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DOCLIFTER(1)		      Documentation Tools		  DOCLIFTER(1)

       doclifter - translate troff requests into DocBook

       doclifter [-o output-location] [-e output-encoding]
		 [-i input-encodings] [-h hintfile] [-q] [-x] [-v] [-w]	[-V]
		 [-D token=type] [-I path] [-S spoofname] file...

       doclifter translates documents written in troff macros to DocBook.
       Structural subsets of the requests in man(7), mdoc(7), ms(7), me(7),
       mm(7), and troff(1) are supported.

       The translation brings over all the structure of	the original document
       at section, subsection, and paragraph level. Command and	C function
       synopses	are translated into DocBook markup, not	just a verbatim
       display.	Tables (TBL markup) are	translated into	DocBook	table markup.
       PIC diagrams are	translated into	SVG. Troff-level information that
       might have structural implications is preserved in XML comments.

       Where possible, font-change macros are translated into structural
       markup.	doclifter recognizes stereotyped patterns of markup and
       content (such as	the use	of italics in a	FILES section to mark
       filenames) and lifts them. A means to edit, add,	and save semantic
       hints about highlighting	is supported.

       Some cliches are	recognized and lifted to structural markup even
       without highlighting. Patterns recognized include such things as	URLs,
       email addresses,	man page references, and C program listings.

       The tag .in and .ti requests are	passed through with complaints.	They
       indicate	presentation-level markup that doclifter cannot	translate into
       structure; the output will require hand-fixing.

       The tag .ta is passed through with a complaint unless the immediarely
       following by text lines contains	a tab, in which	case the following
       span of lines containing	tabs is	lifted to a table.

       Under some circumstances, doclifter can even lift formatted manual
       pages and the text output produced by lynx(1) from HTML.	If it finds no
       macros in the input, but	does find a NAME section header, it tries to
       interpret the plain text	as a manual page (skipping boilerplate headers
       and footers generated by	lynx(1)). Translations produced	in this	way
       will be prone to	miss structural	features, but this fallback is good
       enough for simple man pages.

       doclifter does not do a perfect job, merely a surprisingly good one.
       Final polish should be applied by a human being capable of recognizing
       patterns	too subtle for a computer. But doclifter will almost always
       produce translations that are good enough to be usable before

       See the Troubleshooting section for discussion of how to	solve document
       conversion problems.

       If called without arguments doclifter acts as a filter, translating
       troff source input on standard input to DocBook markup on standard
       output. If called with arguments, each argument file is translated
       separately (but hints are retained, see below); the suffix .xml is
       given to	the translated output.

	   Set the output location where files will be saved. Defaults to
	   current working directory.

	   Name	a file to which	information on semantic	hints gathered during
	   analysis should be written.

	   The -D allows you to	post a hint. This may be useful, for example,
	   if doclifter	is mis-parsing a synopsis because it doesn't recognize
	   a token as a	command. This hint is merged after hints in the	input
	   source have been read.

	   The -I option adds its argument to the include path used when
	   docfilter searches for inclusions. The include path is initially
	   just	the current directory.

	   Set the filename to be used in error	and warning messages. This is
	   mainly inttended for	use by test scripts.

	   The -e allows you to	set the	output encoding	of the XML and the
	   encoding field to be	emitted	in its header. It defaults to UTF-8.

	   The -i allows you to	set a comma-separated list of encodings	to be
	   looked for in the input. The	default	is "ISO-8859-1,UTF-8", which
	   should cover	almost all cases.

	   Normally, requests that doclifter could not interpret (usually
	   because they're presentation-level) are passed through to XML
	   comments in the output. The -q option suppresses this. It also
	   suppresses listing of macros. Messages about	requests that are
	   unrecognized	or cannot be translated	go to standard error whatever
	   the state of	this option. This option is intended to	reduce clutter
	   when	you believe you	have a clean lift of a document	and want to
	   lose	the troff legacy.

