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DRM-KMS(7)		   Direct Rendering Manager		    DRM-KMS(7)

NAME
       drm-kms - Kernel	Mode-Setting

SYNOPSIS
       #include	<xf86drm.h>

       #include	<xf86drmMode.h>

DESCRIPTION
       Each DRM	device provides	access to manage which monitors	and displays
       are currently used and what frames to be	displayed. This	task is	called
       Kernel Mode-Setting (KMS). Historically,	this was done in user-space
       and called User-space Mode-Setting (UMS). Almost	all open-source
       drivers now provide the KMS kernel API to do this in the	kernel,
       however,	many non-open-source binary drivers from different vendors
       still do	not support this. You can use drmModeSettingSupported(3) to
       check whether your driver supports this.	To understand how KMS works,
       we need to introduce 5 objects: CRTCs, Planes, Encoders,	Connectors and
       Framebuffers.

       CRTCs
	   A CRTC short	for CRT	Controller is an abstraction representing a
	   part	of the chip that contains a pointer to a scanout buffer.
	   Therefore, the number of CRTCs available determines how many
	   independent scanout buffers can be active at	any given time.	The
	   CRTC	structure contains several fields to support this: a pointer
	   to some video memory	(abstracted as a frame-buffer object), a list
	   of driven connectors, a display mode	and an (x, y) offset into the
	   video memory	to support panning or configurations where one piece
	   of video memory spans multiple CRTCs. A CRTC	is the central point
	   where configuration of displays happens. You	select which objects
	   to use, which modes and which parameters and	then configure each
	   CRTC	via drmModeCrtcSet(3) to drive the display devices.

       Planes
	   A plane respresents an image	source that can	be blended with	or
	   overlayed on	top of a CRTC during the scanout process. Planes are
	   associated with a frame-buffer to crop a portion of the image
	   memory (source) and optionally scale	it to a	destination size. The
	   result is then blended with or overlayed on top of a	CRTC. Planes
	   are not provided by all hardware and	the number of available	planes
	   is limited. If planes are not available or if not enough planes are
	   available, the user should fall back	to normal software blending
	   (via	GPU or CPU).

       Encoders
	   An encoder takes pixel data from a CRTC and converts	it to a	format
	   suitable for	any attached connectors. On some devices, it may be
	   possible to have a CRTC send	data to	more than one encoder. In that
	   case, both encoders would receive data from the same	scanout
	   buffer, resulting in	a cloned display configuration across the
	   connectors attached to each encoder.

       Connectors
	   A connector is the final destination	of pixel-data on a device, and
	   usually connects directly to	an external display device like	a
	   monitor or laptop panel. A connector	can only be attached to	one
	   encoder at a	time. The connector is also the	structure where
	   information about the attached display is kept, so it contains
	   fields for display data, EDID data, DPMS and	connection status, and
	   information about modes supported on	the attached displays.

       Framebuffers
	   Framebuffers	are abstract memory objects that provide a source of
	   pixel data to scanout to a CRTC. Applications explicitly request
	   the creation	of framebuffers	and can	control	their behavior.
	   Framebuffers	rely on	the underneath memory manager for low-level
	   memory operations. When creating a framebuffer, applications	pass a
	   memory handle through the API which is used as backing storage. The
	   framebuffer itself is only an abstract object with no data. It just
	   refers to memory buffers that must be created with the drm-
	   memory(7) API.

   Mode-Setting
       Before mode-setting can be performed, an	application needs to call
       drmSetMaster(3) to become DRM-Master. It	then has exclusive access to
       the KMS API. A call to drmModeGetResources(3) returns a list of CRTCs,
       Connectors, Encoders and	Planes.

       Normal procedure	now includes: First, you select	which connectors you
       want to use. Users are mostly interested	in which monitor or
       display-panel is	active so you need to make sure	to arrange them	in the
       correct logical order and select	the correct ones to use. For each
       connector, you need to find a CRTC to drive this	connector. If you want
       to clone	output to two or more connectors, you may use a	single CRTC
       for all cloned connectors (if the hardware supports this). To find a
       suitable	CRTC, you need to iterate over the list	of encoders that are
       available for each connector. Each encoder contains a list of CRTCs
       that it can work	with and you simply select one of these	CRTCs. If you
       later program the CRTC to control a connector, it automatically selects
       the best	encoder. However, this procedure is needed so your CRTC	has at
       least one working encoder for the selected connector. See the Examples
       section below for more information.

       All valid modes for a connector can be retrieved	with a call to
       drmModeGetConnector(3) You need to select the mode you want to use and
       save it.	The first mode in the list is the default mode with the
       highest resolution possible and often a suitable	choice.

       After you have a	working	connector+CRTC+mode combination, you need to
       create a	framebuffer that is used for scanout. Memory buffer allocation
       is driver-depedent and described	in drm-memory(7). You need to create a
       buffer big enough for your selected mode. Now you can create a
       framebuffer object that uses your memory-buffer as scanout buffer. You
       can do this with	drmModeAddFB(3)	and drmModeAddFB2(3).

