+sftp://
	      See also --ssh-askpass, --ssh-options and	A NOTE ON SSH

       Swift (Openstack)







	      alternatively try	lftp+webdav[s]://


	      pydrive://<service account' email

	      See also A NOTE ON PYDRIVE BACKEND below.



	      See also A NOTE ON MULTI BACKEND below.



	      See also A NOTE ON MEDIAFIRE BACKEND below.

       duplicity uses time strings in two places.  Firstly, many of the	files
       duplicity creates will have the time in their filenames in the w3
       datetime	format as described in a w3 note at
       datetime.  Basically they look like "2001-07-15T04:09:38-07:00",	which
       means what it looks like.  The "-07:00" section means the time zone is
       7 hours behind UTC.

       Secondly, the -t, --time, and --restore-time options take a time
       string, which can be given in any of several formats:

       1.     the string "now" (refers to the current time)

       2.     a	sequences of digits, like "123456890" (indicating the time in
	      seconds after the	epoch)

       3.     A	string like "2002-01-25T07:00:00+02:00"	in datetime format

       4.     An interval, which is a number followed by one of	the characters
	      s, m, h, D, W, M,	or Y (indicating seconds, minutes, hours,
	      days, weeks, months, or years respectively), or a	series of such
	      pairs.  In this case the string refers to	the time that preceded
	      the current time by the length of	the interval.  For instance,
	      "1h78m" indicates	the time that was one hour and 78 minutes ago.
	      The calendar here	is unsophisticated: a month is always 30 days,
	      a	year is	always 365 days, and a day is always 86400 seconds.

       5.     A	date format of the form	YYYY/MM/DD, YYYY-MM-DD,	MM/DD/YYYY, or
	      MM-DD-YYYY, which	indicates midnight on the day in question,
	      relative to the current time zone	settings.  For instance,
	      "2002/3/5", "03-05-2002",	and "2002-3-05"	all mean March 5th,

       When duplicity is run, it searches through the given source directory
       and backs up all	the files specified by the file	selection system.  The
       file selection system comprises a number	of file	selection conditions,
       which are set using one of the following	command	line options:
       Each file selection condition either matches or doesn't match a given
       file.  A	given file is excluded by the file selection system exactly
       when the	first matching file selection condition	specifies that the
       file be excluded; otherwise the file is included.

       For instance,

	      duplicity	--include /usr --exclude /usr /usr

       is exactly the same as

	      duplicity	/usr scp://user@host/backup

       because the include and exclude directives match	exactly	the same
       files, and the --include	comes first, giving it precedence.  Similarly,

	      duplicity	--include /usr/local/bin --exclude /usr/local /usr

       would backup the	/usr/local/bin directory (and its contents), but not

       The include, exclude, include-filelist, and exclude-filelist options
       accept some extended shell globbing patterns.  These patterns can
       contain *, **, ?, and [...]  (character ranges).	As in a	normal shell,
       * can be	expanded to any	string of characters not containing "/", ?
       expands to any character	except "/", and	[...]  expands to a single
       character of those characters specified (ranges are acceptable).	 The
       new special pattern, **,	expands	to any string of characters whether or
       not it contains "/".  Furthermore, if the pattern starts	with
       "ignorecase:" (case insensitive), then this prefix will be removed and
       any character in	the string can be replaced with	an upper- or lowercase
       version of itself.

       Remember	that you may need to quote these characters when typing	them
       into a shell, so	the shell does not interpret the globbing patterns
       before duplicity	sees them.

       The --exclude pattern option matches a file if:

       1.  pattern can be expanded into	the file's filename, or
       2.  the file is inside a	directory matched by the option.

       Conversely, the --include pattern matches a file	if:

       1.  pattern can be expanded into	the file's filename, or
       2.  the file is inside a	directory matched by the option, or
       3.  the file is a directory which contains a file matched by the

       For example,

	      --exclude	/usr/local

       matches e.g. /usr/local,	/usr/local/lib,	and /usr/local/lib/netscape.
       It is the same as --exclude /usr/local --exclude	'/usr/local/**'.

       On the other hand

	      --include	/usr/local

       specifies that /usr, /usr/local,	/usr/local/lib,	and
       /usr/local/lib/netscape (but not	/usr/doc) all be backed	up. Thus you
       don't have to worry about including parent directories to make sure
       that included subdirectories have somewhere to go.


