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DIALOG(1)               FreeBSD General Commands Manual              DIALOG(1)

NAME
       dialog - display dialog boxes from shell scripts

SYNOPSIS
       dialog --clear
       dialog --create-rc file
       dialog --print-maxsize
       dialog common-options box-options

DESCRIPTION
       Dialog is a program that will let you to present a variety of questions
       or display messages using dialog boxes from a shell script.  These
       types of dialog boxes are implemented (though not all are necessarily
       compiled into dialog):

              buildlist,  calendar,  checklist,  dselect,  editbox,  form,
              fselect,  gauge,  infobox,  inputbox,  inputmenu,  menu,
              mixedform,  mixedgauge,  msgbox (message),  passwordbox,
              passwordform,  pause,  prgbox,  programbox,  progressbox,
              radiolist,  rangebox,  tailbox,  tailboxbg,  textbox,  timebox,
              treeview, and  yesno (yes/no).

       You can put more than one dialog box into a script:

       o   Use the "--and-widget" token to force dialog to proceed to the next
           dialog unless you have pressed ESC to cancel, or

       o   Simply add the tokens for the next dialog box, making a chain.
           Dialog stops chaining when the return code from a dialog is
           nonzero, e.g., Cancel or No (see DIAGNOSTICS).

       Some widgets, e.g., checklist, will write text to dialog's output.
       Normally that is the standard error, but there are options for changing
       this: "--output-fd", "--stderr" and "--stdout".  No text is written if
       the Cancel button (or ESC) is pressed; dialog exits immediately in that
       case.

OPTIONS
       All options begin with "--" (two ASCII hyphens, for the benefit of
       those using systems with deranged locale support).

       A "--" by itself is used as an escape, i.e., the next token on the
       command-line is not treated as an option.
              dialog --title -- --Not an option

       The "--args" option tells dialog to list the command-line parameters to
       the standard error.  This is useful when debugging complex scripts
       using the "--" and "--file", since the command-line may be rewritten as
       these are expanded.

       The "--file" option tells dialog to read parameters from the file named
       as its value.
              dialog --file parameterfile
       Blanks not within double-quotes are discarded (use backslashes to quote
       single characters).  The result is inserted into the command-line,
       replacing "--file" and its option value.  Interpretation of the
       command-line resumes from that point.  If parameterfile begins with
       "&", dialog interprets the following text as a file descriptor number
       rather than a filename.

   Common Options
       --ascii-lines
              Rather than draw graphics lines around boxes, draw ASCII "+" and
              "-" in the same place.  See also "--no-lines".

       --aspect ratio
              This gives you some control over the box dimensions when using
              auto sizing (specifying 0 for height and width).  It represents
              width / height.  The default is 9, which means 9 characters wide
              to every 1 line high.

       --backtitle backtitle
              Specifies a backtitle string to be displayed on the backdrop, at
              the top of the screen.

       --begin y x
              Specify the position of the upper left corner of a dialog box on
              the screen.

       --cancel-label string
              Override the label used for "Cancel" buttons.

       --clear
              Clears the widget screen, keeping only the screen_color
              background.  Use this when you combine widgets with "--and-
              widget" to erase the contents of a previous widget on the
              screen, so it won't be seen under the contents of a following
              widget.  Understand this as the complement of "--keep-window".
              To compare the effects, use these:

              All three widgets visible, staircase effect, ordered 1,2,3:

              dialog \
                                             --begin 2 2 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                  --and-widget               --begin 4 4 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                  --and-widget               --begin 6 6 --yesno "" 0 0

              Only the last widget is left visible:

              dialog \
                               --clear       --begin 2 2 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                  --and-widget --clear       --begin 4 4 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                  --and-widget               --begin 6 6 --yesno "" 0 0

              All three widgets visible, staircase effect, ordered 3,2,1:

              dialog \
                               --keep-window --begin 2 2 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                  --and-widget --keep-window --begin 4 4 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                  --and-widget               --begin 6 6 --yesno "" 0 0

              First and third widget visible, staircase effect, ordered 3,1:

              dialog \
                               --keep-window --begin 2 2 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                  --and-widget --clear       --begin 4 4 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                  --and-widget               --begin 6 6 --yesno "" 0 0

              Note, if you want to restore original console colors and send
              your cursor home after the dialog program has exited, use the
              clear (1) command.

       --colors
              Interpret embedded "\Z" sequences in the dialog text by the
              following character, which tells dialog to set colors or video
              attributes: 0 through 7 are the ANSI used in curses: black, red,
              green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan and white respectively.  Bold
              is set by 'b', reset by 'B'.  Reverse is set by 'r', reset by
              'R'.  Underline is set by 'u', reset by 'U'.  The settings are
              cumulative, e.g., "\Zb\Z1" makes the following text bold
              (perhaps bright) red.  Restore normal settings with "\Zn".

       --column-separator string
              Tell dialog to split data for radio/checkboxes and menus on the
              occurrences of the given string, and to align the split data
              into columns.

       --cr-wrap
              Interpret embedded newlines in the dialog text as a newline on
              the screen.  Otherwise, dialog will only wrap lines where needed
              to fit inside the text box.

              Even though you can control line breaks with this, Dialog will
              still wrap any lines that are too long for the width of the box.
              Without cr-wrap, the layout of your text may be formatted to
              look nice in the source code of your script without affecting
              the way it will look in the dialog.

              See also the "--no-collapse" and "--trim" options.

       --create-rc file
              When dialog supports run-time configuration, this can be used to
              dump a sample configuration file to the file specified by file.