       As a last step, you want	to program your	CRTC to	drive your selected
       connector. You can do this with a call to drmModeSetCrtc(3).

   Page-Flipping
       A call to drmModeSetCrtc(3) is executed immediately and forces the CRTC
       to use the new scanout buffer. If you want smooth-transitions without
       tearing,	you probably use double-buffering. You need to create one
       framebuffer object for each buffer you use. You can then	call
       drmModeSetCrtc(3) on the	next buffer to flip. If	you want to
       synchronize your	flips with vertical-blanks, you	can use
       drmModePageFlip(3) which	schedules your page-flip for the next vblank.

   Planes
       Planes are controlled independently from	CRTCs. That is,	a call to
       drmModeSetCrtc(3) does not affect planes. Instead, you need to call
       drmModeSetPlane(3) to configure a plane.	This requires the plane	ID, a
       CRTC, a framebuffer and offsets into the	plane-framebuffer and the
       CRTC-framebuffer. The CRTC then blends the content from the plane over
       the CRTC	framebuffer buffer during scanout. As this does	not involve
       any software-blending, it is way	faster than traditional	blending.
       However,	plane resources	are limited. See drmModeGetPlaneResources(3)
       for more	information.

   Cursors
       Similar to planes, many hardware	also supports cursors. A cursor	is a
       very small buffer with an image that is blended over the	CRTC
       framebuffer. You	can set	a different cursor for each CRTC with
       drmModeSetCursor(3) and move it on the screen with
       drmModeMoveCursor(3). This allows to move the cursor on the screen
       without rerendering. If no hardware cursors are supported, you need to
       rerender	for each frame the cursor is moved.

EXAMPLES
       Some examples of	how basic mode-setting can be done. See	the man-page
       of each DRM function for	more information.

   CRTC/Encoder	Selection
       If you retrieved	all display configuration information via
       drmModeGetResources(3) as drmModeRes *res, selected a connector from
       the list	in res->connectors and retrieved the connector-information as
       drmModeConnector	*conn via drmModeGetConnector(3) then this example
       shows, how you can find a suitable CRTC id to drive this	connector.
       This function takes a file-descriptor to	the DRM	device (see
       drmOpen(3)) as fd, a pointer to the retrieved resources as res and a
       pointer to the selected connector as conn. It returns an	integer
       smaller than 0 on failure, otherwise, a valid CRTC id is	returned.

	   static int modeset_find_crtc(int fd,	drmModeRes *res, drmModeConnector *conn)
	   {
		drmModeEncoder *enc;
		unsigned int i,	j;

		/* iterate all encoders	of this	connector */
		for (i = 0; i <	conn->count_encoders; ++i) {
		     enc = drmModeGetEncoder(fd, conn->encoders[i]);
		     if	(!enc) {
			  /* cannot retrieve encoder, ignoring... */
			  continue;
		     }

		     /*	iterate	all global CRTCs */
		     for (j = 0; j < res->count_crtcs; ++j) {
			  /* check whether this	CRTC works with	the encoder */
			  if (!(enc->possible_crtcs & (1 << j)))
			       continue;

			  /* Here you need to check that no other connector
			   * currently uses the	CRTC with id "crtc". If	you intend
			   * to	drive one connector only, then you can skip this
			   * step. Otherwise, simply scan your list of configured
			   * connectors	and CRTCs whether this CRTC is already
			   * used. If it is, then simply continue the search here. */
			  if (res->crtcs[j] "is	unused") {
			       drmModeFreeEncoder(enc);
			       return res->crtcs[j];
			  }
		     }

		     drmModeFreeEncoder(enc);
		}

		/* cannot find a suitable CRTC */
		return -ENOENT;
	   }

REPORTING BUGS
       Bugs in this manual should be reported to
       https://bugs.freedesktop.org/enter_bug.cgi?product=DRI&component=libdrm
       under the "DRI" product,	component "libdrm"

SEE ALSO
       drm(7), drm-memory(7), drmModeGetResources(3), drmModeGetConnector(3),
       drmModeGetEncoder(3), drmModeGetCrtc(3),	drmModeSetCrtc(3),
       drmModeGetFB(3),	drmModeAddFB(3), drmModeAddFB2(3), drmModeRmFB(3),
       drmModePageFlip(3), drmModeGetPlaneResources(3),	drmModeGetPlane(3),
       drmModeSetPlane(3), drmModeSetCursor(3),	drmModeMoveCursor(3),
       drmSetMaster(3),	drmAvailable(3), drmCheckModesettingSupported(3),
       drmOpen(3)

libdrm				September 2012			    DRM-KMS(7)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | EXAMPLES | REPORTING BUGS | SEE ALSO

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