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dcraw(1)		    General Commands Manual		      dcraw(1)

NAME
       dcraw - command-line decoder for	raw digital photos

SYNOPSIS
       dcraw [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION
       dcraw decodes raw photos, displays metadata, and	extracts thumbnails.

GENERAL	OPTIONS
       -v     Print verbose messages, not just warnings	and errors.

       -c     Write decoded images or thumbnails to standard output.

       -e     Extract  the  camera-generated  thumbnail,  not  the  raw	image.
	      You'll get either	a JPEG or a PPM	file, depending	on the camera.

       -z     Change the access	and modification times of an AVI,  JPEG,  TIFF
	      or  raw file to when the photo was taken,	assuming that the cam-
	      era clock	was set	to Universal Time.

       -i     Identify files but don't decode them.  Exit status is 0 if dcraw
	      can decode the last file,	1 if it	can't.	-i -v shows metadata.

	      dcraw cannot decode JPEG files!!

REPAIR OPTIONS
       -I     Read  the	 raw pixels from standard input	in CPU byte order with
	      no header.  Use dcraw -E -4 to get the raw pixel values.

       -P deadpixels.txt
	      Read the dead pixel list from this file instead of ".badpixels".
	      See FILES	for a description of the format.

       -K darkframe.pgm
	      Subtract	a  dark	 frame	from the raw data.  To generate	a dark
	      frame,   shoot   a   raw	 photo	 with	no   light   and    do
	      dcraw -D -4 -j -t	0.

       -k darkness
	      When shadows appear foggy, you need to raise the darkness	level.
	      To measure this, apply pamsumm -mean to the dark frame generated
	      above.

       -S saturation
	      When  highlights	appear	pink, you need to lower	the saturation
	      level.  To measure this, take a picture of something  shiny  and
	      do dcraw -D -4 -j	-c photo.raw | pamsumm -max

	      The default darkness and saturation are usually correct.

       -n noise_threshold
	      Use  wavelets  to	erase noise while preserving real detail.  The
	      best threshold should be somewhere between 100 and 1000.

       -C red_mag blue_mag
	      Enlarge the raw red and blue layers by the given factors,	 typi-
	      cally 0.999 to 1.001, to correct chromatic aberration.

       -H 0   Clip all highlights to solid white (default).

       -H 1   Leave highlights unclipped in various shades of pink.

       -H 2   Blend  clipped  and unclipped values together for	a gradual fade
	      to white.

       -H 3+  Reconstruct highlights.  Low numbers favor whites; high  numbers
	      favor  colors.   Try  -H	5 as a compromise.  If that's not good
	      enough, do -H 9, cut out the  non-white  highlights,  and	 paste
	      them into	an image generated with	-H 3.

COLOR OPTIONS
       By default, dcraw uses a	fixed white balance based on a color chart il-
       luminated with a	standard D65 lamp.

       -w     Use the white balance specified by the camera.  If this  is  not
	      found, print a warning and use another method.

       -a     Calculate	the white balance by averaging the entire image.

       -A left top width height
	      Calculate	 the  white  balance  by averaging a rectangular area.
	      First do dcraw -j	-t 0 and select	an area	of neutral grey	color.

       -r mul0 mul1 mul2 mul3
	      Specify your own raw white balance.  These  multipliers  can  be
	      cut and pasted from the output of	dcraw -v.

       +M or -M
	      Use  (or	don't  use) any	color matrix from the camera metadata.
	      The default is +M	if -w is set or	the photo is in	DNG format, -M
	      otherwise.  Besides DNG, this option only	affects	Olympus, Leaf,
	      and Phase	One cameras.

       -o [0-6]
	      Select the output	colorspace when	the -p option is not used:

		   0   Raw color (unique to each camera)
		   1   sRGB D65	(default)
		   2   Adobe RGB (1998)	D65
		   3   Wide Gamut RGB D65
		   4   Kodak ProPhoto RGB D65
		   5   XYZ
		   6   ACES

       -p camera.icm [ -o output.icm ]
	      Use ICC profiles to define the camera's raw colorspace  and  the
	      desired output colorspace	(sRGB by default).

       -p embed
	      Use the ICC profile embedded in the raw photo.

INTERPOLATION OPTIONS
       -d     Show  the	 raw  data as a	grayscale image	with no	interpolation.
	      Good for photographing black-and-white documents.

       -D     Same as -d, but with the original	unscaled pixel values.

       -E     Same as -D, but masked pixels are	not cropped.

       -h     Output a half-size color image.  Twice as	fast as	-q 0.

       -q 0   Use high-speed, low-quality bilinear interpolation.

       -q 1   Use Variable Number of Gradients (VNG) interpolation.

       -q 2   Use Patterned Pixel Grouping (PPG) interpolation.

       -q 3   Use Adaptive Homogeneity-Directed	(AHD) interpolation.

       -f     Interpolate RGB as four colors.  Use this	if  the	 output	 shows
	      false 2x2	meshes with VNG	or mazes with AHD.

       -m number_of_passes
	      After  interpolation, clean up color artifacts by	repeatedly ap-
	      plying a 3x3 median filter to the	R-G and	B-G channels.

OUTPUT OPTIONS
       By default, dcraw writes	PGM/PPM/PAM with 8-bit samples,	a BT.709 gamma
       curve, a	histogram-based	white level, and no metadata.

       -W     Use a fixed white	level, ignoring	the image histogram.

       -b brightness
	      Divide the white level by	this number, 1.0 by default.

       -g power	toe_slope
	      Set  the	gamma curve, by	default	BT.709 (-g 2.222 4.5).	If you
	      prefer sRGB gamma, use -g	2.4 12.92.  For	a simple power	curve,
	      set the toe slope	to zero.

       -6     Write sixteen bits per sample instead of eight.

       -4     Linear 16-bit, same as -6	-W -g 1	1.

       -T     Write TIFF with metadata instead of PGM/PPM/PAM.

       -t [0-7,90,180,270]
	      Flip the output image.  By default, dcraw	applies	the flip spec-
	      ified by the camera.  -t 0 disables all flipping.

       -j     For Fuji Super CCD cameras, show the image  tilted  45  degrees.
	      For  cameras with	non-square pixels, do not stretch the image to
	      its correct aspect ratio.	 In any	case, this  option  guarantees
	      that each	output pixel corresponds to one	raw pixel.

       -s [0..N-1] or -s all
	      If  a file contains N raw	images,	choose one or "all" to decode.
	      For example, Fuji	Super CCD SR cameras generate a	 second	 image
	      underexposed four	stops to show detail in	the highlights.

FILES
       ./.badpixels, ../.badpixels, ../../.badpixels, ...
	      List of your camera's dead pixels, so that dcraw can interpolate
	      around them.  Each line specifies	the column, row, and UNIX time
	      of death for one pixel.  For example:

	       962   91	1028350000  # died between August 1 and	4, 2002
	      1285 1067	0	    # don't know when this pixel died

	      These  coordinates are before any	stretching or rotation,	so use
	      dcraw -j -t 0 to locate dead pixels.

SEE ALSO
       pgm(5), ppm(5), pam(5),	pamsumm(1),  pnmgamma(1),  pnmtotiff(1),  pnm-
       topng(1), gphoto2(1), cjpeg(1), djpeg(1)

AUTHOR
       Written by David	Coffin,	dcoffin	a cybercom o net

				 March 3, 2015			      dcraw(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | GENERAL OPTIONS | REPAIR OPTIONS | COLOR OPTIONS | INTERPOLATION OPTIONS | OUTPUT OPTIONS | FILES | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR

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