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dpkg(1)				  dpkg suite			       dpkg(1)

       dpkg - package manager for Debian

       dpkg [option...]	action

       This  manual is intended	for users wishing to understand	dpkg's command
       line options and	package	states in more detail than  that  provided  by
       dpkg --help.

       It  should not be used by package maintainers wishing to	understand how
       dpkg will install their packages. The descriptions of  what  dpkg  does
       when installing and removing packages are particularly inadequate.

       dpkg  is	 a  tool to install, build, remove and manage Debian packages.
       The primary and more user-friendly front-end for	dpkg  is  aptitude(1).
       dpkg  itself  is	controlled entirely via	command	line parameters, which
       consist of exactly one action and zero or  more	options.  The  action-
       parameter tells dpkg what to do and options control the behavior	of the
       action in some way.

       dpkg can	also be	used as	a front-end to dpkg-deb(1) and	dpkg-query(1).
       The list	of supported actions can be found later	on in the ACTIONS sec-
       tion. If	any such action	is encountered	dpkg  just  runs  dpkg-deb  or
       dpkg-query with the parameters given to it, but no specific options are
       currently passed	to them, to use	any such option	the back-ends need  to
       be called directly.

       dpkg  maintains	some  usable information about available packages. The
       information is divided in three classes:	states,	selection  states  and
       flags. These values are intended	to be changed mainly with dselect.

   Package states
	      The package is not installed on your system.

	      Only the configuration files of the package exist	on the system.

	      The installation of the package has been started,	but  not  com-
	      pleted for some reason.

	      The package is unpacked, but not configured.

	      The  package is unpacked and configuration has been started, but
	      not yet completed	for some reason.

	      The package awaits trigger processing by another package.

	      The package has been triggered.

	      The package is correctly unpacked	and configured.

   Package selection states
	      The package is selected for installation.

       hold   A	package	marked to be on	hold is	not handled  by	 dpkg,	unless
	      forced to	do that	with option --force-hold.

	      The  package  is	selected  for  deinstallation (i.e. we want to
	      remove all files,	except configuration files).

       purge  The package is selected to be purged (i.e.  we  want  to	remove
	      everything from system directories, even configuration files).

   Package flags
       ok     A	 package marked	ok is in a known state,	but might need further

	      A	package	marked reinstreq is broken  and	 requires  reinstalla-
	      tion.  These  packages  cannot  be  removed,  unless forced with
	      option --force-remove-reinstreq.

       -i, --install package-file...
	      Install the package. If --recursive or -R	option	is  specified,
	      package-file must	refer to a directory instead.

	      Installation consists of the following steps:

	      1. Extract the control files of the new package.

	      2.  If  another version of the same package was installed	before
	      the new installation, execute prerm script of the	old package.

	      3. Run preinst script, if	provided by the	package.

	      4. Unpack	the new	files, and at the same time back  up  the  old
	      files, so	that if	something goes wrong, they can be restored.

	      5.  If  another version of the same package was installed	before
	      the new installation, execute the	postrm script of the old pack-
	      age.  Note that this script is executed after the	preinst	script
	      of the new package, because new files are	written	 at  the  same
	      time old files are removed.

	      6.  Configure the	package. See --configure for detailed informa-
	      tion about how this is done.

       --unpack	package-file...
	      Unpack the package, but don't configure it. If --recursive or -R
	      option  is  specified,  package-file  must  refer	to a directory

       --configure package...|-a|--pending
	      Configure	a package which	has been unpacked but not yet  config-
	      ured.   If  -a  or  --pending  is	 given instead of package, all
	      unpacked but unconfigured	packages are configured.

	      To reconfigure a package which has already been configured,  try
	      the dpkg-reconfigure(8) command instead.

	      Configuring consists of the following steps:

	      1.  Unpack  the  conffiles, and at the same time back up the old
	      conffiles, so that they can be restored if something goes	wrong.

	      2. Run postinst script, if provided by the package.

       --triggers-only package...|-a|--pending
	      Processes	only triggers (since dpkg 1.14.17).  All pending trig-
	      gers will	be processed.  If  package  names  are	supplied  only
	      those  packages'	triggers  will be processed, exactly once each
	      where necessary. Use of this option may leave  packages  in  the
	      improper	triggers-awaited and triggers-pending states. This can
	      be fixed later by	running: dpkg --configure --pending.