	   The -x option requests that doclifter generate DocBook version 5
	   compatible xml content, rather than its default DocBook version 4.4
	   output. Inclusions and entities may not be handled correctly	with
	   this	switch enabled.

	   The -v option makes doclifter noisier about what it's doing.	This
	   is mainly useful for	debugging.

	   Enable strict portability checking. Multiple	instances of -w
	   increase the	strictness. See	the section called "PORTABILITY

	   With	this option, the program emits a version message and exits.

       Overall,	you can	expect that font changes will be turned	into Emphasis
       macros with a Remap attribute taken from	the troff font name. The basic
       font names are R, I, B, U, CW, and SM.

       Troff and macro-package special character escapes are mapped into ISO
       character entities.

       When doclifter encounters a .so directive, it searches for the file. If
       it can get read access to the file, and open it,	and the	file consists
       entirely	of command lines and comments, then it is included. If any of
       these conditions	fails, an entity reference for it is generated.

       doclifter performs special parsing when it recognizes a display such as
       is generated by .DS/.DE.	It repeatedly tries to parse first a function
       synopsis, and then plain	text off what remains in the display. Thus,
       most inline C function prototypes will be lifted	to structured markup.

       Some notes on specific translations:

   Man Translation
       doclifter does a	good job on most man pages, It knows about the
       extended	UR/UE/UN and URL requests supported under Linux. If any	.UR
       request is present, it will translate these but not wrap	URLs outide
       them with Ulink tags. It	also knows about the extended .L (literal)
       font markup from	Bell Labs Version 8, and its friends.

       The .TH macro is	used to	generate a RefMeta section. If present,	the
       date/source/manual arguments (see man(7)) are wrapped in	RefMiscInfo
       tag pairs with those class attributes. Note that	doclifter does not
       change the date.

       doclifter performs special parsing when it recognizes a synopsis
       section.	It repeatedly tries to parse first a function synopsis,	then a
       command synopsis, and then plain	text off what remains in the section.

       The following man macros	are translated into emphasis tags with a remap
       attribute: .B, .I, .L, .BI, .BR,	.BL, .IB, .IR, .IL, .RB, .RI, .RL,
       .LB, .LI, .LR, .SB, .SM.	Some stereotyped patterns involving these
       macros are recognized and turned	into semantic markup.

       The following macros are	translated into	paragraph breaks: .LP, .PP,
       .P, .HP,	and the	single-argument	form of	.IP.

       The two-argument	form of	.IP is translated either as a VariableList
       (usually) or ItemizedList (if the tag is	the troff bullet or square

       The following macros are	translated semantically: .SH,.SS, .TP, .UR,
       .UE, .UN, .IX. A	.UN call just before .SH or .SS	sets the ID for	the
       new section.

       The \*R,	\*(Tm, \*(lq, and \*(rq	symbols	are translated.

       The following (purely presentation-level) macros	are ignored: .PD,.DT.

       The .RS/.RE macros are translated differently depending on whether or
       not they	precede	list markup. When .RS occurs just before .TP or	.IP
       the result is nested lists. Otherwise, the .RS/.RE pair is translated
       into a Blockquote tag-pair.

       .DS/.DE is not part of the documented man macro set, but	is recognized
       because it shows	up with	some frequency on legacy man pages from	older

       Certain extension macros	originally defined under Ultrix	are translated
       structurally, including those that occasionally show up on the manual
       pages of	Linux and other	open-source Unixes.  .EX/.EE (and the synonyms
       .Ex/.Ee), .Ds/.De,

       .NT/.NE,	.PN, and .MS are translated structurally.

       The following extension macros used by the X distribution are also
       recognized and translated structurally: .FD, .FN, .IN, .ZN, .hN,	and
       .C{/.C} The .TA and .IN requests	are ignored.