       --date-format format
              If the host provides strftime, this option allows you to specify
              the format of the date printed for the --calendar widget.  The
              time of day (hour, minute, second) are the current local time.

       --defaultno
              Make the default value of the yes/no box a No.  Likewise, make
              the default button of widgets that provide "OK" and "Cancel" a
              Cancel.  If "--nocancel" or "--visit-items" are given those
              options overrides this, making the default button always "Yes"
              (internally the same as "OK").

       --default-button string
              Set the default (preselected) button in a widget.  By
              preselecting a button, a script makes it possible for the user
              to simply press Enter to proceed through a dialog with minimum
              interaction.

              The option's value is the name of the button: ok, yes, cancel,
              no, help or extra.

              Normally the first button in each widget is the default.  The
              first button shown is determined by the widget together with the
              "--nook" and "--nocancel options.  If this option is not given,
              there is no default button assigned.

       --default-item string
              Set the default item in a checklist, form or menu box.  Normally
              the first item in the box is the default.

       --exit-label string
              Override the label used for "EXIT" buttons.

       --extra-button
              Show an extra button, between "OK" and "Cancel" buttons.

       --extra-label string
              Override the label used for "Extra" buttons.  Note: for
              inputmenu widgets, this defaults to "Rename".

       --help Prints the help message to the standard output and exits.  The
              help message is also printed if no options are given, or if an
              unrecognized option is given.

       --help-button
              Show a help-button after "OK" and "Cancel" buttons, i.e., in
              checklist, radiolist and menu boxes.

              On exit, the return status will indicate that the Help button
              was pressed.  Dialog will also write a message to its output
              after the token "HELP":

              o   If "--item-help" is also given, the item-help text will be
                  written.

              o   Otherwise, the item's tag (the first field) will be written.

              You can use the --help-tags option and/or set the
              DIALOG_ITEM_HELP environment variable to modify these messages
              and exit-status.

       --help-label string
              Override the label used for "Help" buttons.

       --help-status
              If the help-button is selected, writes the checklist, radiolist
              or form information after the item-help "HELP" information.
              This can be used to reconstruct the state of a checklist after
              processing the help request.

       --help-tags
              Modify the messages written on exit for --help-button by making
              them always just the item's tag.  This does not affect the exit
              status code.

       --hfile filename
              Display the given file using a textbox when the user presses F1.

       --hline string
              Display the given string centered at the bottom of the widget.

       --ignore
              Ignore options that dialog does not recognize.  Some well-known
              ones such as "--icon" are ignored anyway, but this is a better
              choice for compatibility with other implementations.

       --input-fd fd
              Read keyboard input from the given file descriptor.  Most dialog
              scripts read from the standard input, but the gauge widget reads
              a pipe (which is always standard input).  Some configurations do
              not work properly when dialog tries to reopen the terminal.  Use
              this option (with appropriate juggling of file-descriptors) if
              your script must work in that type of environment.

       --insecure
              Makes the password widget friendlier but less secure, by echoing
              asterisks for each character.

       --item-help
              Interpret the tags data for checklist, radiolist and menu boxes
              adding a column which is displayed in the bottom line of the
              screen, for the currently selected item.

       --keep-tite
              When built with ncurses, dialog normally checks to see if it is
              running in an xterm, and in that case tries to suppress the
              initialization strings that would make it switch to the
              alternate screen.  Switching between the normal and alternate
              screens is visually distracting in a script which runs dialog
              several times.  Use this option to allow dialog to use those
              initialization strings.

       --keep-window
              Normally when dialog performs several tailboxbg widgets
              connected by "--and-widget", it clears the old widget from the
              screen by painting over it.  Use this option to suppress that
              repainting.

              At exit, dialog repaints all of the widgets which have been
              marked with "--keep-window", even if they are not tailboxbg
              widgets.  That causes them to be repainted in reverse order.
              See the discussion of the "--clear" option for examples.

       --last-key
              At exit, report the last key which the user entered.  This is
              the curses key code rather than a symbol or literal character.
              It can be used by scripts to distinguish between two keys which
              are bound to the same action.

       --max-input size
              Limit input strings to the given size.  If not specified, the
              limit is 2048.

       --no-cancel

       --nocancel
              Suppress the "Cancel" button in checklist, inputbox and menu box
              modes.  A script can still test if the user pressed the ESC key
              to cancel to quit.

       --no-collapse
              Normally dialog converts tabs to spaces and reduces multiple
              spaces to a single space for text which is displayed in a
              message boxes, etc.  Use this option to disable that feature.
              Note that dialog will still wrap text, subject to the "--cr-
              wrap" and "--trim" options.

       --no-items
              Some widgets (checklist, inputmenu, radiolist, menu) display a
              list with two columns (a "tag" and "item", i.e., "description").
              This option tells dialog to read shorter rows, omitting the
              "item" part of the list.  This is occasionally useful, e.g., if
              the tags provide enough information.

              See also --no-tags.  If both options are given, this one is
              ignored.

       --no-kill
              Tells dialog to put the tailboxbg box in the background,
              printing its process id to dialog's output.  SIGHUP is disabled
              for the background process.

       --no-label string
              Override the label used for "No" buttons.

       --no-lines
              Rather than draw lines around boxes, draw spaces in the same
              place.  See also "--ascii-lines".

       --no-mouse
              Do not enable the mouse.

       --no-nl-expand
              Do not convert "\n" substrings of the message/prompt text into
              literal newlines.

       --no-ok

       --nook Suppress the "OK" button in checklist, inputbox and menu box
              modes.  A script can still test if the user pressed the "Enter"
              key to accept the data.