       -r, --remove package...|-a|--pending
	      Remove an	installed  package.  This  removes  everything	except
	      conffiles,  which	may avoid having to reconfigure	the package if
	      it is reinstalled	later (conffiles are configuration files  that
	      are  listed  in  the  DEBIAN/conffiles  control file).  If -a or
	      --pending	is given instead of a package name, then all  packages
	      unpacked,	but marked to be removed in file /var/lib/dpkg/status,
	      are removed.

	      Removing of a package consists of	the following steps:

	      1. Run prerm script

	      2. Remove	the installed files

	      3. Run postrm script

       -P, --purge package...|-a|--pending
	      Purge an installed or  already  removed  package.	 This  removes
	      everything,  including  conffiles.   If -a or --pending is given
	      instead of  a  package  name,  then  all	packages  unpacked  or
	      removed,	but  marked to be purged in file /var/lib/dpkg/status,
	      are purged.

	      Note: some configuration files might be unknown to dpkg  because
	      they  are	 created and handled separately	through	the configura-
	      tion scripts. In that case, dpkg won't remove  them  by  itself,
	      but  the	package's postrm script	(which is called by dpkg), has
	      to take care of their removal during purge. Of course, this only
	      applies  to files	in system directories, not configuration files
	      written to individual users' home	directories.

	      Purging of a package consists of the following steps:

	      1. Remove	the package, if	not already removed. See --remove  for
	      detailed information about how this is done.

	      2. Run postrm script.

       -V, --verify [package-name...]
	      Verifies	the integrity of package-name or all packages if omit-
	      ted, by comparing	information from  the  files  installed	 by  a
	      package  with  the files metadata	information stored in the dpkg
	      database (since dpkg 1.17.2).  The origin	of the files  metadata
	      information  in  the database is the binary packages themselves.
	      That metadata gets collected at package unpack time  during  the
	      installation process.

	      Currently	the only functional check performed is an md5sum veri-
	      fication of the file contents against the	stored	value  in  the
	      files  database.	 It will only get checked if the database con-
	      tains the	file md5sum. To	check for any missing metadata in  the
	      database,	the --audit command can	be used.

	      The output format	is selectable with the --verify-format option,
	      which by default uses the	rpm format, but	that might  change  in
	      the  future,  and	 as such, programs parsing this	command	output
	      should be	explicit about the format they expect.

       -C, --audit [package-name...]
	      Performs database	sanity and consistency checks for package-name
	      or  all  packages	 if  omitted  (per  package  checks since dpkg
	      1.17.10).	 For example, searches for  packages  that  have  been
	      installed	 only  partially  on your system or that have missing,
	      wrong or obsolete	control	data or	files. dpkg will suggest  what
	      to do with them to get them fixed.

       --update-avail [Packages-file]
	      --merge-avail  [Packages-file]  Update dpkg's and	dselect's idea
	      of which packages	are available. With action --merge-avail,  old
	      information  is  combined	 with  information from	Packages-file.
	      With action --update-avail, old information is replaced with the
	      information  in the Packages-file. The Packages-file distributed
	      with Debian is simply named <<Packages>>.	If  the	 Packages-file
	      argument	is  missing  or	 named <<->> then it will be read from
	      standard input (since dpkg 1.17.7). dpkg	keeps  its  record  of
	      available	packages in /var/lib/dpkg/available.

	      A	 simpler one-shot command to retrieve and update the available
	      file is dselect update. Note that	this file is mostly useless if
	      you don't	use dselect but	an APT-based frontend: APT has its own
	      system to	keep track of available	packages.

       -A, --record-avail package-file...
	      Update dpkg and dselect's	idea of	which packages	are  available
	      with  information	 from the package package-file.	If --recursive
	      or -R option is specified, package-file must refer to  a	direc-
	      tory instead.

	      Now obsolete and a no-op as dpkg will automatically forget unin-
	      stalled unavailable packages (since dpkg 1.15.4),	but only those
	      that do not contain user information such	as package selections.