       When the	man macros are active, any .Pp macro definition	containing the
       request .PP will	be ignored. and	all instances of .Pp replaced with
       .PP. Similarly, .Tp will	be replaced with .TP. This is the least
       painful way to deal with	some frequently-encountered stereotyped
       wrapper definitions that	would otherwise	cause serious interpretation

       Known problem areas with	man translation:

       o   Weird uses of .TP. These will sometime generate invalid XML and
	   sometimes result in a FIXME comment in the generated	XML (a warning
	   message will	also go	to standard error).

       o   It is debatable how the man macros .HP and .IP without tag should
	   be translated. We treat them	as an ordinary paragraph break.	We
	   could visually simulate a hanging paragraph with list markup, but
	   this	would not be a structural translation.

   Pod2man Translation
       doclifter recognizes the	extension macros produced by pod2man (.Sh,
       .Sp, .Ip, .Vb, .Ve) and translates them structurally.

       The results of lifting pages produced by	pod2man	should be checked
       carefully by eyeball, especially	the rendering of command and function
       synopses.  Pod2man generates rather perverse markup; doclifter's
       struggle	to untangle it is sometimes in vain.

       If possible, generate your DocBook from the POD sources.	There is a
       pod2docbook module on CPAN that does this.

   Tkman Translation
       doclifter recognizes the	extension macros used by the Tcl/Tk
       documentation system: .AP, .AS, .BS, .BE, .CS, .CE, .DS,	.DE, .SO, .SE,
       .UL, .VS, .VE. The .AP, .CS, .CE, .SO, .SE, .UL,	.QW and	.PQ macros are
       translated structurally.

   Mandoc Translation
       doclifter should	be able	to do an excellent job on most mdoc(7) pages,
       because this macro package expresses a lot of semantic structure.

       Known problems with mandoc translation: All .Bd/.Ed display blocks are
       translated as LiteralLayout tag pairs .

   Ms Translation
       doclifter does a	good job on most ms pages. One weak spot to watch out
       for is the generation of	Author and Affiliation tags. The heuristics
       used to mine this information out of the	.AU section work for authors
       who format their	names in the way usual for English (e.g. "M. E.	Lesk",
       "Eric S.	Raymond") but are quite	brittle.

       For a document to be recognized as containing ms	markup,	it must	have
       the extension .ms. This avoids problems with false positives.

       The .TL,	.AU, .AI, and .AE macros turn into article metainformation in
       the expected way. The .PP, .LP, .SH, and	.NH macros turn	into paragraph
       and section structure. The tagged form of .IP is	translated either as a
       VariableList (usually) or ItemizedList (if the tag is the troff bullet
       or square character); the untagged version is treated as	an ordinary
       paragraph break.

       The .DS/.DE pair	is translated to a LiteralLayout tag pair . The
       .FS/.FE pair is translated to a Footnote	tag pair. The .QP/.QS/.QE
       requests	define BlockQuotes.

       The .UL font change is mapped to	U.  .SM	and .LG	become numeric plus or
       minus size steps	suffixed to the	Remap attribute.

       The .B1 and .B2 box macros are translated to a Sidebar tag pair.

       All macros relating to page footers, multicolumn	mode, and keeps	are
       ignored (.ND, .DA, .1C, .2C, .MC, .BX, .KS, .KE,	.KF). The .R, .RS, and
       .RE macros are ignored as well.

   Me Translation
       Translation of me documents tends to produce crude results that need a
       lot of hand-hacking. The	format has little usable structure, and
       documents written in it tend to use a lot of low-level troff macros;
       both these properties tend to confuse doclifter.

       For a document to be recognized as containing me	markup,	it must	have
       the extension .me. This avoids problems with false positives.

       The following macros are	translated into	paragraph breaks: .lp, .pp.
       The .ip macro is	translated into	a VariableList.	The .bp	macro is
       translated into an ItemizedList.	The .np	macro is translated into an

       The b, i, and r fonts are mapped	to emphasis tags with B, I, and	R
       Remap attributes. The .rb ("real	bold") font is treated the same	as .b.