       --no-shadow
              Suppress shadows that would be drawn to the right and bottom of
              each dialog box.

       --no-tags
              Some widgets (checklist, inputmenu, radiolist, menu) display a
              list with two columns (a "tag" and "description").  The tag is
              useful for scripting, but may not help the user.  The --no-tags
              option (from Xdialog) may be used to suppress the column of tags
              from the display.  Unlike the --no-items option, this does not
              affect the data which is read from the script.

              Xdialog does not display the tag column for the analogous
              buildlist and treeview widgets; dialog does the same.

              Normally dialog allows you to quickly move to entries on the
              displayed list, by matching a single character to the first
              character of the tag.  When the --no-tags option is given,
              dialog matches against the first character of the description.
              In either case, the matchable character is highlighted.

       --ok-label string
              Override the label used for "OK" buttons.

       --output-fd fd
              Direct output to the given file descriptor.  Most dialog scripts
              write to the standard error, but error messages may also be
              written there, depending on your script.

       --separator string

       --output-separatorstring
              Specify a string that will separate the output on dialog's
              output from checklists, rather than a newline (for --separate-
              output) or a space.  This applies to other widgets such as forms
              and editboxes which normally use a newline.

       --print-maxsize
              Print the maximum size of dialog boxes, i.e., the screen size,
              to dialog's output.  This may be used alone, without other
              options.

       --print-size
              Prints the size of each dialog box to dialog's output.

       --print-version
              Prints dialog's version to dialog's output.  This may be used
              alone, without other options.  It does not cause dialog to exit
              by itself.

       --quoted
              Normally dialog quotes the strings returned by checklist's as
              well as the item-help text.  Use this option to quote all string
              results.

       --scrollbar
              For widgets holding a scrollable set of data, draw a scrollbar
              on its right-margin.  This does not respond to the mouse.

       --separate-output
              For checklist widgets, output result one line at a time, with no
              quoting.  This facilitates parsing by another program.

       --separate-widget string
              Specify a string that will separate the output on dialog's
              output from each widget.  This is used to simplify parsing the
              result of a dialog with several widgets.  If this option is not
              given, the default separator string is a tab character.

       --shadow
              Draw a shadow to the right and bottom of each dialog box.

       --single-quoted
              Use single-quoting as needed (and no quotes if unneeded) for the
              output of checklist's as well as the item-help text.  If this
              option is not set, dialog uses double quotes around each item.
              In either case, dialog adds backslashes to make the output
              useful in shell scripts.

       --size-err
              Check the resulting size of a dialog box before trying to use
              it, printing the resulting size if it is larger than the screen.
              (This option is obsolete, since all new-window calls are
              checked).

       --sleep secs
              Sleep (delay) for the given number of seconds after processing a
              dialog box.

       --stderr
              Direct output to the standard error.  This is the default, since
              curses normally writes screen updates to the standard output.

       --stdout
              Direct output to the standard output.  This option is provided
              for compatibility with Xdialog, however using it in portable
              scripts is not recommended, since curses normally writes its
              screen updates to the standard output.  If you use this option,
              dialog attempts to reopen the terminal so it can write to the
              display.  Depending on the platform and your environment, that
              may fail.

       --tab-correct
              Convert each tab character to one or more spaces (for the
              textbox widget; otherwise to a single space).  Otherwise, tabs
              are rendered according to the curses library's interpretation.

       --tab-len n
              Specify the number of spaces that a tab character occupies if
              the "--tab-correct" option is given.  The default is 8.  This
              option is only effective for the textbox widget.

       --time-format format
              If the host provides strftime, this option allows you to specify
              the format of the time printed for the --timebox widget.  The
              day, month, year values in this case are for the current local
              time.

       --timeout secs
              Timeout (exit with error code) if no user response within the
              given number of seconds.  A timeout of zero seconds is ignored.

              This option is ignored by the "--pause" widget.  It is also
              overridden if the background "--tailboxbg" option is used to
              setup multiple concurrent widgets.

       --title title
              Specifies a title string to be displayed at the top of the
              dialog box.

       --trace filename
              logs the command-line parameters, keystrokes and other
              information to the given file.  If dialog reads a configure
              file, it is logged as well.  Piped input to the gauge widget is
              logged.  Use control/T to log a picture of the current dialog
              window.

       The dialog program handles some command-line parameters specially, and
       removes them from the parameter list as they are processed.  For
       example, if the first option is --trace, then that is processed (and
       removed) before dialog initializes the display.

       --trim eliminate leading blanks, trim literal newlines and repeated
              blanks from message text.

              See also the "--cr-wrap" and "--no-collapse" options.

       --version
              Prints dialog's version to the standard output, and exits.  See
              also "--print-version".

       --visit-items
              Modify the tab-traversal of checklist, radiolist, menubox and
              inputmenu to include the list of items as one of the states.
              This is useful as a visual aid, i.e., the cursor position helps
              some users.

              When this option is given, the cursor is initially placed on the
              list.  Abbreviations (the first letter of the tag) apply to the
              list items.  If you tab to the button row, abbreviations apply
              to the buttons.

       --yes-label string
              Override the label used for "Yes" buttons.

   Box Options
       All dialog boxes have at least three parameters:

       text the caption or contents of the box.

       height
            the height of the dialog box.

       width
            the width of the dialog box.

       Other parameters depend on the box type.

       --buildlist text height width [ tag item status ] ...
              A buildlist dialog displays two lists, side-by-side.  The list
              on the left shows unselected items.  The list on the right shows
              selected items.  As items are selected or unselected, they move
              between the lists.

