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DBUS-DAEMON(1)			 User Commands			DBUS-DAEMON(1)

       dbus-daemon - Message bus daemon


       dbus-daemon [--version] [--session] [--system] [--config-file=FILE]
		   [--print-address [=DESCRIPTOR]] [--print-pid	[=DESCRIPTOR]]

       dbus-daemon is the D-Bus	message	bus daemon. See for more information about
       the big picture.	D-Bus is first a library that provides one-to-one
       communication between any two applications; dbus-daemon is an
       application that	uses this library to implement a message bus daemon.
       Multiple	programs connect to the	message	bus daemon and can exchange
       messages	with one another.

       There are two standard message bus instances: the systemwide message
       bus (installed on many systems as the "messagebus" init service)	and
       the per-user-login-session message bus (started each time a user	logs
       in).  dbus-daemon is used for both of these instances, but with a
       different configuration file.

       The --session option is equivalent to
       "--config-file=/usr/local/share/dbus-1/session.conf" and	the --system
       option is equivalent to
       "--config-file=/usr/local/share/dbus-1/system.conf". By creating
       additional configuration	files and using	the --config-file option,
       additional special-purpose message bus daemons could be created.

       The systemwide daemon is	normally launched by an	init script,
       standardly called simply	"messagebus".

       The systemwide daemon is	largely	used for broadcasting system events,
       such as changes to the printer queue, or	adding/removing	devices.

       The per-session daemon is used for various interprocess communication
       among desktop applications (however, it is not tied to X	or the GUI in
       any way).

       SIGHUP will cause the D-Bus daemon to PARTIALLY reload its
       configuration file and to flush its user/group information caches. Some
       configuration changes would require kicking all apps off	the bus; so
       they will only take effect if you restart the daemon. Policy changes
       should take effect with SIGHUP.

       The following options are supported:

	   Use the given configuration file.

	   Force the message bus to fork and become a daemon, even if the
	   configuration file does not specify that it should. In most
	   contexts the	configuration file already gets	this right, though.
	   This	option is not supported	on Windows.

	   Force the message bus not to	fork and become	a daemon, even if the
	   configuration file specifies	that it	should.	On Windows, the
	   dbus-daemon never forks, so this option is allowed but does

	   Print the address of	the message bus	to standard output, or to the
	   given file descriptor. This is used by programs that	launch the
	   message bus.

	   Print the process ID	of the message bus to standard output, or to
	   the given file descriptor. This is used by programs that launch the
	   message bus.

	   Use the standard configuration file for the per-login-session
	   message bus.

	   Use the standard configuration file for the systemwide message bus.

	   Print the version of	the daemon.

	   Print the introspection information for all D-Bus internal

	   Set the address to listen on. This option overrides the address
	   configured in the configuration file.

	   Enable systemd-style	service	activation. Only useful	in conjunction
	   with	the systemd system and session manager on Linux.

	   Don't write a PID file even if one is configured in the
	   configuration files.

       A message bus daemon has	a configuration	file that specializes it for a
       particular application. For example, one	configuration file might set
       up the message bus to be	a systemwide message bus, while	another	might
       set it up to be a per-user-login-session	bus.

       The configuration file also establishes resource	limits,	security
       parameters, and so forth.

       The configuration file is not part of any interoperability
       specification and its backward compatibility is not guaranteed; this
       document	is documentation, not specification.

       The standard systemwide and per-session message bus setups are
       configured in the files "/usr/local/share/dbus-1/system.conf" and
       "/usr/local/share/dbus-1/session.conf". These files normally <include>
       a system-local.conf or session-local.conf in /usr/local/etc/dbus-1; you
       can put local overrides in those	files to avoid modifying the primary
       configuration files.