	      Erase the	existing information about what	 packages  are	avail-

       --get-selections	[package-name-pattern...]
	      Get  list	of package selections, and write it to stdout. Without
	      a	pattern, non-installed packages	(i.e. those  which  have  been
	      previously purged) will not be shown.

	      Set  package  selections	using  file read from stdin. This file
	      should be	in the format "package state", where state is  one  of
	      install, hold, deinstall or purge. Blank lines and comment lines
	      beginning	with `#' are also permitted.

	      The available file needs to be up-to-date	for this command to be
	      useful,  otherwise unknown packages will be ignored with a warn-
	      ing. See the --update-avail and --merge-avail commands for  more

	      Set  the requested state of every	non-essential package to dein-
	      stall (since dpkg	1.13.18).  This	is intended to be used immedi-
	      ately  before --set-selections, to deinstall any packages	not in
	      list given to --set-selections.

	      Searches for packages selected for installation, but  which  for
	      some reason still	haven't	been installed.

	      Print  a single package which is the target of one or more rele-
	      vant pre-dependencies and	has itself no  unsatisfied  pre-depen-

	      If  such	a  package  is	present,  output it as a Packages file
	      entry, which can be massaged as appropriate.

	      Returns 0	when a package is printed, 1 when no suitable  package
	      is available and 2 on error.

       --add-architecture architecture
	      Add architecture to the list of architectures for	which packages
	      can be installed without using --force-architecture (since  dpkg
	      1.16.2).	The architecture dpkg is built for (i.e. the output of
	      --print-architecture) is always part of that list.

       --remove-architecture architecture
	      Remove architecture from the list	 of  architectures  for	 which
	      packages	can  be	 installed  without using --force-architecture
	      (since dpkg 1.16.2). If the architecture is currently in use  in
	      the  database  then  the	operation  will	 be refused, except if
	      --force-architecture is  specified.  The	architecture  dpkg  is
	      built for	(i.e. the output of --print-architecture) can never be
	      removed from that	list.

	      Print architecture  of  packages	dpkg  installs	(for  example,

	      Print  a	newline-separated list of the extra architectures dpkg
	      is configured to allow packages to be installed for (since  dpkg

	      Asserts  that dpkg supports the requested	feature.  Returns 0 if
	      the feature is fully supported, 1	if the feature	is  known  but
	      dpkg  cannot provide support for it yet, and 2 if	the feature is
	      unknown.	The current list of assertable features	is:

		     Supports the Pre-Depends field (since dpkg	1.1.0).

		     Supports epochs in	version	strings	(since dpkg

		     Supports  long  filenames	in deb(5) archives (since dpkg

		     Supports multiple	Conflicts  and	Replaces  (since  dpkg

		     Supports  multi-arch  fields  and	semantics  (since dpkg

		     Supports versioned	Provides (since	dpkg 1.17.11).

       --compare-versions ver1 op ver2
	      Compare version numbers, where op	is  a  binary  operator.  dpkg
	      returns  true  (0)  if the specified condition is	satisfied, and
	      false (1)	otherwise. There are two groups	 of  operators,	 which
	      differ  in  how they treat an empty ver1 or ver2.	These treat an
	      empty version as earlier than any	version: lt le eq  ne  ge  gt.
	      These  treat  an	empty version as later than any	version: lt-nl
	      le-nl ge-nl gt-nl. These are  provided  only  for	 compatibility
	      with  control file syntax: < << <= = >= >> >. The	< and >	opera-
	      tors are obsolete	and should  not	 be  used,  due	 to  confusing
	      semantics. To illustrate:	0.1 < 0.1 evaluates to true.

       -?, --help
	      Display a	brief help message.

	      Give help	about the --force-thing	options.

       -Dh, --debug=help
	      Give help	about debugging	options.