              Use a carriage return or the "OK" button to accept the current
              value in the selected-window and exit.  The results are written
              using the order displayed in the selected-window.

              The initial on/off state of each entry is specified by status.

              The dialog behaves like a menu, using the --visit-items to
              control whether the cursor is allowed to visit the lists
              directly.

              o   If --visit-items is not given, tab-traversal uses two states
                  (OK/Cancel).

              o   If --visit-items is given, tab-traversal uses four states
                  (Left/Right/OK/Cancel).

              Whether or not --visit--items is given, it is possible to move
              the highlight between the two lists using the default "^" (left-
              column) and "$" (right-column) keys.

              On exit, a list of the tag strings of those entries that are
              turned on will be printed on dialog's output.

              If the "--separate-output" option is not given, the strings will
              be quoted as needed to make it simple for scripts to separate
              them.  By default, this uses double-quotes.  See the "--single-
              quoted" option, which modifies the quoting behavior.

       --calendar text height width day month year
              A calendar box displays month, day and year in separately
              adjustable windows.  If the values for day, month or year are
              missing or negative, the current date's corresponding values are
              used.  You can increment or decrement any of those using the
              left-, up-, right- and down-arrows.  Use vi-style h, j, k and l
              for moving around the array of days in a month.  Use tab or
              backtab to move between windows.  If the year is given as zero,
              the current date is used as an initial value.

              On exit, the date is printed in the form day/month/year.  The
              format can be overridden using the --date-format option.

       --checklist text height width list-height [ tag item status ] ...
              A checklist box is similar to a menu box; there are multiple
              entries presented in the form of a menu.  Another difference is
              that you can indicate which entry is currently selected, by
              setting its status to on.  Instead of choosing one entry among
              the entries, each entry can be turned on or off by the user.
              The initial on/off state of each entry is specified by status.

              On exit, a list of the tag strings of those entries that are
              turned on will be printed on dialog's output.

              If the "--separate-output" option is not given, the strings will
              be quoted as needed to make it simple for scripts to separate
              them.  By default, this uses double-quotes.  See the "--single-
              quoted" option, which modifies the quoting behavior.

       --dselect filepath height width
              The directory-selection dialog displays a text-entry window in
              which you can type a directory, and above that a windows with
              directory names.

              Here filepath can be a filepath in which case the directory
              window will display the contents of the path and the text-entry
              window will contain the preselected directory.

              Use tab or arrow keys to move between the windows.  Within the
              directory window, use the up/down arrow keys to scroll the
              current selection.  Use the space-bar to copy the current
              selection into the text-entry window.

              Typing any printable characters switches focus to the text-entry
              window, entering that character as well as scrolling the
              directory window to the closest match.

              Use a carriage return or the "OK" button to accept the current
              value in the text-entry window and exit.

              On exit, the contents of the text-entry window are written to
              dialog's output.

       --editbox filepath height width
              The edit-box dialog displays a copy of the file.  You may edit
              it using the backspace, delete and cursor keys to correct typing
              errors.  It also recognizes pageup/pagedown.  Unlike the
              --inputbox, you must tab to the "OK" or "Cancel" buttons to
              close the dialog.  Pressing the "Enter" key within the box will
              split the corresponding line.

              On exit, the contents of the edit window are written to dialog's
              output.

       --form text height width formheight [ label y x item y x flen ilen ]
       ...
              The form dialog displays a form consisting of labels and fields,
              which are positioned on a scrollable window by coordinates given
              in the script.  The field length flen and input-length ilen tell
              how long the field can be.  The former defines the length shown
              for a selected field, while the latter defines the permissible
              length of the data entered in the field.

              o   If flen is zero, the corresponding field cannot be altered.
                  and the contents of the field determine the displayed-
                  length.

              o   If flen is negative, the corresponding field cannot be
                  altered, and the negated value of flen is used as the
                  displayed-length.

              o   If ilen is zero, it is set to flen.

              Use up/down arrows (or control/N, control/P) to move between
              fields.  Use tab to move between windows.

              On exit, the contents of the form-fields are written to dialog's
              output, each field separated by a newline.  The text used to
              fill non-editable fields (flen is zero or negative) is not
              written out.

       --fselect filepath height width
              The fselect (file-selection) dialog displays a text-entry window
              in which you can type a filename (or directory), and above that
              two windows with directory names and filenames.

              Here filepath can be a filepath in which case the file and
              directory windows will display the contents of the path and the
              text-entry window will contain the preselected filename.

              Use tab or arrow keys to move between the windows.  Within the
              directory or filename windows, use the up/down arrow keys to
              scroll the current selection.  Use the space-bar to copy the
              current selection into the text-entry window.

              Typing any printable characters switches focus to the text-entry
              window, entering that character as well as scrolling the
              directory and filename windows to the closest match.

              Typing the space character forces dialog to complete the current
              name (up to the point where there may be a match against more
              than one entry).

              Use a carriage return or the "OK" button to accept the current
              value in the text-entry window and exit.

              On exit, the contents of the text-entry window are written to
              dialog's output.

       --gauge text height width [percent]
              A gauge box displays a meter along the bottom of the box.  The
              meter indicates the percentage.  New percentages are read from
              standard input, one integer per line.  The meter is updated to
              reflect each new percentage.  If the standard input reads the
              string "XXX", then the first line following is taken as an
              integer percentage, then subsequent lines up to another "XXX"
              are used for a new prompt.  The gauge exits when EOF is reached
              on the standard input.

              The percent value denotes the initial percentage shown in the
              meter.  If not specified, it is zero.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  The widget
              accepts no input, so the exit status is always OK.