       .q(/.q) is translated structurally .

       Most other requests are ignored.

   Mm Translation
       Memorandum Macros documents translate well, as these macros carry a lot
       of structural information. The translation rules	are tuned for
       Memorandum or Released Paper styles; information	associated with
       external-letter style will be preserved in comments.

       For a document to be recognized as containing mm	markup,	it must	have
       the extension .mm. This avoids problems with false positives.

       The following highlight macros are translated int Emphasis tags:	.B,
       .I, .R, .BI, .BR, .IB, .IR, .RB,	.RI.

       The following macros are	structurally translated: .AE, .AF, .AL,	.RL,
       .APP, .APPSK, .AS, .AT, .AU, .B1, .B2, .BE, .BL,	.ML, .BS, .BVL,	.VL,
       .DE, .DL	.DS, .FE, .FS, .H, .HU,	.IA, .IE, .IND,	.LB, .LC, .LE, .LI,
       .P, .RF,	.SM, .TL, .VERBOFF, .VERBON, .WA, .WE.

       The following macros are	ignored:

	.)E, .1C, .2C, .AST, .AV, .AVL,	.COVER,	.COVEND, .EF, .EH, .EDP,
       .EPIC, .FC, .FD,	.HC, .HM, .GETR, .GETST, .HM, .INITI, .INITR, .INDP,
       .ISODATE, .MT, .NS, .ND,	.OF, .OH, .OP, .PGFORM,	.PGNH, .PE, .PF, .PH,
       .RP, .S,	.SA, .SP, .SG, .SK, .TAB, .TB, .TC, .VM, .WC.

       The following macros generate warnings: .EC, .EX, .GETHN, .GETPN,
       .GETR, .GETST, .LT, .LD,	.LO, .MOVE, .MULB, .MULN, .MULE, .NCOL,	.nP,
       .PIC, .RD, .RS, .RE, .SETR

       Pairs of	.DS/.DE	are interpreted	as informal figures. If	an .FG is
       present it becomes a caption element.

	.BS/.BE	and .IA/.IE pairs are passed through. The text inside them may
       need to be deleted or moved.

       The mark	argument of .ML	is ignored; the	following list id formatted as
       a normal	ItemizedList.

       The contents of .DS/.DE or .DF/.DE gets turned into a Screen display.
       Arguments controlling presentation-level	formatting are ignored.

   Mwww	Translation
       The mwww	macros are an extension	to the man macros supported by
       groff(1)	for producing web pages.

       The URL,	FTP, MAILTO, FTP, IMAGE, TAG tags are translated structurally.
       The HTMLINDEX, BODYCOLOR, BACKGROUND, HTML, and LINE tags are ignored.

   TBL Translation
       All structural features of TBL tables are translated, including both
       horizontal and vertical spanning	with `s' and `^'. The `l', `r',	and
       `c' formats are supported; the `n' column format	is rendered as `r'.
       Line continuations with T{ and T} are handled correctly.	So is .TH.

       The expand, box,	doublebox, allbox, center, left, and right options are
       supported. The GNU synonyms frame and doubleframe are also recognized.
       But the distinction between single and double rules and boxes is	lost.

       Table continuations (.T&) are not supported.

       If the first nonempty line of text immediately before a table is
       boldfaced, it is	interpreted as a title for the table and the table is
       generated using a table and title. Otherwise the	table is translated
       with informaltable.

       Most other presentation-level TBL commands are ignored. The `b' format
       qualifier is processed, but point size and width	qualifiers are not.

   Pic Translation
       PIC sections are	translated to SVG.  doclifter calls out	to pic2plot(1)
       to accomplish this; you must have that utility installed	for PIC
       translation to work.