	      Display dpkg version information.

       dpkg-deb	actions
	      See   dpkg-deb(1)	 for  more  information	 about	the  following

	      -b, --build directory [archive|directory]
		  Build	a deb package.
	      -c, --contents archive
		  List contents	of a deb package.
	      -e, --control archive [directory]
		  Extract control-information from a package.
	      -x, --extract archive directory
		  Extract the files contained by package.
	      -X, --vextract archive directory
		  Extract and display the filenames contained by a
	      -f, --field  archive [control-field...]
		  Display control field(s) of a	package.
	      --ctrl-tarfile archive
		  Output the control tar-file contained	in a Debian package.
	      --fsys-tarfile archive
		  Output the filesystem	tar-file contained by a	Debian package.
	      -I, --info archive [control-file...]
		  Show information about a package.

       dpkg-query actions
	      See dpkg-query(1)	 for  more  information	 about	the  following

	      -l, --list package-name-pattern...
		  List packages	matching given pattern.
	      -s, --status package-name...
		  Report status	of specified package.
	      -L, --listfiles package-name...
		  List files installed to your system from package-name.
	      -S, --search filename-search-pattern...
		  Search for a filename	from installed packages.
	      -p, --print-avail	package-name...
		  Display details about	package-name, as found in
		  /var/lib/dpkg/available. Users of APT-based frontends
		  should use apt-cache show package-name instead.

       All  options  can be specified both on the command line and in the dpkg
       configuration file /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg or	 fragment  files  (with	 names
       matching	 this  shell  pattern  '[0-9a-zA-Z_-]*')  on the configuration
       directory /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg.d/.	Each line in the configuration file is
       either an option	(exactly the same as the command line option but with-
       out leading hyphens) or a comment (if it	starts with a `#').

	      Change after how many errors dpkg	will abort. The	default	is 50.

       -B, --auto-deconfigure
	      When  a  package is removed, there is a possibility that another
	      installed	package	depended on the	 removed  package.  Specifying
	      this  option will	cause automatic	deconfiguration	of the package
	      which depended on	the removed package.

       -Doctal,	--debug=octal
	      Switch debugging on. octal is formed by  bitwise-orring  desired
	      values  together from the	list below (note that these values may
	      change in	future releases). -Dh or  --debug=help	display	 these
	      debugging	values.

		  Number   Description
		       1   Generally helpful progress information
		       2   Invocation and status of maintainer scripts
		      10   Output for each file	processed
		     100   Lots	of output for each file	processed
		      20   Output for each configuration file
		     200   Lots	of output for each configuration file
		      40   Dependencies	and conflicts
		     400   Lots	of dependencies/conflicts output
		   10000   Trigger activation and processing
		   20000   Lots	of output regarding triggers
		   40000   Silly amounts of output regarding triggers
		    1000   Lots	of drivel about	e.g. the dpkg/info dir
		    2000   Insane amounts of drivel

	      --no-force-things, --refuse-things Force or refuse (no-force and
	      refuse mean the same thing) to do	some things. things is a comma
	      separated	 list of things	specified below. --force-help displays
	      a	message	describing them.  Things marked	with (*) are forced by

	      Warning: These options are mostly	intended to be used by experts
	      only. Using them without fully understanding their  effects  may
	      break your whole system.

	      all: Turns on (or	off) all force options.

	      downgrade(*):  Install a package,	even if	newer version of it is
	      already installed.

	      Warning: At present dpkg does not	do any dependency checking  on
	      downgrades  and  therefore  will	not  warn you if the downgrade
	      breaks the dependency of some other package. This	can have seri-
	      ous  side	 effects,  downgrading essential system	components can
	      even make	your whole system unusable. Use	with care.

	      configure-any: Configure	also  any  unpacked  but  unconfigured
	      packages on which	the current package depends.

	      hold: Process packages even when marked "hold".

	      remove-reinstreq:	 Remove	 a  package,  even  if it's broken and
	      marked to	require	reinstallation.	This may, for  example,	 cause
	      parts of the package to remain on	the system, which will then be
	      forgotten	by dpkg.

	      remove-essential:	Remove,	even  if  the  package	is  considered
	      essential.  Essential  packages  contain	mostly very basic Unix
	      commands.	Removing them might cause the  whole  system  to  stop
	      working, so use with caution.

	      depends: Turn all	dependency problems into warnings.

	      depends-version:	Don't care about versions when checking	depen-

	      breaks: Install, even if this would break	another	package	(since
	      dpkg 1.14.6).