       --infobox text height width
              An info box is basically a message box.  However, in this case,
              dialog will exit immediately after displaying the message to the
              user.  The screen is not cleared when dialog exits, so that the
              message will remain on the screen until the calling shell script
              clears it later.  This is useful when you want to inform the
              user that some operations are carrying on that may require some
              time to finish.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  Only an "OK"
              button is provided for input, but an ESC exit status may be
              returned.

       --inputbox text height width [init]
              An input box is useful when you want to ask questions that
              require the user to input a string as the answer.  If init is
              supplied it is used to initialize the input string.  When
              entering the string, the backspace, delete and cursor keys can
              be used to correct typing errors.  If the input string is longer
              than can fit in the dialog box, the input field will be
              scrolled.

              On exit, the input string will be printed on dialog's output.

       --inputmenu text height width menu-height [ tag item ] ...
              An inputmenu box is very similar to an ordinary menu box.  There
              are only a few differences between them:

              1.  The entries are not automatically centered but left
                  adjusted.

              2.  An extra button (called Rename) is implied to rename the
                  current item when it is pressed.

              3.  It is possible to rename the current entry by pressing the
                  Rename button.  Then dialog will write the following on
                  dialog's output.

                  RENAMED <tag> <item>

       --menu text height width menu-height [ tag item ] ...
              As its name suggests, a menu box is a dialog box that can be
              used to present a list of choices in the form of a menu for the
              user to choose.  Choices are displayed in the order given.  Each
              menu entry consists of a tag string and an item string.  The tag
              gives the entry a name to distinguish it from the other entries
              in the menu.  The item is a short description of the option that
              the entry represents.  The user can move between the menu
              entries by pressing the cursor keys, the first letter of the tag
              as a hot-key, or the number keys 1-9. There are menu-height
              entries displayed in the menu at one time, but the menu will be
              scrolled if there are more entries than that.

              On exit the tag of the chosen menu entry will be printed on
              dialog's output.  If the "--help-button" option is given, the
              corresponding help text will be printed if the user selects the
              help button.

       --mixedform text height width formheight [ label y x item y x flen ilen
       itype ] ...
              The mixedform dialog displays a form consisting of labels and
              fields, much like the --form dialog.  It differs by adding a
              field-type parameter to each field's description.  Each bit in
              the type denotes an attribute of the field:

              1    hidden, e.g., a password field.

              2    readonly, e.g., a label.

       --mixedgauge text height width percent [ tag1 item1 ] ...
              A mixedgauge box displays a meter along the bottom of the box.
              The meter indicates the percentage.

              It also displays a list of the tag- and item-values at the top
              of the box.  See dialog(3) for the tag values.

              The text is shown as a caption between the list and meter.  The
              percent value denotes the initial percentage shown in the meter.

              No provision is made for reading data from the standard input as
              --gauge does.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  The widget
              accepts no input, so the exit status is always OK.

       --msgbox text height width
              A message box is very similar to a yes/no box.  The only
              difference between a message box and a yes/no box is that a
              message box has only a single OK button.  You can use this
              dialog box to display any message you like.  After reading the
              message, the user can press the ENTER key so that dialog will
              exit and the calling shell script can continue its operation.

              If the message is too large for the space, dialog may allow you
              to scroll it, provided that the underlying curses implementation
              is capable enough.  In this case, a percentage is shown in the
              base of the widget.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  Only an "OK"
              button is provided for input, but an ESC exit status may be
              returned.

       --pause text height width seconds
              A pause box displays a meter along the bottom of the box.  The
              meter indicates how many seconds remain until the end of the
              pause.  The pause exits when timeout is reached or the user
              presses the OK button (status OK) or the user presses the CANCEL
              button or Esc key.

       --passwordbox text height width [init]
              A password box is similar to an input box, except that the text
              the user enters is not displayed.  This is useful when prompting
              for passwords or other sensitive information.  Be aware that if
              anything is passed in "init", it will be visible in the system's
              process table to casual snoopers.  Also, it is very confusing to
              the user to provide them with a default password they cannot
              see.  For these reasons, using "init" is highly discouraged.
              See "--insecure" if you do not care about your password.

              On exit, the input string will be printed on dialog's output.

       --passwordform text height width formheight [ label y x item y x flen
       ilen ] ...
              This is identical to --form except that all text fields are
              treated as password widgets rather than inputbox widgets.

       --prgbox text command height width

       --prgbox command height width
              A prgbox is very similar to a programbox.

              This dialog box is used to display the output of a command that
              is specified as an argument to prgbox.

              After the command completes, the user can press the ENTER key so
              that dialog will exit and the calling shell script can continue
              its operation.

              If three parameters are given, it displays the text under the
              title, delineated from the scrolling file's contents.  If only
              two parameters are given, this text is omitted.

       --programbox text height width

       --programbox height width
              A programbox is very similar to a progressbox.  The only
              difference between a program box and a progress box is that a
              program box displays an OK button (but only after the command
              completes).

              This dialog box is used to display the piped output of a
              command.  After the command completes, the user can press the
              ENTER key so that dialog will exit and the calling shell script
              can continue its operation.

              If three parameters are given, it displays the text under the
              title, delineated from the scrolling file's contents.  If only
              two parameters are given, this text is omitted.

       --progressbox text height width

       --progressbox height width
              A progressbox is similar to an tailbox, except that

              a) rather than displaying the contents of a file,
                 it displays the piped output of a command and

              b) it will exit when it reaches the end of the file
                 (there is no "OK" button).

              If three parameters are given, it displays the text under the
              title, delineated from the scrolling file's contents.  If only
              two parameters are given, this text is omitted.