       The configuration file is an XML	document. It must have the following
       doctype declaration:

	      <!DOCTYPE	busconfig PUBLIC "-//freedesktop//DTD D-Bus Bus	Configuration 1.0//EN"

       The following elements may be present in	the configuration file.

       o   _busconfig_

       Root element.

       o   _type_

       The well-known type of the message bus. Currently known values are
       "system"	and "session"; if other	values are set,	they should be either
       added to	the D-Bus specification, or namespaced.	The last <type>
       element "wins" (previous	values are ignored). This element only
       controls	which message bus specific environment variables are set in
       activated clients. Most of the policy that distinguishes	a session bus
       from the	system bus is controlled from the other	elements in the
       configuration file.

       If the well-known type of the message bus is "session", then the
       DBUS_STARTER_BUS_TYPE environment variable will be set to "session" and
       the DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS environment	variable will be set to	the
       address of the session bus. Likewise, if	the type of the	message	bus is
       "system", then the DBUS_STARTER_BUS_TYPE	environment variable will be
       set to "system" and the DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS	environment variable
       will be set to the address of the system	bus (which is normally well
       known anyway).

       Example:	<type>session</type>

       o   _include_

       Include a file <include>filename.conf</include> at this point. If the
       filename	is relative, it	is located relative to the configuration file
       doing the including.

       <include> has an	optional attribute "ignore_missing=(yes|no)" which
       defaults	to "no"	if not provided. This attribute	controls whether it's
       a fatal error for the included file to be absent.

       o   _includedir_

       Include all files in <includedir>foo.d</includedir> at this point.
       Files in	the directory are included in undefined	order. Only files
       ending in ".conf" are included.

       This is intended	to allow extension of the system bus by	particular
       packages. For example, if CUPS wants to be able to send out
       notification of printer queue changes, it could install a file to
       /usr/local/share/dbus-1/system.d	or /usr/local/etc/dbus-1/system.d that
       allowed all apps	to receive this	message	and allowed the	printer	daemon
       user to send it.

       o   _user_

       The user	account	the daemon should run as, as either a username or a
       UID. If the daemon cannot change	to this	UID on startup,	it will	exit.
       If this element is not present, the daemon will not change or care
       about its UID.

       The last	<user> entry in	the file "wins", the others are	ignored.

       The user	is changed after the bus has completed initialization. So
       sockets etc. will be created before changing user, but no data will be
       read from clients before	changing user. This means that sockets and PID
       files can be created in a location that requires	root privileges	for

       o   _fork_

       If present, the bus daemon becomes a real daemon	(forks into the
       background, etc.). This is generally used rather	than the --fork
       command line option.

       o   _keep_umask_

       If present, the bus daemon keeps	its original umask when	forking. This
       may be useful to	avoid affecting	the behavior of	child processes.

       o   _syslog_

       If present, the bus daemon will log to syslog.

       o   _pidfile_

       If present, the bus daemon will write its pid to	the specified file.
       The --nopidfile command-line option takes precedence over this setting.

       o   _allow_anonymous_

       If present, connections that authenticated using	the ANONYMOUS
       mechanism will be authorized to connect.	This option has	no practical
       effect unless the ANONYMOUS mechanism has also been enabled using the
       _auth_ element, described below.

       o   _listen_

       Add an address that the bus should listen on. The address is in the
       standard	D-Bus format that contains a transport name plus possible

       Example:	<listen>unix:path=/tmp/foo</listen>

       Example:	<listen>tcp:host=localhost,port=1234</listen>

       If there	are multiple <listen> elements,	then the bus listens on
       multiple	addresses. The bus will	pass its address to started services
       or other	interested parties with	the last address given in <listen>
       first. That is, apps will try to	connect	to the last <listen> address

       tcp sockets can accept IPv4 addresses, IPv6 addresses or	hostnames. If
       a hostname resolves to multiple addresses, the server will bind to all
       of them.	The family=ipv4	or family=ipv6 options can be used to force it
       to bind to a subset of addresses

       Example:	<listen>tcp:host=localhost,port=0,family=ipv4</listen>

       A special case is using a port number of	zero (or omitting the port),
       which means to choose an	available port selected	by the operating
       system. The port	number chosen can be obtained with the --print-address
       command line parameter and will be present in other cases where the
       server reports its own address, such as when DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS
       is set.

