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       dnssec-signzone - DNSSEC	zone signing tool

       dnssec-signzone [-a] [-c	class] [-d directory] [-e end-time]
		       [-f output-file]	[-g] [-h] [-k key] [-l domain]
		       [-i interval] [-n nthreads] [-o origin] [-p]
		       [-r randomdev] [-s start-time] [-t] [-v level] [-z]
		       {zonefile} [key...]

       dnssec-signzone signs a zone. It	generates NSEC and RRSIG records and
       produces	a signed version of the	zone. The security status of
       delegations from	the signed zone	(that is, whether the child zones are
       secure or not) is determined by the presence or absence of a keyset
       file for	each child zone.

	   Verify all generated	signatures.

       -c class
	   Specifies the DNS class of the zone.

       -k key
	   Treat specified key as a key	signing	key ignoring any key flags.
	   This	option may be specified	multiple times.

       -l domain
	   Generate a DLV set in addition to the key (DNSKEY) and DS sets. The
	   domain is appended to the name of the records.

       -d directory
	   Look	for keyset files in directory as the directory

	   Generate DS records for child zones from keyset files. Existing DS
	   records will	be removed.

       -s start-time
	   Specify the date and	time when the generated	RRSIG records become
	   valid. This can be either an	absolute or relative time. An absolute
	   start time is indicated by a	number in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation;
	   20000530144500 denotes 14:45:00 UTC on May 30th, 2000. A relative
	   start time is indicated by +N, which	is N seconds from the current
	   time. If no start-time is specified,	the current time minus 1 hour
	   (to allow for clock skew) is	used.

       -e end-time
	   Specify the date and	time when the generated	RRSIG records expire.
	   As with start-time, an absolute time	is indicated in	YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
	   notation. A time relative to	the start time is indicated with +N,
	   which is N seconds from the start time. A time relative to the
	   current time	is indicated with now+N. If no end-time	is specified,
	   30 days from	the start time is used as a default.

       -f output-file
	   The name of the output file containing the signed zone. The default
	   is to append	.signed	to the input filename.

	   Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to

       -i interval
	   When	a previously-signed zone is passed as input, records may be
	   resigned. The interval option specifies the cycle interval as an
	   offset from the current time	(in seconds). If a RRSIG record
	   expires after the cycle interval, it	is retained. Otherwise,	it is
	   considered to be expiring soon, and it will be replaced.

	   The default cycle interval is one quarter of	the difference between
	   the signature end and start times. So if neither end-time or
	   start-time are specified, dnssec-signzone generates signatures that
	   are valid for 30 days, with a cycle interval	of 7.5 days.
	   Therefore, if any existing RRSIG records are	due to expire in less
	   than	7.5 days, they would be	replaced.

       -n ncpus
	   Specifies the number	of threads to use. By default, one thread is
	   started for each detected CPU.

       -o origin
	   The zone origin. If not specified, the name of the zone file	is
	   assumed to be the origin.

	   Use pseudo-random data when signing the zone. This is faster, but
	   less	secure,	than using real	random data. This option may be	useful
	   when	signing	large zones or when the	entropy	source is limited.

       -r randomdev
	   Specifies the source	of randomness. If the operating	system does
	   not provide a /dev/random or	equivalent device, the default source
	   of randomness is keyboard input.  randomdev specifies the name of a
	   character device or file containing random data to be used instead
	   of the default. The special value keyboard indicates	that keyboard
	   input should	be used.

	   Print statistics at completion.

       -v level
	   Sets	the debugging level.

	   Ignore KSK flag on key when determining what	to sign.

	   The file containing the zone	to be signed.

	   Specify which keys should be	used to	sign the zone. If no keys are
	   specified, then the zone will be examined for DNSKEY	records	at the
	   zone	apex. If these are found and there are matching	private	keys,
	   in the current directory, then these	will be	used for signing.

       The following command signs the zone	with the DSA key
       generated by dnssec-keygen ( The zone's	keys
       must be in the master file ( This invocation looks for
       keyset files, in	the current directory, so that DS records can be
       generated from them (-g).

	   % dnssec-signzone -g	-o \

       In the above example, dnssec-signzone creates the file This file	should be referenced in	a zone
       statement in a named.conf file.

       This example re-signs a previously signed zone with default parameters.
       The private keys	are assumed to be in the current directory.

	   % cp
	   % dnssec-signzone -o

       dnssec-keygen(8), BIND 9	Administrator Reference	Manual,	RFC 2535.

       Internet	Systems	Consortium

       Copyright (C) 2004, 2005, 2007 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc.
       Copyright (C) 2000-2003 Internet	Software Consortium.

BIND9				 June 30, 2000		    DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)


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