       --radiolist text height width list-height  [ tag item status ] ...
              A radiolist box is similar to a menu box.  The only difference
              is that you can indicate which entry is currently selected, by
              setting its status to on.

              On exit, the tag of the selected item is written to dialog's
              output.

       --tailbox file height width
              Display text from a file in a dialog box, as in a "tail -f"
              command.  Scroll left/right using vi-style 'h' and 'l', or
              arrow-keys.  A '0' resets the scrolling.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  Only an "OK"
              button is provided for input, but an ESC exit status may be
              returned.

       --rangebox text height width list-height min-value max-value
       default-value
              Allow the user to select from a range of values, e.g., using a
              slider.  The dialog shows the current value as a bar (like the
              gauge dialog).  Tabs or arrow keys move the cursor between the
              buttons and the value.  When the cursor is on the value, you can
              edit it by:

              left/right cursor movement to select a digit to modify

              +/-  characters to increment/decrement the digit by one

              0 through 9
                   to set the digit to the given value

              Some keys are also recognized in all cursor positions:

              home/end
                   set the value to its maximum or minimum

              pageup/pagedown
                   increment the value so that the slider moves by one column

       --tailboxbg file height width
              Display text from a file in a dialog box as a background task,
              as in a "tail -f &" command.  Scroll left/right using vi-style
              'h' and 'l', or arrow-keys.  A '0' resets the scrolling.

              Dialog treats the background task specially if there are other
              widgets (--and-widget) on the screen concurrently.  Until those
              widgets are closed (e.g., an "OK"), dialog will perform all of
              the tailboxbg widgets in the same process, polling for updates.
              You may use a tab to traverse between the widgets on the screen,
              and close them individually, e.g., by pressing ENTER.  Once the
              non-tailboxbg widgets are closed, dialog forks a copy of itself
              into the background, and prints its process id if the "--no-
              kill" option is given.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  Only an "EXIT"
              button is provided for input, but an ESC exit status may be
              returned.

              NOTE: Older versions of dialog forked immediately and attempted
              to update the screen individually.  Besides being bad for
              performance, it was unworkable.  Some older scripts may not work
              properly with the polled scheme.

       --textbox file height width
              A text box lets you display the contents of a text file in a
              dialog box.  It is like a simple text file viewer.  The user can
              move through the file by using the cursor, page-up, page-down
              and HOME/END keys available on most keyboards.  If the lines are
              too long to be displayed in the box, the LEFT/RIGHT keys can be
              used to scroll the text region horizontally.  You may also use
              vi-style keys h, j, k, l in place of the cursor keys, and B or N
              in place of the page-up and page-down keys.  Scroll up/down
              using vi-style 'k' and 'j', or arrow-keys.  Scroll left/right
              using vi-style 'h' and 'l', or arrow-keys.  A '0' resets the
              left/right scrolling.  For more convenience, vi-style forward
              and backward searching functions are also provided.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  Only an "EXIT"
              button is provided for input, but an ESC exit status may be
              returned.

       --timebox text height [width hour minute second]
              A dialog is displayed which allows you to select hour, minute
              and second.  If the values for hour, minute or second are
              missing or negative, the current date's corresponding values are
              used.  You can increment or decrement any of those using the
              left-, up-, right- and down-arrows.  Use tab or backtab to move
              between windows.

              On exit, the result is printed in the form hour:minute:second.
              The format can be overridden using the --time-format option.

       --treeview text height width list-height [ tag item status depth ] ...
              Display data organized as a tree.  Each group of data contains a
              tag, the text to display for the item, its status ("on" or
              "off") and the depth of the item in the tree.

              Only one item can be selected (like the radiolist).  The tag is
              not displayed.

              On exit, the tag of the selected item is written to dialog's
              output.

       --yesno text height width
              A yes/no dialog box of size height rows by width columns will be
              displayed.  The string specified by text is displayed inside the
              dialog box.  If this string is too long to fit in one line, it
              will be automatically divided into multiple lines at appropriate
              places.  The text string can also contain the sub-string "\n" or
              newline characters `\n' to control line breaking explicitly.
              This dialog box is useful for asking questions that require the
              user to answer either yes or no.  The dialog box has a Yes
              button and a No button, in which the user can switch between by
              pressing the TAB key.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  In addition to
              the "Yes" and "No" exit codes (see DIAGNOSTICS) an ESC exit
              status may be returned.

              The codes used for "Yes" and "No" match those used for "OK" and
              "Cancel", internally no distinction is made.

   Obsolete Options
       --beep This was used to tell the original cdialog that it should make a
              beep when the separate processes of the tailboxbg widget would
              repaint the screen.

       --beep-after
              Beep after a user has completed a widget by pressing one of the
              buttons.

RUN-TIME CONFIGURATION
       1.  Create a sample configuration file by typing:

                 "dialog --create-rc <file>"

       2.  At start, dialog determines the settings to use as follows:

           a)  if environment variable DIALOGRC is set, its value determines
               the name of the configuration file.

           b)  if the file in (a) is not found, use the file $HOME/.dialogrc
               as the configuration file.

           c)  if the file in (b) is not found, try using the GLOBALRC file
               determined at compile-time, i.e., /etc/dialogrc.

           d)  if the file in (c) is not found, use compiled in defaults.

       3.  Edit the sample configuration file and copy it to some place that
           dialog can find, as stated in step 2 above.

KEY BINDINGS
       You can override or add to key bindings in dialog by adding to the
       configuration file.  Dialog's bindkey command maps single keys to its
       internal coding.

              bindkey widget curses_key dialog_key

       The widget name can be "*" (all widgets), or specific widgets such as
       textbox.  Specific widget bindings override the "*" bindings.  User-
       defined bindings override the built-in bindings.