	      conflicts:  Install,  even if it conflicts with another package.
	      This is dangerous, for it	will usually cause overwriting of some

	      confmiss:	 If a conffile is missing and the version in the pack-
	      age did change, always  install  the  missing  conffile  without
	      prompting.  This	is  dangerous, since it	means not preserving a
	      change (removing)	made to	the file.

	      confnew: If a conffile has been modified and the version in  the
	      package  did  change,  always  install  the  new version without
	      prompting, unless	the  --force-confdef  is  also	specified,  in
	      which case the default action is preferred.

	      confold:	If a conffile has been modified	and the	version	in the
	      package did change, always keep the old version without  prompt-
	      ing, unless the --force-confdef is also specified, in which case
	      the default action is preferred.

	      confdef: If a conffile has been modified and the version in  the
	      package  did  change,  always  choose the	default	action without
	      prompting. If there is no	default	action it will stop to ask the
	      user  unless  --force-confnew  or	 --force-confold  is also been
	      given, in	which case it  will  use  that	to  decide  the	 final

	      confask: If a conffile has been modified always offer to replace
	      it with the version in the package, even if the version  in  the
	      package	did  not  change  (since  dpkg	1.15.8).   If  any  of
	      --force-confmiss,	   --force-confnew,    --force-confold,	    or
	      --force-confdef  is  also	 given,	 it will be used to decide the
	      final action.

	      overwrite: Overwrite one package's file with another's file.

	      overwrite-dir: Overwrite one package's directory with  another's

	      overwrite-diverted: Overwrite a diverted file with an undiverted

	      unsafe-io: Do not	perform	safe  I/O  operations  when  unpacking
	      (since  dpkg	 Currently this	implies	not performing
	      file system syncs	before file renames, which is known  to	 cause
	      substantial performance degradation on some file systems,	unfor-
	      tunately the ones	that require the safe I/O on the  first	 place
	      due  to  their unreliable	behaviour causing zero-length files on
	      abrupt system crashes.

	      Note: For	ext4, the main offender, consider  using  instead  the
	      mount  option  nodelalloc,  which	 will fix both the performance
	      degradation and the data safety issues, the latter by making the
	      file  system  not	 produce  zero-length  files  on abrupt	system
	      crashes with any software	not doing syncs	before atomic renames.

	      Warning: Using this option might improve performance at the cost
	      of losing	data, use with care.

	      script-chrootless: Run maintainer	 scrips	 without  chroot(2)ing
	      into  instdir  even if the package does not support this mode of
	      operation	(since dpkg 1.18.5).

	      Warning: This can	destroy	your host  system,  use	 with  extreme

	      architecture:  Process  even packages with wrong or no architec-

	      bad-version: Process even	packages with  wrong  versions	(since
	      dpkg 1.16.1).

	      bad-path:	 PATH  is  missing important programs, so problems are

	      not-root:	Try to (de)install things even when not	root.

	      bad-verify: Install a package  even  if  it  fails  authenticity

	      Ignore  dependency-checking  for	specified  packages (actually,
	      checking is performed, but only  warnings	 about	conflicts  are
	      given, nothing else).

       --no-act, --dry-run, --simulate
	      Do  everything which is supposed to be done, but don't write any
	      changes. This is used to see what	would happen with  the	speci-
	      fied action, without actually modifying anything.

	      Be  sure	to  give  --no-act before the action-parameter,	or you
	      might end	up with	undesirable results. (e.g.  dpkg  --purge  foo
	      --no-act	will  first  purge  package  foo and then try to purge
	      package --no-act,	even though you	probably expected it to	 actu-
	      ally do nothing)

       -R, --recursive
	      Recursively  handle  all	regular	 files	matching pattern *.deb
	      found at specified directories and all  of  its  subdirectories.
	      This   can   be  used  with  -i,	-A,  --install,	 --unpack  and
	      --record-avail actions.

       -G     Don't install a package if a newer version of the	 same  package
	      is already installed. This is an alias of	--refuse-downgrade.