	      --include	ignorecase:'/usr/[a-z0-9]foo/*/**.py'

       would match a file like /usR/5fOO/hello/there/	If it did
       match anything, it would	also match /usr.  If there is no existing file
       that the	given pattern can be expanded into, the	option will not	match
       /usr alone.

       The --include-filelist, and --exclude-filelist, options also introduce
       file selection conditions.  They	direct duplicity to read in a file,
       each line of which is a file specification, and to include or exclude
       the matching files.  Lines are separated	by newlines or nulls,
       depending on whether the	--null-separator switch	was given.  Each line
       in the filelist will be interpreted as a	globbing pattern the way
       --include and --exclude options are interpreted,	except that lines
       starting	with "+	" are interpreted as include directives, even if found
       in a filelist referenced	by --exclude-filelist.	Similarly, lines
       starting	with "-	" exclude files	even if	they are found within an
       include filelist.

       For example, if file "list.txt" contains	the lines:

	      -	/usr/local/doc
	      +	/var
	      -	/var

       then --include-filelist list.txt	would include /usr, /usr/local,	and
       /usr/local/bin.	It would exclude /usr/local/doc,
       /usr/local/doc/python, etc.  It would also include /usr/local/man, as
       this is included	within /user/local.  Finally, it is undefined what
       happens with /var.  A single file list should not contain conflicting
       file specifications.

       Each line in the	filelist will also be interpreted as a globbing
       pattern the way --include and --exclude options are interpreted.	 For
       instance, if the	file "list.txt"	contains the lines:

	      +	dir/bar
	      -	**

       Then --include-filelist list.txt	would be exactly the same as
       specifying --include dir/foo --include dir/bar --exclude	** on the
       command line.

       Finally,	the --include-regexp and --exclude-regexp options allow	files
       to be included and excluded if their filenames match a python regular
       expression.  Regular expression syntax is too complicated to explain
       here, but is covered in Python's	library	reference.  Unlike the
       --include and --exclude options,	the regular expression options don't
       match files containing or contained in matched files.  So for instance

	      --include	'[0-9]{7}(?!foo)'

       matches any files whose full pathnames contain 7	consecutive digits
       which aren't followed by	'foo'.	However, it wouldn't match /home even
       if /home/ben/1234567 existed.

       The Azure backend requires the Microsoft	Azure Storage SDK for Python
       to be installed on the system.  See REQUIREMENTS	above.

       It uses two environment variables for authentification:
       AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME (required), AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY	(required)

       A container name	must be	a valid	DNS name, conforming to	the following
       naming rules:

	      1.     Container names must start	with a letter or number, and
		     can contain only letters, numbers,	and the	dash (-)

	      2.     Every dash	(-) character must be immediately preceded and
		     followed by a letter or number; consecutive dashes	are
		     not permitted in container	names.

	      3.     All letters in a container	name must be lowercase.

	      4.     Container names must be from 3 through 63 characters

       Pyrax is	Rackspace's next-generation Cloud management API, including
       Cloud Files access.  The	cfpyrax	backend	requires the pyrax library to
       be installed on the system.  See	REQUIREMENTS above.

       Cloudfiles is Rackspace's now deprecated	implementation of OpenStack
       Object Storage protocol.	 Users wishing to use Duplicity	with Rackspace
       Cloud Files should migrate to the new Pyrax plugin to ensure support.

       The backend requires python-cloudfiles to be installed on the system.
       See REQUIREMENTS	above.

       It uses three environment variables for authentification:
       CLOUDFILES_USERNAME (required), CLOUDFILES_APIKEY (required),
       CLOUDFILES_AUTHURL (optional)

       If CLOUDFILES_AUTHURL is	unspecified it will default to the value
       provided	by python-cloudfiles, which points to rackspace, hence this
       value must be set in order to use other cloud files providers.

