Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages


home | help

       dnssec-keygen - DNSSEC key generation tool

       dnssec-keygen [-a algorithm] [-b	keysize] [-n nametype] [-3]
		     [-A date/offset] [-C] [-c class] [-D date/offset]
		     [-E engine] [-e] [-f flag]	[-G] [-g generator] [-h]
		     [-I date/offset] [-i interval] [-K	directory] [-k]
		     [-P date/offset] [-p protocol] [-q] [-R date/offset]
		     [-r randomdev] [-S	key] [-s strength] [-t type]
		     [-v level]	[-z] {name}

       dnssec-keygen generates keys for	DNSSEC (Secure DNS), as	defined	in RFC
       2535 and	RFC 4034. It can also generate keys for	use with TSIG
       (Transaction Signatures)	as defined in RFC 2845,	or TKEY	(Transaction
       Key) as defined in RFC 2930.

       The name	of the key is specified	on the command line. For DNSSEC	keys,
       this must match the name	of the zone for	which the key is being

       -a algorithm
	   Selects the cryptographic algorithm.	For DNSSEC keys, the value of
	   algorithm must be one of RSAMD5, RSASHA1, DSA, NSEC3RSASHA1,
	   NSEC3DSA, RSASHA256,	RSASHA512 or ECCGOST. For TSIG/TKEY, the value
	   must	be DH (Diffie Hellman),	HMAC-MD5, HMAC-SHA1, HMAC-SHA224,
	   HMAC-SHA256,	HMAC-SHA384, or	HMAC-SHA512. These values are case

	   If no algorithm is specified, then RSASHA1 will be used by default,
	   unless the -3 option	is specified, in which case NSEC3RSASHA1 will
	   be used instead. (If	-3 is used and an algorithm is specified, that
	   algorithm will be checked for compatibility with NSEC3.)

	   Note	1: that	for DNSSEC, RSASHA1 is a mandatory to implement
	   algorithm, and DSA is recommended. For TSIG,	HMAC-MD5 is mandatory.

	   Note	2: DH, HMAC-MD5, and HMAC-SHA1 through HMAC-SHA512
	   automatically set the -T KEY	option.

       -b keysize
	   Specifies the number	of bits	in the key. The	choice of key size
	   depends on the algorithm used. RSA keys must	be between 512 and
	   2048	bits. Diffie Hellman keys must be between 128 and 4096 bits.
	   DSA keys must be between 512	and 1024 bits and an exact multiple of
	   64. HMAC keys must be between 1 and 512 bits.

	   The key size	does not need to be specified if using a default
	   algorithm. The default key size is 1024 bits	for zone signing keys
	   (ZSK's) and 2048 bits for key signing keys (KSK's, generated	with
	   -f KSK). However, if	an algorithm is	explicitly specified with the
	   -a, then there is no	default	key size, and the -b must be used.

       -n nametype
	   Specifies the owner type of the key.	The value of nametype must
	   either be ZONE (for a DNSSEC	zone key (KEY/DNSKEY)),	HOST or	ENTITY
	   (for	a key associated with a	host (KEY)), USER (for a key
	   associated with a user(KEY))	or OTHER (DNSKEY). These values	are
	   case	insensitive. Defaults to ZONE for DNSKEY generation.

	   Use an NSEC3-capable	algorithm to generate a	DNSSEC key. If this
	   option is used and no algorithm is explicitly set on	the command
	   line, NSEC3RSASHA1 will be used by default. Note that RSASHA256,
	   RSASHA512 and ECCGOST algorithms are	NSEC3-capable.

	   Compatibility mode: generates an old-style key, without any
	   metadata. By	default, dnssec-keygen will include the	key's creation
	   date	in the metadata	stored with the	private	key, and other dates
	   may be set there as well (publication date, activation date,	etc).
	   Keys	that include this data may be incompatible with	older versions
	   of BIND; the	-C option suppresses them.

       -c class
	   Indicates that the DNS record containing the	key should have	the
	   specified class. If not specified, class IN is used.

       -E engine
	   Uses	a crypto hardware (OpenSSL engine) for random number and, when
	   supported, key generation. When compiled with PKCS#11 support it
	   defaults to pkcs11; the empty name resets it	to no engine.

	   If generating an RSAMD5/RSASHA1 key,	use a large exponent.

       -f flag
	   Set the specified flag in the flag field of the KEY/DNSKEY record.
	   The only recognized flags are KSK (Key Signing Key) and REVOKE.

	   Generate a key, but do not publish it or sign with it. This option
	   is incompatible with	-P and -A.

       -g generator
	   If generating a Diffie Hellman key, use this	generator. Allowed
	   values are 2	and 5. If no generator is specified, a known prime
	   from	RFC 2539 will be used if possible; otherwise the default is 2.

	   Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to

       -K directory
	   Sets	the directory in which the key files are to be written.

	   Deprecated in favor of -T KEY.

       -p protocol
	   Sets	the protocol value for the generated key. The protocol is a
	   number between 0 and	255. The default is 3 (DNSSEC).	Other possible
	   values for this argument are	listed in RFC 2535 and its successors.