       Example:	<listen>tcp:host=localhost,port=0</listen>

       tcp/nonce-tcp addresses also allow a bind=hostname option, used in a
       listenable address to configure the interface on	which the server will
       listen: either the hostname is the IP address of	one of the local
       machine's interfaces (most commonly, a DNS name that
       resolves	to one of those	IP addresses, ''	to listen on all IPv4
       interfaces simultaneously, or '::' to listen on all IPv4	and IPv6
       interfaces simultaneously (if supported by the OS). If not specified,
       the default is the same value as	"host".

       Example:	<listen>tcp:host=localhost,bind=,port=0</listen>

       o   _auth_

       Lists permitted authorization mechanisms. If this element doesn't
       exist, then all known mechanisms	are allowed. If	there are multiple
       <auth> elements,	all the	listed mechanisms are allowed. The order in
       which mechanisms	are listed is not meaningful.

       Example:	<auth>EXTERNAL</auth>

       Example:	<auth>DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1</auth>

       o   _servicedir_

       Adds a directory	to scan	for .service files. Directories	are scanned
       starting	with the first to appear in the	config file (the first
       .service	file found that	provides a particular service will be used).

       Service files tell the bus how to automatically start a program.	They
       are primarily used with the per-user-session bus, not the systemwide

       o   _standard_session_servicedirs/_

       <standard_session_servicedirs/> is equivalent to	specifying a series of
       <servicedir/> elements for each of the data directories in the "XDG
       Base Directory Specification" with the subdirectory "dbus-1/services",
       so for example "/usr/share/dbus-1/services" would be among the
       directories searched.

       The "XDG	Base Directory Specification" can be found at if it	hasn't moved,
       otherwise try your favorite search engine.

       The <standard_session_servicedirs/> option is only relevant to the
       per-user-session	bus daemon defined in
       /usr/local/etc/dbus-1/session.conf. Putting it in any other
       configuration file would	probably be nonsense.

       o   _standard_system_servicedirs/_

       <standard_system_servicedirs/> specifies	the standard system-wide
       activation directories that should be searched for service files. This
       option defaults to /usr/local/share/dbus-1/system-services.

       The <standard_system_servicedirs/> option is only relevant to the
       per-system bus daemon defined in	/usr/local/share/dbus-1/system.conf.
       Putting it in any other configuration file would	probably be nonsense.

       o   _servicehelper/_

       <servicehelper/>	specifies the setuid helper that is used to launch
       system daemons with an alternate	user. Typically	this should be the
       dbus-daemon-launch-helper executable in located in libexec.

       The <servicehelper/> option is only relevant to the per-system bus
       daemon defined in /usr/local/share/dbus-1/system.conf. Putting it in
       any other configuration file would probably be nonsense.

       o   _limit_

       <limit> establishes a resource limit. For example:

	     <limit name="max_message_size">64</limit>
	     <limit name="max_completed_connections">512</limit>

       The name	attribute is mandatory.	Available limit	names are:

		 "max_incoming_bytes"	      :	total size in bytes of messages
						incoming from a	single connection
		 "max_incoming_unix_fds"      :	total number of	unix fds of messages
						incoming from a	single connection
		 "max_outgoing_bytes"	      :	total size in bytes of messages
						queued up for a	single connection
		 "max_outgoing_unix_fds"      :	total number of	unix fds of messages
						queued up for a	single connection
		 "max_message_size"	      :	max size of a single message in
		 "max_message_unix_fds"	      :	max unix fds of	a single message
		 "service_start_timeout"      :	milliseconds (thousandths) until
						a started service has to connect
		 "auth_timeout"		      :	milliseconds (thousandths) a
						connection is given to
		 "pending_fd_timeout"	      :	milliseconds (thousandths) a
						fd is given to be transmitted to
						dbus-daemon before disconnecting the
		 "max_completed_connections"  :	max number of authenticated connections
		 "max_incomplete_connections" :	max number of unauthenticated
		 "max_connections_per_user"   :	max number of completed	connections from
						the same user
		 "max_pending_service_starts" :	max number of service launches in
						progress at the	same time
		 "max_names_per_connection"   :	max number of names a single
						connection can own
		 "max_match_rules_per_connection": max number of match rules for a single
		 "max_replies_per_connection" :	max number of pending method
						replies	per connection
						(number	of calls-in-progress)
		 "reply_timeout"	      :	milliseconds (thousandths)
						until a	method call times out

       The max incoming/outgoing queue sizes allow a new message to be queued
       if one byte remains below the max. So you can in	fact exceed the	max by

       max_completed_connections divided by max_connections_per_user is	the
       number of users that can	work together to denial-of-service all other
       users by	using up all connections on the	systemwide bus.

       Limits are normally only	of interest on the systemwide bus, not the
       user session buses.

       o   _policy_

       The <policy> element defines a security policy to be applied to a
       particular set of connections to	the bus. A policy is made up of
       <allow> and <deny> elements. Policies are normally used with the
       systemwide bus; they are	analogous to a firewall	in that	they allow
       expected	traffic	and prevent unexpected traffic.

       Currently, the system bus has a default-deny policy for sending method
       calls and owning	bus names. Everything else, in particular reply
       messages, receive checks, and signals has a default allow policy.

       In general, it is best to keep system services as small,	targeted
       programs	which run in their own process and provide a single bus	name.
       Then, all that is needed	is an <allow> rule for the "own" permission to
       let the process claim the bus name, and a "send_destination" rule to
       allow traffic from some or all uids to your service.

       The <policy> element has	one of four attributes:

	     user="username or userid"
	     group="group name or gid"

       Policies	are applied to a connection as follows:

	      -	all context="default" policies are applied
	      -	all group="connection's	user's group" policies are applied
		in undefined order
	      -	all user="connection's auth user" policies are applied
		in undefined order
	      -	all at_console="true" policies are applied
	      -	all at_console="false" policies	are applied
	      -	all context="mandatory"	policies are applied

       Policies	applied	later will override those applied earlier, when	the
       policies	overlap. Multiple policies with	the same user/group/context
       are applied in the order	they appear in the config file.


       A <deny>	element	appears	below a	<policy> element and prohibits some
       action. The <allow> element makes an exception to previous <deny>
       statements, and works just like <deny> but with the inverse meaning.

       The possible attributes of these	elements are:

	      send_type="method_call" |	"method_return"	| "signal" | "error"

	      receive_type="method_call" | "method_return" | "signal" |	"error"

	      send_requested_reply="true" | "false"
	      receive_requested_reply="true" | "false"

	      eavesdrop="true" | "false"



	      <deny send_destination="org.freedesktop.Service" send_interface="org.freedesktop.System" send_member="Reboot"/>
	      <deny send_destination="org.freedesktop.System"/>
	      <deny receive_sender="org.freedesktop.System"/>
	      <deny user="john"/>
	      <deny group="enemies"/>

       The <deny> element's attributes determine whether the deny "matches" a
       particular action. If it	matches, the action is denied (unless later
       rules in	the config file	allow it).

       send_destination	and receive_sender rules mean that messages may	not be
       sent to or received from	the *owner* of the given name, not that	they
       may not be sent *to that	name*. That is,	if a connection	owns services
       A, B, C,	and sending to A is denied, sending to B or C will not work

       The other send_*	and receive_* attributes are purely textual/by-value
       matches against the given field in the message header.