	      Change  default  administrative  directory,  which contains many
	      files that give information about	status of installed  or	 unin-
	      stalled packages,	etc.  (Defaults	to <</var/lib/dpkg>>)

	      Change default installation directory which refers to the	direc-
	      tory where packages are to be installed.	instdir	 is  also  the
	      directory	passed to chroot(2) before running package's installa-
	      tion scripts, which means	that the scripts see instdir as	a root
	      directory.  (Defaults to <</>>)

	      Changing	root  changes  instdir	to  <<dir>>  and  admindir  to

       -O, --selected-only
	      Only process the packages	that are  selected  for	 installation.
	      The actual marking is done with dselect or by dpkg, when it han-
	      dles packages. For example, when a package is removed,  it  will
	      be marked	selected for deinstallation.

       -E, --skip-same-version
	      Don't  install the package if the	same version of	the package is
	      already installed.

	      --post-invoke=command Set	an invoke hook command to be  run  via
	      "sh  -c" before or after the dpkg	run for	the unpack, configure,
	      install,	triggers-only,	remove,	 purge,	 add-architecture  and
	      remove-architecture  dpkg	actions	(since dpkg 1.15.4; add-archi-
	      tecture and remove-architecture  actions	since  dpkg  1.17.19).
	      This  option  can	 be  specified	multiple  times. The order the
	      options are specified is preserved, with the ones	from the  con-
	      figuration  files	 taking	 precedence.  The environment variable
	      DPKG_HOOK_ACTION is set  for  the	 hooks	to  the	 current  dpkg
	      action. Note: front-ends might call dpkg several times per invo-
	      cation, which might run the hooks	more times than	expected.

	      --path-include=glob-pattern Set glob-pattern as a	 path  filter,
	      either  by  excluding  or	re-including previously	excluded paths
	      matching the  specified  patterns	 during	 install  (since  dpkg

	      Warning:	take into account that depending on the	excluded paths
	      you might	completely break your system, use with caution.

	      The glob patterns	use the	same wildcards used in the shell, were
	      `*'  matches  any	 sequence  of  characters, including the empty
	      string and also  `/'.   For  example,  <</usr/*/READ*>>  matches
	      <</usr/share/doc/package/README>>.   As  usual,  `?' matches any
	      single character (again, including `/').	And `['	starts a char-
	      acter  class, which can contain a	list of	characters, ranges and
	      complementations.	See glob(7)  for  detailed  information	 about
	      globbing.	Note: the current implementation might re-include more
	      directories and symlinks than needed, to be on the safe side and
	      avoid possible unpack failures; future work might	fix this.

	      This  can	 be  used  to  remove all paths	except some particular
	      ones; a typical case is:


	      to remove	all documentation files	except the copyright files.

	      These two	options	can be specified multiple  times,  and	inter-
	      leaved  with  each other.	Both are processed in the given	order,
	      with the last rule that matches a	file name making the decision.

	      The  filters are applied when unpacking the binary packages, and
	      as such only have	knowledge of  the  type	 of  object  currently
	      being  filtered (e.g. a normal file or a directory) and have not
	      visibility of what objects will come next.  Because  these  fil-
	      ters have	side effects (in contrast to find(1) filters), exclud-
	      ing an exact pathname that happens to be a directory object like
	      /usr/share/doc  will  not	have the desired result, and only that
	      pathname will be excluded	(which could  be  automatically	 rein-
	      cluded  if  the  code sees the need).  Any subsequent files con-
	      tained within that directory will	fail to	unpack.

	      Hint: make sure the globs	are not	expanded by your shell.

       --verify-format format-name
	      Sets the output format for  the  --verify	 command  (since  dpkg

	      The  only	 currently  supported output format is rpm, which con-
	      sists of a line for every	path that failed any check.  The lines
	      start  with 9 characters to report each specific check result, a
	      `?' implies the check could not be done (lack of	support,  file
	      permissions, etc), `.' implies the check passed, and an alphanu-
	      meric character implies a	specific check failed; the md5sum ver-
	      ification	 failure  (the	file contents have changed) is denoted
	      with a `5' on the	third character.  The line is  followed	 by  a
	      space  and an attribute character	(currently `c' for conffiles),
	      another space and	the pathname.

