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DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)                   BIND9                  DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)

       dnssec-signzone - DNSSEC zone signing tool

       dnssec-signzone [-a] [-c class] [-d directory] [-e end-time]
                       [-f output-file] [-g] [-h] [-k key] [-l domain]
                       [-i interval] [-n nthreads] [-o origin] [-p]
                       [-r randomdev] [-s start-time] [-t] [-v level] [-z]
                       {zonefile} [key...]

       dnssec-signzone signs a zone. It generates NSEC and RRSIG records and
       produces a signed version of the zone. The security status of
       delegations from the signed zone (that is, whether the child zones are
       secure or not) is determined by the presence or absence of a keyset
       file for each child zone.

       -a Verify all generated signatures.

       -c class
          Specifies the DNS class of the zone.

       -k key
          Treat specified key as a key signing key ignoring any key flags.
          This option may be specified multiple times.

       -l domain
          Generate a DLV set in addition to the key (DNSKEY) and DS sets. The
          domain is appended to the name of the records.

       -d directory
          Look for keyset files in directory as the directory

       -g Generate DS records for child zones from keyset files. Existing DS
          records will be removed.

       -s start-time
          Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records become
          valid. This can be either an absolute or relative time. An absolute
          start time is indicated by a number in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation;
          20000530144500 denotes 14:45:00 UTC on May 30th, 2000. A relative
          start time is indicated by +N, which is N seconds from the current
          time. If no start-time is specified, the current time minus 1 hour
          (to allow for clock skew) is used.

       -e end-time
          Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records expire.
          As with start-time, an absolute time is indicated in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
          notation. A time relative to the start time is indicated with +N,
          which is N seconds from the start time. A time relative to the
          current time is indicated with now+N. If no end-time is specified,
          30 days from the start time is used as a default.

       -f output-file
          The name of the output file containing the signed zone. The default
          is to append .signed to the input file.

       -h Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to

       -i interval
          When a previously signed zone is passed as input, records may be
          resigned. The interval option specifies the cycle interval as an
          offset from the current time (in seconds). If a RRSIG record expires
          after the cycle interval, it is retained. Otherwise, it is
          considered to be expiring soon, and it will be replaced.

          The default cycle interval is one quarter of the difference between
          the signature end and start times. So if neither end-time or
          start-time are specified, dnssec-signzone generates signatures that
          are valid for 30 days, with a cycle interval of 7.5 days. Therefore,
          if any existing RRSIG records are due to expire in less than 7.5
          days, they would be replaced.

       -n ncpus
          Specifies the number of threads to use. By default, one thread is
          started for each detected CPU.

       -o origin
          The zone origin. If not specified, the name of the zone file is
          assumed to be the origin.

       -p Use pseudo-random data when signing the zone. This is faster, but
          less secure, than using real random data. This option may be useful
          when signing large zones or when the entropy source is limited.

       -r randomdev
          Specifies the source of randomness. If the operating system does not
          provide a /dev/random or equivalent device, the default source of
          randomness is keyboard input.  randomdev specifies the name of a
          character device or file containing random data to be used instead
          of the default. The special value keyboard indicates that keyboard
          input should be used.

       -t Print statistics at completion.

       -v level
          Sets the debugging level.

       -z Ignore KSK flag on key when determining what to sign.

          The file containing the zone to be signed.

          The keys used to sign the zone. If no keys are specified, the
          default all zone keys that have private key files in the current

       The following command signs the zone with the DSA key
       generated in the dnssec-keygen man page. The zone's keys must be in the
       zone. If there are keyset files associated with child zones, they must
       be in the current directory., the following command would
       be issued:

       dnssec-signzone -o

       The command would print a string of the form:

       In this example, dnssec-signzone creates the file This file should be referenced in a zone
       statement in a named.conf file.

       dnssec-keygen(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual, RFC 2535.

       Internet Systems Consortium

       Copyright (C) 2004, 2005 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")

BIND9                            June 30, 2000              DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)


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