       The curses_key can be any of the names derived from curses.h, e.g.,
       "HELP" from "KEY_HELP".  Dialog also recognizes ANSI control characters
       such as "^A", "^?", as well as C1-controls such as "~A" and "~?".
       Finally, it allows any single character to be escaped with a backslash.

       Dialog's internal keycode names correspond to the DLG_KEYS_ENUM type in
       dlg_keys.h, e.g., "HELP" from "DLGK_HELP".

   Widget Names
       Some widgets (such as the formbox) have an area where fields can be
       edited.  Those are managed in a subwindow of the widget, and may have
       separate keybindings from the main widget because the subwindows are
       registered using a different name.

                     Widget        Window name   Subwindow Name
                     calendar      calendar
                     checklist     checklist
                     editbox       editbox       editbox2
                     form          formbox       formfield
                     fselect       fselect       fselect2
                     inputbox      inputbox      inputbox2
                     menu          menubox       menu
                     msgbox        msgbox
                     pause         pause
                     progressbox   progressbox
                     radiolist     radiolist
                     tailbox       tailbox
                     textbox       textbox       searchbox
                     timebox       timebox
                     yesno         yesno

       Some widgets are actually other widgets, using internal settings to
       modify the behavior.  Those use the same widget name as the actual
       widget:

                            Widget         Actual Widget
                            dselect        fselect
                            infobox        msgbox
                            inputmenu      menu
                            mixedform      form
                            passwordbox    inputbox
                            passwordform   form
                            prgbox         progressbox
                            programbox     progressbox
                            tailboxbg      tailbox

   Built-in Bindings
       This manual page does not list the key bindings for each widget,
       because that detailed information can be obtained by running dialog.
       If you have set the --trace option, dialog writes the key-binding
       information for each widget as it is registered.

   Example
       Normally dialog uses different keys for navigating between the buttons
       and editing part of a dialog versus navigating within the editing part.
       That is, tab (and back-tab) traverse buttons (or between buttons and
       the editing part), while arrow keys traverse fields within the editing
       part.  Tabs are also recognized as a special case for traversing
       between widgets, e.g., when using multiple tailboxbg widgets.

       Some users may wish to use the same key for traversing within the
       editing part as for traversing between buttons.  The form widget is
       written to support this sort of redefinition of the keys, by adding a
       special group in <code>dlgk_keys.h</code> for "form"
       (left/right/next/prev).  Here is an example binding demonstrating how
       to do this:

              bindkey formfield TAB  form_NEXT
              bindkey formbox   TAB  form_NEXT
              bindkey formfield BTAB form_prev
              bindkey formbox   BTAB form_prev

       That type of redefinition would not be useful in other widgets, e.g.,
       calendar, due to the potentially large number of fields to traverse.

ENVIRONMENT
       DIALOGOPTS     Define this variable to apply any of the common options
                      to each widget.  Most of the common options are reset
                      before processing each widget.  If you set the options
                      in this environment variable, they are applied to
                      dialog's state after the reset.  As in the "--file"
                      option, double-quotes and backslashes are interpreted.

                      The "--file" option is not considered a common option
                      (so you cannot embed it within this environment
                      variable).

       DIALOGRC       Define this variable if you want to specify the name of
                      the configuration file to use.

       DIALOG_CANCEL

       DIALOG_ERROR

       DIALOG_ESC

       DIALOG_EXTRA

       DIALOG_HELP

       DIALOG_ITEM_HELP

       DIALOG_OK      Define any of these variables to change the exit code on
                      Cancel (1), error (-1), ESC (255), Extra (3), Help (2),
                      Help with --item-help (2), or OK (0).  Normally shell
                      scripts cannot distinguish between -1 and 255.

       DIALOG_TTY     Set this variable to "1" to provide compatibility with
                      older versions of dialog which assumed that if the
                      script redirects the standard output, that the
                      "--stdout" option was given.

FILES
       $HOME/.dialogrc     default configuration file

EXAMPLES
       The dialog sources contain several samples of how to use the different
       box options and how they look.  Just take a look into the directory
       samples/ of the source.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Exit status is subject to being overridden by environment variables.
       The default values and corresponding environment variables that can
       override them are:

       0    if the YES or OK button is pressed (DIALOG_OK).

       1    if the No or Cancel button is pressed (DIALOG_CANCEL).

       2    if the Help button is pressed (DIALOG_HELP),
            except as noted below about DIALOG_ITEM_HELP.

       3    if the Extra button is pressed (DIALOG_EXTRA).

       4    if the Help button is pressed,
            and the --item-help option is set
            and the DIALOG_ITEM_HELP environment variable is set to 4.

            While any of the exit-codes can be overridden using environment
            variables, this special case was introduced in 2004 to simplify
            compatibility.  Dialog uses DIALOG_ITEM_HELP(4) internally, but
            unless the environment variable is also set, it changes that to
            DIALOG_HELP(2) on exit.

       -1   if errors occur inside dialog (DIALOG_ERROR) or dialog exits
            because the ESC key (DIALOG_ESC) was pressed.

PORTABILITY
       Dialog works with X/Open curses.  However, some implementations have
       deficiencies:

          o   HPUX curses (and perhaps others) do not open the terminal
              properly for the newterm function.  This interferes with
              dialog's --input-fd option, by preventing cursor-keys and
              similar escape sequences from being recognized.

          o   NetBSD 5.1 curses has incomplete support for wide-characters.
              dialog will build, but not all examples display properly.

