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BSDLABEL(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		   BSDLABEL(8)

     bsdlabel -- read and write	disk pack label

     bsdlabel [-A] disk
     bsdlabel -w [-An] [-B [-b boot]] [-m machine] disk	[type]
     bsdlabel -e [-An] [-B [-b boot]] [-m machine] disk
     bsdlabel -R [-An] [-B [-b boot]] [-m machine] disk	protofile

     The bsdlabel utility installs, examines or	modifies the BSD label on a
     disk partition.  In addition, bsdlabel can	install	bootstrap code.

   Disk	Device Name
     When specifying the device, the /dev/ path	prefix may be omitted; the
     bsdlabel utility will automatically prepend it.

   General Options
     The -A option enables processing of the historical	parts of the BSD la-
     bel.  If the option is not	given, suitable	values are set for these

     The -n stops the bsdlabel program right before the	disk would have	been
     modified, and displays the	result instead of writing it.

     The -m machine argument instructs bsdlabel	to use the layout suitable for
     the specified machine.

   Reading the Disk Label
     To	examine	the label on a disk drive, use bsdlabel	without	options:

     bsdlabel [-A] [-m machine]	disk

     disk represents the disk in question, and may be in the form da0 or
     /dev/da0.	It will	display	the partition layout.

   Writing a Standard Label
     To	write a	standard label,	use the	form

     bsdlabel -w [-An] [-m machine] disk [type]

     If	the drive type is specified, the entry of that name in the disktab(5)
     file is used; otherwise a default layout is used.

   Editing an Existing Disk Label
     To	edit an	existing disk label, use the form

     bsdlabel -e [-An] [-m machine] disk

     This command opens	the disk label in the default editor, and when the ed-
     itor exits, the label is validated	and if OK written to disk.

   Restoring a Disk Label From a File
     To	restore	a disk label from a file, use the form

     bsdlabel -R [-An] [-m machine] disk protofile

     bsdlabel is capable of restoring a	disk label that	was previously saved
     in	a file in ASCII	format.	 The prototype file used to create the label
     should be in the same format as that produced when	reading	or editing a
     label.  Comments are delimited by `#' and newline.

   Installing Bootstraps
     If	the -B argument	is specified, bootstrap	code will be read from the
     file /boot/boot and written to the	disk.  The -b boot argument allows a
     different file to be used.

     /boot/boot	   Default boot	image.
     /etc/disktab  Disk	description file.

     The bsdlabel utility uses an ASCII	version	of the label when examining,
     editing, or restoring a disk label.  The format is:

	 8 partitions:
	 #	  size	 offset	   fstype   [fsize bsize bps/cpg]
	   a:	 81920	      0	   4.2BSD     1024  8192    16
	   b:	160000	  81920	     swap
	   c:  1173930	      0	   unused	 0     0	 # "raw" part, don't edit

     If	the -A option is specified, the	format is:

	 # /dev/da1c:
	 type: SCSI
	 disk: da0s1
	 bytes/sector: 512
	 sectors/track:	51
	 tracks/cylinder: 19
	 sectors/cylinder: 969
	 cylinders: 1211
	 sectors/unit: 1173930
	 rpm: 3600
	 interleave: 1
	 trackskew: 0
	 cylinderskew: 0
	 headswitch: 0		 # milliseconds
	 track-to-track	seek: 0	 # milliseconds
	 drivedata: 0

	 8 partitions:
	 #	  size	 offset	   fstype   [fsize bsize bps/cpg]
	   a:	 81920	      0	   4.2BSD     1024  8192    16
	   b:	160000	  81920	     swap
	   c:  1173930	      0	   unused	 0     0	 # "raw" part, don't edit

     Lines starting with a `#' mark are	comments.

     The partition table can have up to	8 entries.  It contains	the following

     #	     The partition identifier is a single letter in the	range `a' to
	     `h'.  By convention, partition `c'	is reserved to describe	the
	     entire disk.

     size    The size of the partition in sectors, K (kilobytes	- 1024), M
	     (megabytes	- 1024*1024), G	(gigabytes - 1024*1024*1024), %	(per-
	     centage of	free space after removing any fixed-size partitions
	     other than	partition `c'),	or * (all remaining free space after
	     fixed-size	and percentage partitions).  For partition `c',	a size
	     of	* indicates the	entire disk.  Lowercase	versions of K, M, and
	     G are allowed.  Size and type should be specifed without any spa-
	     ces between them.