       --status-fd n
	      Send machine-readable package status and progress	information to
	      file  descriptor n. This option can be specified multiple	times.
	      The information is generally one record per line,	in one of  the
	      following	forms:

	      status: package: status
		     Package  status changed; status is	as in the status file.

	      status: package :	error :	extended-error-message
		     An	error occurred.	Any  possible  newlines	 in  extended-
		     error-message  will be converted to spaces	before output.

	      status: file : conffile-prompt : 'real-old'  'real-new'  usered-
	      ited distedited
		     User is being asked a conffile question.

	      processing: stage: package
		     Sent just before a	processing stage starts. stage is  one
		     of	upgrade, install (both sent before unpacking), config-
		     ure, trigproc, disappear, remove, purge.

	      Send machine-readable package status and progress	information to
	      the shell	command's standard input, to be	run via	"sh -c"	(since
	      dpkg 1.16.0).  This option can be	specified multiple times.  The
	      output format used is the	same as	in --status-fd.

	      Log  status  change  updates and actions to filename, instead of
	      the default /var/log/dpkg.log. If	this option is given  multiple
	      times,  the  last	filename is used. Log messages are of the form
	      `YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS startup type	command' for each dpkg invoca-
	      tion  where  type	 is  archives  (with  a	 command  of unpack or
	      install)	or  packages  (with  a	command	 of  configure,	 trig-
	      gers-only,  remove  or purge); `YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS status state
	      pkg installed-version' for status	 change	 updates;  `YYYY-MM-DD
	      HH:MM:SS	action	pkg  installed-version	available-version' for
	      actions where action is  one  of	install,  upgrade,  configure,
	      trigproc,	 disappear,  remove or purge; and `YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS
	      conffile filename	decision' for conffile changes where  decision
	      is either	install	or keep.

	      Do not try to verify package signatures.

	      Do  not  run  any	triggers in this run (since dpkg 1.14.17), but
	      activations will still be	recorded.  If  used  with  --configure
	      package  or  --triggers-only  package  then  the	named  package
	      postinst will still be run  even	if  only  a  triggers  run  is
	      needed.  Use  of	this option may	leave packages in the improper
	      triggers-awaited and triggers-pending states. This can be	 fixed
	      later by running:	dpkg --configure --pending.

	      Cancels a	previous --no-triggers (since dpkg 1.14.17).

       0      The  requested action was	successfully performed.	 Or a check or
	      assertion	command	returned true.

       1      A	check or assertion command returned false.

       2      Fatal or unrecoverable error due to invalid command-line	usage,
	      or  interactions	with the system, such as accesses to the data-
	      base, memory allocations,	etc.

   External environment
       PATH   This variable is expected	to be defined in the  environment  and
	      point to the system paths	where several required programs	are to
	      be found.	If it's	not set	or the programs	are  not  found,  dpkg
	      will abort.

       HOME   If set, dpkg will	use it as the directory	from which to read the
	      user specific configuration file.

       TMPDIR If set, dpkg will	use it as the directory	 in  which  to	create
	      temporary	files and directories.

       PAGER  The program dpkg will execute when displaying the	conffiles.

       SHELL  The  program  dpkg  will execute when starting a new interactive

	      Sets the number of columns dpkg should use when displaying  for-
	      matted text.  Currently only used	by --list.

	      Sets the color mode (since dpkg 1.18.5).	The currently accepted
	      values are: auto,	always and never (default).

   Internal environment
	      Defined by dpkg on the maintainer	script environment to indicate
	      which  installation to act on (since dpkg	1.18.5).  The value is
	      intended to be prepended to any path maintainer scripts  operate
	      on.   During  normal  operation,	this  variable is empty.  When
	      installing packages into	a  different  instdir,	dpkg  normally
	      invokes maintainer scripts using chroot(2) and leaves this vari-
	      able empty, but if --force-script-chrootless is  specified  then
	      the chroot(2) call is skipped and	instdir	is non-empty.

	      Defined  by  dpkg	on the shell spawned on	the conffile prompt to
	      examine the situation (since dpkg	1.15.6).  Current valid	value:

	      Defined  by  dpkg	on the shell spawned on	the conffile prompt to
	      examine the situation (since dpkg	1.15.6).  Contains the path to
	      the old conffile.