   Eqn Translation
       EQN sections are	filtered into embedded MathML with eqn -TMathML	if
       possible, otherwise passed through enclosed in LiteralLayout tags.
       After a delim statement has been	seen, inline eqn delimiters are
       translated into an XML processing instruction. Exception: inline	eqn
       equations consisting of a single	character are translated to an
       Emphasis	with a Role attribute of eqn.

   Troff Translation
       The troff translation is	meant only to support interpretation of	the
       macro sets. It is not useful standalone.

       The .nf and .fi macros are interpreted as literal-layout	boundaries.
       Calls to	the .so	macro either cause inclusion or	are translated into
       XML entity inclusions (see above). Calls	to the .ul and .cu macros
       cause following lines to	be wrapped in an Emphasis tag with a Remap
       attribute of "U". Calls to .ft generate corresponding start or end
       emphasis	tags. Calls to .tr cause character translation on output.
       Calls to	.bp generate a BeginPage tag (in paragraphed text only). Calls
       to .sp generate a paragraph break (in paragraphed text only). Calls to
       .ti wrap	the following line in a	BlockQuote These are the only troff
       requests	we translate to	DocBook. The rest of the troff emulation
       exists because macro packages use it internally to expand macros	into
       elements	that might be structural.

       Requests	relating to macro definitions and strings (.ds,	.as, .de, .am,
       .rm, .rn, .em) are processed and	expanded. The .ig macro	is also

       Conditional macros (.if,	.ie, .el) are handled. The built-in conditions
       o, n, t,	e, and c are evaluated as if for nroff on page one of a
       document. The m,	d, and r troff conditionals are	also interpreted.
       String comparisons are evaluated	by straight textual comparison.	All
       numeric expressions evaluate to true.

       The extended groff requests cc, c2, ab, als, do,	nop, and return	and
       shift are interpreted. Its .PSPIC extension is translated into a

       The .tm macro writes its	arguments to standard error (with -t). The .pm
       macro reports on	defined	macros and strings. These facilities may aid
       in debugging your translation.

       Some troff escape sequences are lifted:

	1. The \e and \\ escapes become	a bare backslash, \. a period, and \-
	   a bare dash.

	2. The troff escapes \^, \`, \'	\&, \0,	and \| are lifted to
	   equivalent ISO special spacing characters.

	3. A \ followed	by space is translated to an ISO non-breaking space

	4. A \~	is also	translated to an ISO non-breaking space	entity;
	   properly this should	be a space that	can't be used for a linebreak
	   but stretches like ordinary whitepace during	line adjustment, but
	   there is no ISO or Unicode entity for that.

	5. The \u and \d half-line motion vertical motion escapes, when
	   paired, become Superscript or Subscript tags.

	6. The \c escape is handled as a line continuation. in circumstances
	   where that matters (e.g. for	token-pasting).

	7. The \f escape for font changes is translated	in various
	   context-dependent ways. First, doclifter looks for cliches
	   involving font changes that have semantic meaning, and lifts	to a
	   structural tag. If it can't do that,	it generates an	Emphasis tag.

	8. The \m[] extension is translated into a phrase span with a remap
	   attribute carrying the color. Note: Stylesheets typically won't
	   render this!

	9. Some	uses of	the \o request are translated: pairs with a letter
	   followed by one of the characters ` ' : ^ o ~ are translated	to
	   combining forms with	diacriticals acute, grave, umlaut, circumflex,
	   ring, and tilde respectively	if the corresponding Latin-1 or
	   Latin-2 character exists as an ISO literal.

       Other escapes than these	will yield warnings or errors.

       All other troff requests	are ignored but	passed through into XML
       comments. A few (such as	.ce) also trigger a warning message.

       When portability	checking is enabled, doclifter emits portability
       warnings	about markup which it can handle but which will	break various
       other viewers and interpreters.

	1. At level 1, it will warn about constructions	that would break
	   man2html(1),	(the C program distributed with	Linux man(1), not the
	   older and much less capable Perl script). A close derivative	of
	   this	code is	used in	GNOME yelp. This should	be the minimum level
	   of portability you aim for, and corresponds to what is recommended
	   on the groff_man(7) manual page.