       1.     First of all Dropbox backend requires valid authentication
	      token. It	should be passed via DPBX_ACCESS_TOKEN environment
	      To obtain	it please create 'Dropbox API' application at:
	      Then visit app settings and just use 'Generated access token'
	      under OAuth2 section.
	      Alternatively you	can let	duplicity generate access token
	      itself. In such case temporary export DPBX_APP_KEY ,
	      DPBX_APP_SECRET using values from	app settings page and run
	      duplicity	interactively.
	      It will print the	URL that you need to open in the browser to
	      obtain OAuth2 token for the application. Just follow on-screen
	      instructions and then put	generated token	to DPBX_ACCESS_TOKEN
	      variable.	Once done, feel	free to	unset DPBX_APP_KEY and

       2.     "some_dir" must already exist in the Dropbox folder. Depending
	      on access	token kind it may be:
		     Full Dropbox: path	is absolute and	starts from 'Dropbox'
		     root folder.
		     App Folder: path is related to application	folder.
		     Dropbox client will show it in ~/Dropbox/Apps/<app-name>

       3.     When using Dropbox for storage, be aware that all	files,
	      including	the ones in the	Apps folder, will be synced to all
	      connected	computers.  You	may prefer to use a separate Dropbox
	      account specially	for the	backups, and not connect any computers
	      to that account. Alternatively you can configure selective sync
	      on all computers to avoid	syncing	of backup files

       Amazon S3 provides the ability to choose	the location of	a bucket upon
       its creation. The purpose is to enable the user to choose a location
       which is	better located network topologically relative to the user,
       because it may allow for	faster data transfers.

       duplicity will create a new bucket the first time a bucket access is
       attempted. At this point, the bucket will be created in Europe if
       --s3-european-buckets was given.	For reasons having to do with how the
       Amazon S3 service works,	this also requires the use of the --s3-use-
       new-style option. This option turns on subdomain	based bucket
       addressing in S3. The details are beyond	the scope of this man page,
       but it is important to know that	your bucket must not contain upper
       case letters or any other characters that are not valid parts of	a
       hostname. Consequently, for reasons of backwards	compatibility, use of
       subdomain based bucket addressing is not	enabled	by default.

       Note that you will need to use --s3-use-new-style for all operations on
       European	buckets; not just upon initial creation.

       You only	need to	use --s3-european-buckets upon initial creation, but
       you may may use it at all times for consistency.

       Further note that when creating a new European bucket, it can take a
       while before the	bucket is fully	accessible. At the time	of this
       writing it is unclear to	what extent this is an expected	feature	of
       Amazon S3, but in practice you may experience timeouts, socket errors
       or HTTP errors when trying to upload files to your newly	created
       bucket. Give it a few minutes and the bucket should function normally.

       Filename	prefixes can be	used in	conjunction with S3 lifecycle rules to
       transition archive files	to Glacier, while keeping metadata (signature
       and manifest files) on S3.

       Duplicity does not require access to archive files except when
       restoring from backup.

       Support for Google Cloud	Storage	relies on its Interoperable Access,
       which must be enabled for your account.	Once enabled, you can generate
       Interoperable Storage Access Keys and pass them to duplicity via	the
       GS_ACCESS_KEY_ID	and GS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY environment variables.
       Alternatively, you can run gsutil config	-a to have the Google Cloud
       Storage utility populate	the ~/.boto configuration file.

       Enable Interoperable Access:
       Create Access Keys:

       The hubic backend requires the pyrax library to be installed on the
       system. See REQUIREMENTS	above.	You will need to set your credentials
       for hubiC in a file called ~/.hubic_credentials,	following this

	      email = your_email
	      password = your_password
	      client_id	= api_client_id
	      client_secret = api_secret_key
	      redirect_uri = http://localhost/

       An IMAP account can be used as a	target for the upload.	The userid may
       be specified and	the password will be requested.

       The from_address_prefix may be specified	(and probably should be). The
       text will be used as the	"From" address in the IMAP server.  Then on a
       restore (or list) command the from_address_prefix will distinguish
       between different backups.

       The multi backend allows	duplicity to combine the storage available in
       more than one backend store (e.g., you can store	across a google	drive
       account and a onedrive account to get effectively the combined storage
       available in both).  The	URL path specifies a JSON formated config file
       containing a list of the	backends it will use. The URL may also specify
       "query" parameters to configure overall behavior.  Each element of the
       list must have a	"url" element, and may also contain an optional
       "description" and an optional "env" list	of environment variables used
       to configure that backend.

   Query Parameters
       Query parameters	come after the file URL	in standard HTTP format	for
       Order does not matter, however unrecognized parameters are considered
       an error.