	   Quiet mode: Suppresses unnecessary output, including	progress
	   indication. Without this option, when dnssec-keygen is run
	   interactively to generate an	RSA or DSA key pair, it	will print a
	   string of symbols to	stderr indicating the progress of the key
	   generation. A '.' indicates that a random number has	been found
	   which passed	an initial sieve test; '+' means a number has passed a
	   single round	of the Miller-Rabin primality test; a space means that
	   the number has passed all the tests and is a	satisfactory key.

       -r randomdev
	   Specifies the source	of randomness. If the operating	system does
	   not provide a /dev/random or	equivalent device, the default source
	   of randomness is keyboard input.  randomdev specifies the name of a
	   character device or file containing random data to be used instead
	   of the default. The special value keyboard indicates	that keyboard
	   input should	be used.

       -S key
	   Create a new	key which is an	explicit successor to an existing key.
	   The name, algorithm,	size, and type of the key will be set to match
	   the existing	key. The activation date of the	new key	will be	set to
	   the inactivation date of the	existing one. The publication date
	   will	be set to the activation date minus the	prepublication
	   interval, which defaults to 30 days.

       -s strength
	   Specifies the strength value	of the key. The	strength is a number
	   between 0 and 15, and currently has no defined purpose in DNSSEC.

       -T rrtype
	   Specifies the resource record type to use for the key.  rrtype must
	   be either DNSKEY or KEY. The	default	is DNSKEY when using a DNSSEC
	   algorithm, but it can be overridden to KEY for use with SIG(0).
	   Using any TSIG algorithm (HMAC-* or DH) forces this option to KEY.

       -t type
	   Indicates the use of	the key.  type must be one of AUTHCONF,
	   NOAUTHCONF, NOAUTH, or NOCONF. The default is AUTHCONF. AUTH	refers
	   to the ability to authenticate data,	and CONF the ability to
	   encrypt data.

       -v level
	   Sets	the debugging level.

       Dates can be expressed in the format YYYYMMDD or	YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.	If the
       argument	begins with a '+' or '-', it is	interpreted as an offset from
       the present time. For convenience, if such an offset is followed	by one
       of the suffixes 'y', 'mo', 'w', 'd', 'h', or 'mi', then the offset is
       computed	in years (defined as 365 24-hour days, ignoring	leap years),
       months (defined as 30 24-hour days), weeks, days, hours,	or minutes,
       respectively. Without a suffix, the offset is computed in seconds.

       -P date/offset
	   Sets	the date on which a key	is to be published to the zone.	After
	   that	date, the key will be included in the zone but will not	be
	   used	to sign	it. If not set,	and if the -G option has not been
	   used, the default is	"now".

       -A date/offset
	   Sets	the date on which the key is to	be activated. After that date,
	   the key will	be included in the zone	and used to sign it. If	not
	   set,	and if the -G option has not been used,	the default is "now".

       -R date/offset
	   Sets	the date on which the key is to	be revoked. After that date,
	   the key will	be flagged as revoked. It will be included in the zone
	   and will be used to sign it.

       -I date/offset
	   Sets	the date on which the key is to	be retired. After that date,
	   the key will	still be included in the zone, but it will not be used
	   to sign it.

       -D date/offset
	   Sets	the date on which the key is to	be deleted. After that date,
	   the key will	no longer be included in the zone. (It may remain in
	   the key repository, however.)

       -i interval
	   Sets	the prepublication interval for	a key. If set, then the
	   publication and activation dates must be separated by at least this
	   much	time. If the activation	date is	specified but the publication
	   date	isn't, then the	publication date will default to this much
	   time	before the activation date; conversely,	if the publication
	   date	is specified but activation date isn't,	then activation	will
	   be set to this much time after publication.

	   If the key is being created as an explicit successor	to another
	   key,	then the default prepublication	interval is 30 days; otherwise
	   it is zero.

	   As with date	offsets, if the	argument is followed by	one of the
	   suffixes 'y', 'mo', 'w', 'd', 'h', or 'mi', then the	interval is
	   measured in years, months, weeks, days, hours, or minutes,
	   respectively. Without a suffix, the interval	is measured in

       When dnssec-keygen completes successfully, it prints a string of	the
       form Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii to	the standard output. This is an	identification
       string for the key it has generated.

       o   nnnn	is the key name.

       o   aaa is the numeric representation of	the algorithm.

       o   iiiii is the	key identifier (or footprint).

       dnssec-keygen creates two files,	with names based on the	printed
       string.	Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.key contains the public key, and
       Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.private	contains the private key.

       The .key	file contains a	DNS KEY	record that can	be inserted into a
       zone file (directly or with a $INCLUDE statement).

       The .private file contains algorithm-specific fields. For obvious
       security	reasons, this file does	not have general read permission.

       Both .key and .private files are	generated for symmetric	encryption
       algorithms such as HMAC-MD5, even though	the public and private key are

       To generate a 768-bit DSA key for the domain, the following
       command would be	issued:

       dnssec-keygen -a	DSA -b 768 -n ZONE

       The command would print a string	of the form:

       In this example,	dnssec-keygen creates the files and

       dnssec-signzone(8), BIND	9 Administrator	Reference Manual, RFC 2539,
       RFC 2845, RFC 4034.

       Internet	Systems	Consortium

       Copyright (C) 2004, 2005, 2007-2010 Internet Systems Consortium,	Inc.
       Copyright (C) 2000-2003 Internet	Software Consortium.

BIND9				 June 30, 2000		      DNSSEC-KEYGEN(8)


Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:

home | help