	     Example: 2097152, 1G, 1024M and 1048576K are all the same size
	     (assuming 512-byte	sectors).

     offset  The offset	of the start of	the partition from the beginning of
	     the drive in sectors, or *	to have	bsdlabel calculate the correct
	     offset to use (the	end of the previous partition plus one,	ignor-
	     ing partition `c'.	 For partition `c', * will be interpreted as
	     an	offset of 0.

     fstype  Describes the purpose of the partition.  The example shows	all
	     currently used partition types.  For UFS file systems and ccd(4)
	     partitions, use type 4.2BSD.  For Vinum drives, use type vinum.
	     Other common types	are swap and unused.  By convention, partition
	     `c' represents the	entire slice and should	be of type unused,
	     though bsdlabel does not enforce this convention.	The bsdlabel
	     utility also knows	about a	number of other	partition types, none
	     of	which are in current use.  (See	the definitions	starting with
	     FS_UNUSED in <sys/disklabel.h> for	more details.)

     fsize   For 4.2BSD	and LFS	file systems only, the fragment	size.  De-
	     faults to 1024 for	partitions smaller than	1GB, 4096 for parti-
	     tions 1GB or larger.

     bsize   For 4.2BSD	and LFS	file systems only, the block size.  Defaults
	     to	8192 for partitions smaller than 1GB, 16384 for	partitions 1GB
	     or	larger.

	     For 4.2BSD	file systems, the number of cylinders in a cylinder
	     group.  For LFS file systems, the segment shift value.  Defaults
	     to	16 for partitions smaller than 1GB, 64 for partitions 1GB or

	   bsdlabel da0s1

     Display the label for the first slice of the da0 disk, as obtained	via

	   bsdlabel da0s1 > savedlabel

     Save the in-core label for	da0s1 into the file savedlabel.	 This file can
     be	used with the -R option	to restore the label at	a later	date.

	   bsdlabel -w /dev/da0s1

     Create a label for	da0s1.

	   bsdlabel -e da0s1

     Read the label for	da0s1, edit it,	and install the	result.

	   bsdlabel -e -n da0s1

     Read the on-disk label for	da0s1, edit it,	and display what the new label
     would be (in sectors).  It	does not install the new label either in-core
     or	on-disk.

	   bsdlabel -w da0s1

     Write a default label on da0s1.  Use another bsdlabel -e command to edit
     the partitioning and file system information.

	   bsdlabel -R da0s1 savedlabel

     Restore the on-disk and in-core label for da0s1 from information in

	   bsdlabel -R -n da0s1	label_layout

     Display what the label would be for da0s1 using the partition layout in
     label_layout.  This is useful for determining how much space would	be al-
     loted for various partitions with a labelling scheme using	%-based	or *
     partition sizes.

	   bsdlabel -B da0s1

     Install a new bootstrap on	da0s1.	The boot code comes from /boot/boot.

	   bsdlabel -w -B -b newboot /dev/da0s1

     Install a new label and bootstrap.	 The bootstrap code comes from the
     file newboot in the current working directory.

	   dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/da0 bs=512 count=32
	   fdisk -BI da0
	   dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/da0s1 bs=512	count=32
	   bsdlabel -w -B da0s1
	   bsdlabel -e da0s1

     Completely	wipe any prior information on the disk,	creating a new
     bootable disk with	a DOS partition	table containing one slice, covering
     the whole disk.  Initialize the label on this slice, then edit it.	 The
     dd(1) commands are	optional, but may be necessary for some	BIOSes to
     properly recognize	the disk.

     This is an	example	disk label that	uses some of the new partition size
     types such	as %, M, G, and	*, which could be used as a source file	for
     "bsdlabel -R ad0s1c new_label_file":

	 # /dev/ad0s1c:

	 8 partitions:
	 #	  size	 offset	   fstype   [fsize bsize bps/cpg]
	   a:	400M	    0	 4.2BSD	    4096 16384	  75	 # (Cyl.    0 -	812*)
	   b:	  1G	    *	   swap
	   c:	   *	    *	 unused
	   e: 204800	    *	 4.2BSD
	   f:	  5g	    *	 4.2BSD
	   g:	   *	    *	 4.2BSD

     ccd(4), geom(4), md(4), disktab(5), boot0cfg(8), fdisk(8)

     The kernel	device drivers will not	allow the size of a disk partition to
     be	decreased or the offset	of a partition to be changed while it is open.

BSD				March 15, 2003				   BSD


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