	      This mode	(the default) performs round-robin access to the list
	      of backends. In this mode, all backends must be reliable as a
	      loss of one means	a loss of one of the archive files.

	      This mode	accesses backends as a RAID1-store, storing every file
	      in every backend and reading files from the first-successful
	      backend.	A loss of any backend should result in no failure.
	      Note that	backends added later will only get new files and may
	      require a	manual sync with one of	the other operating ones.

	      This setting (the	default) continues all write operations	in as
	      best-effort. Any failure results in the next backend tried.
	      Failure is reported only when all	backends fail a	given
	      operation	with the error result from the last failure.

	      This setting considers any backend write failure as a
	      terminating condition and	reports	the error.  Data reading and
	      listing operations are independent of this and will try with the
	      next backend on failure.

   JSON	File Example
		"description": "a comment about	the backend"
		"url": "abackend://",
		"env": [
		   "name" : "MYENV",
		   "value" : "xyz"
		   "name" : "FOO",
		   "value" : "bar"
		"url": "file:///path/to/dir"

       Par2 Wrapper Backend can	be used	in combination with all	other backends
       to create recovery files. Just add par2+	before a regular scheme	(e.g.
       par2+ftp://user@host/dir	or par2+s3+http://bucket_name ). This will
       create par2 recovery files for each archive and upload them all to the
       wrapped backend.

       Before restoring, archives will be verified. Corrupt archives will be
       repaired	on the fly if there are	enough recovery	blocks available.

       Use --par2-redundancy percent to	adjust the size	(and redundancy) of
       recovery	files in percent.

       The pydrive backend requires Python PyDrive package to be installed on
       the system. See REQUIREMENTS above.

       There are two ways to use PyDrive: with a regular account or with a
       "service	account". With a service account, a separate account is
       created,	that is	only accessible	with Google APIs and not a web login.
       With a regular account, you can store backups in	your normal Google

       To use a	service	account, go to the Google developers console at Create a project,	and make sure
       Drive API is enabled for	the project. Under "APIs and auth", click
       Create New Client ID, then select Service Account with P12 key.

       Download	the .p12 key file of the account and convert it	to the .pem
       openssl pkcs12 -in XXX.p12  -nodes -nocerts > pydriveprivatekey.pem

       The content of .pem file	should be passed to GOOGLE_DRIVE_ACCOUNT_KEY
       environment variable for	authentification.

       The email address of the	account	will be	used as	part of	URL. See URL
       FORMAT above.

       The alternative is to use a regular account. To do this,	start as
       above, but when creating	a new Client ID, select	"Installed
       application" of type "Other". Create a file with	the following content,
       and pass	its filename in	the GOOGLE_DRIVE_SETTINGS environment

	      client_config_backend: settings
		  client_id: <Client ID	from developers' console>
		  client_secret: <Client secret	from developers' console>
	      save_credentials:	True
	      save_credentials_backend:	file
	      save_credentials_file: <filename to cache	credentials>
	      get_refresh_token: True

       In this scenario, the username and host parts of	the URL	play no	role;
       only the	path matters. During the first run, you	will be	prompted to
       visit an	URL in your browser to grant access to your drive. Once
       granted,	you will receive a verification	code to	paste back into
       Duplicity. The credentials are then cached in the file references above
       for future use.

       The ssh backends	support	sftp and scp/ssh transport protocols.  This is
       a known user-confusing issue as these are fundamentally different.  If
       you plan	to access your backend via one of those	please inform yourself
       about the requirements for a server to support sftp or scp/ssh access.
       To make it even more confusing the user can choose between several ssh
       backends	via a scheme prefix: paramiko+ (default), pexpect+, lftp+... .
       paramiko	& pexpect support --use-scp, --ssh-askpass and --ssh-options.
       Only the	pexpect	backend	allows to define --scp-command and --sftp-

       SSH paramiko backend (default) is a complete reimplementation of	ssh
       protocols natively in python. Advantages	are speed and maintainability.
       Minor disadvantage is that extra	packages are needed as listed in
       REQUIREMENTS above. In sftp (default) mode all operations are done via
       the according sftp commands. In scp mode	( --use-scp ) though scp
       access is used for put/get operations but listing is done via ssh
       remote shell.