	2. At level 2, it will warn about constructions	that will break
	   portability back to the Unix	classic	tools (including long macro
	   names and glyph references with \[]).

       doclifter keeps two lists of semantic hints that	it picks up from
       analyzing source	documents (especially from parsing command and
       function	synopses). The local list includes:

       o   Names of function formal arguments

       o   Names of command options

       Local hints are used to mark up the individual page from	which they are
       gathered. The global list includes:

       o   Names of functions

       o   Names of commands

       o   Names of function return types

       If doclifter is applied to multiple files, the global list is retained
       in memory. You can dump a report	of global hints	at the end of the run
       with the	-h option. The format of the hints is as follows:

	    .\"	| mark <phrase>	as <markup>

       where <phrase> is an item of text and <markup> is the DocBook markup
       text it should be wrapped with whenever it appeared either highlighted
       or as a word surrounded by whitespace in	the source text.

       Hints derived from earlier files	are also applied to later ones.	This
       behavior	may be useful when lifting collections of documents that apply
       to a function or	command	library. What should be	more useful is the
       fact that a hints file dumped with -h can be one	of the file arguments
       to doclifter; the code detects this special case	and does not write XML
       output for such a file. Thus, a good procedure for lifting a large
       library is to generate a	hints file with	a first	run, inspect it	to
       delete false positives, and use it as the first input to	a second run.

       It is also possible to include a	hints file directly in a troff
       sourcefile. This	may be useful if you want to enrich the	file by	stages
       before converting to XML.

       doclifter tries to warn about problems that it can can diagnose but not
       fix by itself. When it says "look for FIXME", do	that in	the generated
       XML; the	markup around that token may be	wrong.

       Occasionally (less than 2% of the time) doclifter will produce invalid
       DocBook markup even from	correct	troff markup. Usually this results
       from strange constructions in the source	page, or macro calls that are
       beyond the ability of doclifter's macro processor to get	right. Here
       are some	things to watch	for, and how to	fix them:

   Malformed command synopses.
       If you get a message that says "command synopsis	parse failed", try
       rewriting the synopsis in your manual page source. The most common
       cause of	failure	is unbalanced [] groupings, a bug that can be very
       difficult to notice by eyeball. To assist with this, the	error message
       includes	a token	number in parentheses indicating on which token	the
       parse failed.

       For more	information, use the -v	option.	This will trigger a dump
       telling you what	the command synopsis looked like after preprocessing,
       and indicate on which token the parse failed (both with a token number
       and a caret sign	inserted in the	dump of	the synopsis tokens). Try
       rewriting the synopsis in your manual page source. The most common
       cause of	failure	is unbalanced [] groupings, a bug that can be very
       difficult to notice by eyeball. To assist with this, the	error token
       dump tries to insert `$'	at the point of	the last nesting-depth
       increase, but the code that does	this is	failure-prone.

   Confusing macro calls.
       Some manual page	authors	replace	standard requests (like	.PP, .SH and
       .TP) with versions that do different things in nroff and	troff
       environments. While doclifter tries to cope and usually does a good
       job, the	quirks of [nt]roff are legion and confusing macro calls
       sometimes lead to bad XML being generated. A common symptom of such
       problems	is unclosed Emphasis tags.

   Malformed list syntax.
       The manual-page parser can be confused by .TP constructs	that have
       header tags but no following body. If the XML produced doesn't
       validate, and the problem seems to be a misplaced listitem tag, try
       using the verbose (-v) option. This will	enable line-numbered warnings
       that may	help you zero in on the	problem.

   Section nesting problems with SS.
       The message "possible section nesting error" means that the program has
       seen two	adjacent subsection headers. In	man pages, subsections don't
       have a depth argument, so doclifter cannot be certain how subsections
       should be nested. Any subsection	heading	between	the indicated line and
       the beginning of	the next top-level section might be wrong and require
       correcting by hand.