	      Defined  by  dpkg	on the shell spawned on	the conffile prompt to
	      examine the situation (since dpkg	1.15.6).  Contains the path to
	      the new conffile.

	      Defined  by  dpkg	 on  the  shell	 spawned when executing	a hook
	      action (since dpkg 1.15.4).  Contains the	current	dpkg action.

	      Defined by dpkg on the maintainer	script environment to the ver-
	      sion   of	 the  currently	 running  dpkg	instance  (since  dpkg

	      Defined by dpkg on the  maintainer  script  environment  to  the
	      (non-arch-qualified)  package  name  being  handled  (since dpkg

	      Defined by dpkg on the  maintainer  script  environment  to  the
	      package  reference  count,  i.e. the number of package instances
	      with a state greater than	not-installed (since dpkg 1.17.2).

	      Defined by dpkg on the  maintainer  script  environment  to  the
	      architecture the package got built for (since dpkg 1.15.4).

	      Defined by dpkg on the maintainer	script environment to the name
	      of the script running, one of preinst, postinst, prerm or	postrm
	      (since dpkg 1.15.7).

	      Defined  by dpkg on the maintainer script	environment to a value
	      (`0' or `1') noting whether debugging has	been  requested	 (with
	      the  --debug  option)  for  the  maintainer  scripts (since dpkg

	      Configuration fragment files (since dpkg 1.15.4).

	      Configuration file with default options.

	      Default log file (see /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg(5) and option --log).

       The other files listed below are	 in  their  default  directories,  see
       option --admindir to see	how to change locations	of these files.

	      List of available	packages.

	      Statuses	of  available packages.	This file contains information
	      about whether a package is marked	for removing or	 not,  whether
	      it is installed or not, etc. See section INFORMATION ABOUT PACK-
	      AGES for more info.

	      The status file is backed	up daily in /var/backups.  It  can  be
	      useful if	it's lost or corrupted due to filesystems troubles.

       The  following files are	components of a	binary package.	See deb(5) for
       more information	about them:

       --no-act	usually	gives less information than might be helpful.

       To list installed packages related  to  the  editor  vi(1)  (note  that
       dpkg-query does not load	the available file anymore by default, and the
       dpkg-query --load-avail option should be	used instead for that):
	    dpkg -l '*vi*'

       To see the entries in /var/lib/dpkg/available of	two packages:
	    dpkg --print-avail elvis vim | less

       To search the listing of	packages yourself:
	    less /var/lib/dpkg/available

       To remove an installed elvis package:
	    dpkg -r elvis

       To install a package, you first need to find it in an archive or	CDROM.
       The available file shows	that the vim package is	in section editors:
	    cd /media/cdrom/pool/main/v/vim
	    dpkg -i vim_4.5-3.deb

       To make a local copy of the package selection states:
	    dpkg --get-selections >myselections

       You  might  transfer  this  file	 to another computer, and after	having
       updated the available file there	with your package manager frontend  of
       choice  (see for	more details),
       for example:
	    apt-cache dumpavail	| dpkg --merge-avail
       or with dpkg 1.17.6 and earlier:
	    apt-cache dumpavail	>"$avail"
	    dpkg --merge-avail "$avail"
	    rm "$avail"
       you can install it with:
	    dpkg --clear-selections
	    dpkg --set-selections <myselections

       Note that this will not actually	install	or remove anything,  but  just
       set  the	 selection state on the	requested packages. You	will need some
       other application to actually download and install the requested	 pack-
       ages. For example, run apt-get dselect-upgrade.

       Ordinarily,  you	 will  find that dselect(1) provides a more convenient
       way to modify the package selection states.

       Additional functionality	can be gained by installing any	of the follow-
       ing packages: apt, aptitude and debsums.

       aptitude(1), apt(1), dselect(1),	dpkg-deb(1), dpkg-query(1), deb(5),
       deb-control(5), dpkg.cfg(5), and	dpkg-reconfigure(8).

       See /usr/share/doc/dpkg/THANKS for the list of people who have
       contributed to dpkg.

Debian Project			  2014-08-16			       dpkg(1)


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