       "Eavesdropping" occurs when an application receives a message that was
       explicitly addressed to a name the application does not own, or is a
       reply to	such a message.	Eavesdropping thus only	applies	to messages
       that are	addressed to services and replies to such messages (i.e. it
       does not	apply to signals).

       For <allow>, eavesdrop="true" indicates that the	rule matches even when
       eavesdropping. eavesdrop="false"	is the default and means that the rule
       only allows messages to go to their specified recipient.	For <deny>,
       eavesdrop="true"	indicates that the rule	matches	only when
       eavesdropping. eavesdrop="false"	is the default for <deny> also,	but
       here it means that the rule applies always, even	when not
       eavesdropping. The eavesdrop attribute can only be combined with	send
       and receive rules (with send_* and receive_* attributes).

       The [send|receive]_requested_reply attribute works similarly to the
       eavesdrop attribute. It controls	whether	the <deny> or <allow> matches
       a reply that is expected	(corresponds to	a previous method call
       message). This attribute	only makes sense for reply messages (errors
       and method returns), and	is ignored for other message types.

       For <allow>, [send|receive]_requested_reply="true" is the default and
       indicates that only requested replies are allowed by the	rule.
       [send|receive]_requested_reply="false" means that the rule allows any
       reply even if unexpected.

       For <deny>, [send|receive]_requested_reply="false" is the default but
       indicates that the rule matches only when the reply was not requested.
       [send|receive]_requested_reply="true" indicates that the	rule applies
       always, regardless of pending reply state.

       user and	group denials mean that	the given user or group	may not
       connect to the message bus.

       For "name", "username", "groupname", etc. the character "*" can be
       substituted, meaning "any." Complex globs like "*" aren't
       allowed for now because they'd be work to implement and maybe encourage
       sloppy security anyway.

       <allow own_prefix="a.b"/> allows	you to own the name "a.b" or any name
       whose first dot-separated elements are "a.b": in	particular, you	can
       own "a.b.c" or "a.b.c.d", but not "a.bc"	or "a.c". This is useful when
       services	like Telepathy and ReserveDevice define	a meaning for subtrees
       of well-known names, such as
       org.freedesktop.Telepathy.ConnectionManager.(anything) and

       It does not make	sense to deny a	user or	group inside a <policy>	for a
       user or group; user/group denials can only be inside context="default"
       or context="mandatory" policies.

       A single	<deny> rule may	specify	combinations of	attributes such	as
       send_destination	and send_interface and send_type. In this case,	the
       denial applies only if both attributes match the	message	being denied.
       e.g. <deny send_interface="" send_destination="foo.blah"/> would
       deny messages with the given interface AND the given bus	name. To get
       an OR effect you	specify	multiple <deny>	rules.

       You can't include both send_ and	receive_ attributes on the same	rule,
       since "whether the message can be sent" and "whether it can be
       received" are evaluated separately.

       Be careful with send_interface/receive_interface, because the interface
       field in	messages is optional. In particular, do	NOT specify <deny
       send_interface=""/>! This will cause no-interface messages
       to be blocked for all services, which is	almost certainly not what you
       intended. Always	use rules of the form: <deny
       send_interface="" send_destination=""/>

       o   _selinux_

       The <selinux> element contains settings related to Security Enhanced
       Linux. More details below.

       o   _associate_

       An <associate> element appears below an <selinux> element and creates a
       mapping.	Right now only one kind	of association is possible:

	      <associate own="org.freedesktop.Foobar" context="foo_t"/>

       This means that if a connection asks to own the name
       "org.freedesktop.Foobar"	then the source	context	will be	the context of
       the connection and the target context will be "foo_t" - see the short
       discussion of SELinux below.

       Note, the context here is the target context when requesting a name,
       NOT the context of the connection owning	the name.

       There's currently no way	to set a default for owning any	name, if we
       add this	syntax it will look like:

	      <associate own="*" context="foo_t"/>

       If you find a reason this is useful, let	the developers know. Right now
       the default will	be the security	context	of the bus itself.