   Bad output with no doclifter	error message
       If you're translating a page that uses user-defined macros, and
       doclifter fails to complain about it but	you get	bad output, the	first
       thing to	do is simplify or eliminate the	user-defined macros. Replace
       them with stock requests	where possible.

       There are a few constructions that are a	good idea to check by hand
       after lifting a page.

       Look near the BlockQuote	tags. The troff	temporary indent request (.ti)
       is translated into a BlockQuote wrapper around the following line.
       Sometimes LiteralLayout or ProgramListing would be a better
       translation, but	doclifter has no way to	know this.

       It is not possible to unambiguously detect candidates for wrapping in a
       DocBook option tag in running text. If you care,	you'll have to check
       for these and fix them by hand.

       About 3%	of man pages will either make this program throw error status
       1 or generate invalid XML. In almost all	such cases the misbehavior is
       triggered by markup bugs	in the source that are too severe to be	coped

       Equation	number arguments of EQN	calls are ignored.

       Semicolon used as a TBL field separator will lead to garbled tables.
       The easiest way to fix this is by patching the source.

       The function-synopsis parser is crude (it's not a compiler) and prone
       to errors. Function-synopsis markup should be checked carefully by a

       If a man	page has both paragraphed text in a Synopsis section and also
       a body section before the Synopis section, bad things will happen.

       Running text (e.g., explanatory notes) at the end of a Synopsis section
       cannot reliably be distinguished	from synopsis-syntax markup. (This
       problem is AI-complete.)

       Some firewalls put in to	cope with common malformations in troff	code
       mean that the tail end of a span	between	two \f{B,I,U,(CW} or .ft
       highlight changes may not be completely covered by corresponding
       Emphasis	macros if (for example)	the span crosses a boundary between
       filled and unfilled (.nf/.fi) text.

       The treatment of	conditionals relies on the assumption that conditional
       macros never generate structural	or font-highlight markup that differs
       between the if and else branches. This appears to be true of all	the
       standard	macro packages,	but if you roll	any of your own	macros you're
       on your own.

       Macro definitions in a manual page NAME section are not interpreted.

       Uses of \c for line continuation	sometimes are not translated, leaving
       the \c in the output XML. The program will print	a warning when this

       It is not possible to unambiguously detect candidates for wrapping in a
       DocBook option tag in running text. If you care,	you'll have to check
       for these and fix them by hand.

       The line	numbers	in doclifter error messages are	unreliable in the
       presence	of .EQ/.EN, .PS/.PE, and quantum fluctuations.

       There is	a conflict between Berkeley ms's documented .P1
       print-header-on-page request and	an undocumented	Bell Labs use for
       displayed program and equation listings.	The ms translator uses the
       Bell Labs interpretation	when .P2 is present in the document, and
       otherwise ignores the request.

       On successful completion, the program returns status 0. It returns 1 if
       some file or standard input could not be	translated. It returns 2 if
       one of the input	sources	was a .so inclusion. It	returns	3 if there is
       an error	in reading or writing files. It	returns	4 to indicate an
       internal	error. It returns 5 when aborted by a keyboard interrupt.

       Note that a zero	return does not	guarantee that the output is valid
       DocBook.	It will	almost always (as in, more than	98% of cases) be
       syntactically valid XML,	but in some rare cases fixups by hand may be
       necessary to meet the semantics of the DocBook DTD. Validation problems
       are most	likely to occur	with complicated list markup.

       The pic2plot(1) utility must be installed in order to translate PIC
       diagrams	to SVG.

       man(7), mdoc(7),	ms(7), me(7), mm(7), mwww(7), troff(1).

       Eric S. Raymond <>

       There is	a project web page at

doclifter			  06/12/2018			  DOCLIFTER(1)


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