       SSH pexpect backend is the legacy ssh backend using the command line
       ssh binaries via	pexpect.  Older	versions used scp for get and put
       operations and sftp for list and	delete operations.  The	current
       version uses sftp for all four supported	operations, unless the --use-
       scp option is used to revert to old behavior.

       SSH lftp	backend	is simply there	because	lftp can interact with the ssh
       cmd line	binaries.  It is meant as a last resort	in case	the above
       options fail for	some reason.

       Why use sftp instead of scp?  The change	to sftp	was made in order to
       allow the remote	system to chroot the backup, thus providing better
       security	and because it does not	suffer from shell quoting issues like
       scp.  Scp also does not support any kind	of file	listing, so sftp or
       ssh access will always be needed	in addition for	this backend mode to
       work properly. Sftp does	not have these limitations but needs an	sftp
       service running on the backend server, which is sometimes not an

       Certificate verification	as implemented right now [02.2016] only	in the
       webdav and lftp backends. older pythons 2.7.8- and older	lftp binaries
       need a file based database of certification authority certificates
       (cacert file).
       Newer python 2.7.9+ and recent lftp versions however support the	system
       default certificates (usually in	/etc/ssl/certs)	and also giving	an
       alternative ca cert folder via --ssl-cacert-path.

       The cacert file has to be a PEM formatted text file as currently
       provided	by the CURL project. See

       After creating/retrieving a valid cacert	file you should	copy it	to


       Duplicity searches it there in the same order and will fail if it can't
       find it.	 You can however specify the option --ssl-cacert-file _file_
       to point	duplicity to a copy in a different location.

       Finally there is	the --ssl-no-check-certificate option to disable
       certificate verification	alltogether, in	case some ssl library is
       missing or verification is not wanted. Use it with care,	as even	with
       self signed servers manually providing the private ca certificate is
       definitely the safer option.

       Swift is	the OpenStack Object Storage service.
       The backend requires python-switclient to be installed on the system.
       python-keystoneclient is	also needed to use OpenStack's Keystone
       Identity	service.  See REQUIREMENTS above.

       It uses following environment variables for authentification:
       (required), SWIFT_USERID	(required, only	for IBM	Bluemix
       ObjectStorage), SWIFT_TENANTID (required, only for IBM Bluemix
       ObjectStorage), SWIFT_REGIONNAME	(required, only	for IBM	Bluemix
       ObjectStorage), SWIFT_TENANTNAME	(optional, the tenant can be included
       in the username)

       If the user was previously authenticated, the following environment
       variables can be	used instead: SWIFT_PREAUTHURL (required),
       SWIFT_PREAUTHTOKEN (required)

       If SWIFT_AUTHVERSION is unspecified, it will default to version 1.

       This backend requires mediafire python library to be installed on the
       system. See REQUIREMENTS.

       Use URL escaping	for username (and password, if provided	via command


       The destination folder will be created for you if it does not exist.

       Signing and symmetrically encrypt at the	same time with the gpg binary
       on the command line, as used within duplicity, is a specifically
       challenging issue.  Tests showed	that the following combinations	proved

       1. Setup	gpg-agent properly. Use	the option --use-agent and enter both
       passphrases (symmetric and sign key) in the gpg-agent's dialog.

       2. Use a	PASSPHRASE for symmetric encryption of your choice but the
       signing key has an empty	passphrase.

       3. The used PASSPHRASE for symmetric encryption and the passphrase of
       the signing key are identical.

       Hard links currently unsupported	(they will be treated as non-linked
       regular files).

       Bad signatures will be treated as empty instead of logging appropriate
       error message.

       This section describes duplicity's basic	operation and the format of
       its data	files.	It should not necessary	to read	this section to	use

       The files used by duplicity to store backup data	are tarfiles in	GNU
       tar format.  They can be	produced independently by rdiffdir(1).	For
       incremental backups, new	files are saved	normally in the	tarfile.  But
       when a file changes, instead of storing a complete copy of the file,
       only a diff is stored, as generated by rdiff(1).	 If a file is deleted,
       a 0 length file is stored in the	tar.  It is possible to	restore	a
       duplicity archive "manually" by using tar and then cp, rdiff, and rm as
       necessary.  These duplicity archives have the extension difftar.