COMPATIBILITY
       You may want to write scripts which run with other dialog "clones".

   ORIGINAL DIALOG
       First, there is the "original" dialog program to consider (versions 0.3
       to 0.9).  It had some misspelled (or inconsistent) options.  The dialog
       program maps those deprecated options to the preferred ones.  They
       include:

              Option         Treatment
              ---------------------------------
              --beep-after   ignored
              --guage        mapped to --gauge

   XDIALOG
       Technically, "Xdialog", this is an X application.  With some care, it
       is possible to write useful scripts that work with both Xdialog and
       dialog.

       The dialog program ignores these options which are recognized by
       Xdialog:

              Option             Treatment
              -----------------------------------------------
              --allow-close      ignored
              --auto-placement   ignored
              --fixed-font       ignored
              --icon             ignored
              --keep-colors      ignored
              --no-close         ignored
              --no-cr-wrap       ignored
              --screen-center    ignored
              --separator        mapped to --separate-output
              --smooth           ignored
              --under-mouse      ignored
              --wmclass          ignored

       Xdialog's manpage has a section discussing its compatibility with
       dialog.  There are some differences not shown in the manpage.  For
       example, the html documentation states

              Note:  former  Xdialog  releases  used  the  "0 (line feed) as a
              results  separator  for  the  checklist  widget; this has been
              changed  to  "/"  in  Xdialog v1.5.0 so to make it compatible
              with (c)dialog.  In  your  old scripts using the Xdialog
              checklist, you will  then  have  to  add  the --separate-output
              option before the --checklist one.

       Dialog has not used a different separator; the difference was likely
       due to confusion regarding some script.

   WHIPTAIL
       Then there is whiptail.  For practical purposes, it is maintained by
       Debian (very little work is done by its upstream developers).  Its
       documentation (README.whiptail) claims

              whiptail(1) is a lightweight replacement for dialog(1),
              to provide dialog boxes for shell scripts.
              It is built on the
              newt windowing library rather than the ncurses library, allowing
              it to be smaller in embedded enviroments such as installers,
              rescue disks, etc.

              whiptail is designed to be drop-in compatible with dialog, but
              has less features: some dialog boxes are not implemented, such
              as tailbox, timebox, calendarbox, etc.

       Comparing actual sizes (Debian testing, 2007/1/10): The total of sizes
       for whiptail, the newt, popt and slang libraries is 757kb.  The
       comparable number for dialog (counting ncurses) is 520kb.  Disregard
       the first paragraph.

       The second paragraph is misleading, since whiptail also does not work
       for common options of dialog, such as the gauge box.  whiptail is less
       compatible with dialog than the original mid-1990s dialog 0.4 program.

       whiptail's manpage borrows features from dialog, e.g., but oddly cites
       only dialog versions up to 0.4 (1994) as a source.  That is, its
       manpage refers to features which were borrowed from more recent
       versions of dialog, e.g.,

       o   --gauge (from 0.5)

       o   --passwordbox (from Debian changes in 1999),

       o   --default-item (from dialog 2000/02/22),

       o   --output-fd (from dialog 2002/08/14).

       Somewhat humorously, one may note that the popt feature (undocumented
       in its manpage) of using a "--" as an escape was documented in dialog's
       manpage about a year before it was mentioned in whiptail's manpage.
       whiptail's manpage incorrectly attributes that to getopt (and is
       inaccurate anyway).

       Debian uses whiptail for the official dialog variation.

       The dialog program ignores or maps these options which are recognized
       by whiptail:

              Option            Treatment
              -------------------------------------------
              --cancel-button   mapped to --cancel-label
              --fb              ignored
              --fullbutton      ignored
              --no-button       mapped to --no-label
              --nocancel        mapped to --no-cancel
              --noitem          mapped to --no-items
              --notags          mapped to --no-tags
              --ok-button       mapped to --ok-label
              --scrolltext      mapped to --scrollbar
              --topleft         mapped to --begin 0 0
              --yes-button      mapped to --yes-label

       There are visual differences which are not addressed by command-line
       options:

       o   dialog centers lists within the window.  whiptail typically puts
           lists against the left margin.

       o   whiptail uses angle brackets ("<" and ">") for marking buttons.
           dialog uses square brackets.

       o   whiptail marks the limits of subtitles with vertical bars.  dialog
           does not mark the limits.

       o   whiptail attempts to mark the top/bottom cells of a scrollbar with
           up/down arrows.  When it cannot do this, it fills those cells with
           the background color of the scrollbar and confusing the user.
           dialog uses the entire scrollbar space, thereby getting better
           resolution.

BUGS
       Perhaps.

AUTHOR
       Thomas E. Dickey (updates for 0.9b and beyond)

CONTRIBUTORS
       Kiran Cherupally - the mixed form and mixed gauge widgets.

       Tobias C. Rittweiler

       Valery Reznic - the form and progressbox widgets.

       Yura Kalinichenko adapted the gauge widget as "pause".

       This is a rewrite (except as needed to provide compatibility) of the
       earlier version of dialog 0.9a, which lists as authors:

       o   Savio Lam - version 0.3, "dialog"

       o   Stuart Herbert - patch for version 0.4

       o   Marc Ewing - the gauge widget.

       o   Pasquale De Marco "Pako" - version 0.9a, "cdialog"

$Date: 2013/09/02 17:38:36 $                                         DIALOG(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | RUN-TIME CONFIGURATION | KEY BINDINGS | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | EXAMPLES | DIAGNOSTICS | PORTABILITY | COMPATIBILITY | BUGS | AUTHOR | CONTRIBUTORS

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