       Both full and incremental backup	sets have the same format.  In effect,
       a full backup set is an incremental one generated from an empty
       signature (see below).  The files in full backup	sets will start	with
       duplicity-full while the	incremental sets start with duplicity-inc.
       When restoring, duplicity applies patches in order, so deleting,	for
       instance, a full	backup set may make related incremental	backup sets

       In order	to determine which files have been deleted, and	to calculate
       diffs for changed files,	duplicity needs	to process information about
       previous	sessions.  It stores this information in the form of tarfiles
       where each entry's data contains	the signature (as produced by rdiff)
       of the file instead of the file's contents.  These signature sets have
       the extension sigtar.

       Signature files are not required	to restore a backup set, but without
       an up-to-date signature,	duplicity cannot append	an incremental backup
       to an existing archive.

       To save bandwidth, duplicity generates full signature sets and
       incremental signature sets.  A full signature set is generated for each
       full backup, and	an incremental one for each incremental	backup.	 These
       start with duplicity-full-signatures and	duplicity-new-signatures
       respectively. These signatures will be stored both locally and
       remotely.  The remote signatures	will be	encrypted if encryption	is
       enabled.	 The local signatures will not be encrypted and	stored in the
       archive dir (see	--archive-dir ).

       Duplicity requires a POSIX-like operating system	with a python
       interpreter version 2.6+	installed.  It is best used under GNU/Linux.

       Some backends also require additional components	(probably available as
       packages	for your specific platform):

       azure backend (Azure Blob Storage Service)
	      Microsoft	Azure Storage SDK for Python -

       boto backend (S3	Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud Storage)
	      boto version 2.0+	-

       cfpyrax backend (Rackspace Cloud) and hubic backend (
	      Rackspace	CloudFiles Pyrax API -

       dpbx backend (Dropbox)
	      Dropbox Python SDK -

       copy backend (
	      python-urllib3 -

       gdocs gdata backend (legacy Google Docs backend)
	      Google Data APIs Python Client Library -

       gdocs pydrive backend(default)
	      see pydrive backend

       gio backend (Gnome VFS API)
	      PyGObject	-
	      D-Bus (dbus)-

       lftp backend (needed for	ftp, ftps, fish	[over ssh] - also supports
       sftp, webdav[s])
	      LFTP Client -

       mega backend (
	      Python library for mega API -, ubuntu ppa	-

       multi backend
	      Multi -- store to	more than one backend
	      (also see	A NOTE ON MULTI	BACKEND	) below.

       ncftp backend (ftp, select via ncftp+ftp://)
	      NcFTP -

       OneDrive	backend	(Microsoft OneDrive)
	      python-requests -
	      python-requests-oauthlib -

       Par2 Wrapper Backend
	      par2cmdline -

       pydrive backend
	      PyDrive -- a wrapper library of google-api-python-client -
	      (also see	A NOTE ON PYDRIVE BACKEND ) below.

       rsync backend
	      rsync client binary -

       ssh paramiko backend (default)
	      paramiko (SSH2 for python) - (downloads); (project page)
	      pycrypto (Python Cryptography Toolkit) -

       ssh pexpect backend
	      sftp/scp client binaries OpenSSH -
	      Python pexpect module -

       swift backend (OpenStack	Object Storage)
	      Python swiftclient module	-
	      Python keystoneclient module -

       webdav backend
	      certificate authority database file for ssl certificate
	      verification of HTTPS connections	-
	      Python kerberos module for kerberos authentication -

       MediaFire backend
	      MediaFire	Python Open SDK	-

       Original	Author - Ben Escoto <>

       Current Maintainer - Kenneth Loafman <>

       Continuous Contributors
	      Edgar Soldin, Mike Terry

       Most backends were contributed individually.  Information about their
       authorship may be found in the according	file's header.

       Also we'd like to thank everybody posting issues	to the mailing list or
       on launchpad, sending in	patches	or contributing	otherwise. Duplicity
       wouldn't	be as stable and useful	if it weren't for you.

       A special thanks	goes to, a Cloud Storage provider with
       explicit	support	for duplicity, for several monetary donations and for
       providing a special "duplicity friends" rate for	their offsite backup
       service.	 Email for details.

       rdiffdir(1), python(1), rdiff(1), rdiff-backup(1).

Version	0.7.12			March 21, 2017			  DUPLICITY(1)


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