       If two <associate> elements specify the same name, the element
       appearing later in the configuration file will be used.

       o   _apparmor_

       The <apparmor> element is used to configure AppArmor mediation on the
       bus. It can contain one attribute that specifies	the mediation mode:

	      <apparmor	mode="(enabled|disabled|required)"/>

       The default mode	is "enabled". In "enabled" mode, AppArmor mediation
       will be performed if AppArmor support is	available in the kernel. If it
       is not available, dbus-daemon will start	but AppArmor mediation will
       not occur. In "disabled"	mode, AppArmor mediation is disabled. In
       "required" mode,	AppArmor mediation will	be enabled if AppArmor support
       is available, otherwise dbus-daemon will	refuse to start.

       The AppArmor mediation mode of the bus cannot be	changed	after the bus
       starts. Modifying the mode in the configuration file and	sending	a
       SIGHUP signal to	the daemon has no effect on the	mediation mode.

       See for full	details	on SELinux. Some
       useful excerpts:

       Every subject (process) and object (e.g.	file, socket, IPC object, etc)
       in the system is	assigned a collection of security attributes, known as
       a security context. A security context contains all of the security
       attributes associated with a particular subject or object that are
       relevant	to the security	policy.

       In order	to better encapsulate security contexts	and to provide greater
       efficiency, the policy enforcement code of SELinux typically handles
       security	identifiers (SIDs) rather than security	contexts. A SID	is an
       integer that is mapped by the security server to	a security context at

       When a security decision	is required, the policy	enforcement code
       passes a	pair of	SIDs (typically	the SID	of a subject and the SID of an
       object, but sometimes a pair of subject SIDs or a pair of object	SIDs),
       and an object security class to the security server. The	object
       security	class indicates	the kind of object, e.g. a process, a regular
       file, a directory, a TCP	socket,	etc.

       Access decisions	specify	whether	or not a permission is granted for a
       given pair of SIDs and class. Each object class has a set of associated
       permissions defined to control operations on objects with that class.

       D-Bus performs SELinux security checks in two places.

       First, any time a message is routed from	one connection to another
       connection, the bus daemon will check permissions with the security
       context of the first connection as source, security context of the
       second connection as target, object class "dbus"	and requested
       permission "send_msg".

       If a security context is	not available for a connection (impossible
       when using UNIX domain sockets),	then the target	context	used is	the
       context of the bus daemon itself. There is currently no way to change
       this default, because we're assuming that only UNIX domain sockets will
       be used to connect to the systemwide bus. If this changes, we'll
       probably	add a way to set the default connection	context.

       Second, any time	a connection asks to own a name, the bus daemon	will
       check permissions with the security context of the connection as
       source, the security context specified for the name in the config file
       as target, object class "dbus" and requested permission "acquire_svc".

       The security context for	a bus name is specified	with the <associate>
       element described earlier in this document. If a	name has no security
       context associated in the configuration file, the security context of
       the bus daemon itself will be used.

       The AppArmor confinement	context	is stored when applications connect to
       the bus.	The confinement	context	consists of a label and	a confinement
       mode. When a security decision is required, the daemon uses the
       confinement context to query the	AppArmor policy	to determine if	the
       action should be	allowed	or denied and if the action should be audited.

       The daemon performs AppArmor security checks in three places.

       First, any time a message is routed from	one connection to another
       connection, the bus daemon will check permissions with the label	of the
       first connection	as source, label and/or	connection name	of the second
       connection as target, along with	the bus	name, the path name, the
       interface name, and the member name. Reply messages, such as
       method_return and error messages, are implicitly	allowed	if they	are in
       response	to a message that has already been allowed.

       Second, any time	a connection asks to own a name, the bus daemon	will
       check permissions with the label	of the connection as source, the
       requested name as target, along with the	bus name.

       Third, any time a connection attempts to	eavesdrop, the bus daemon will
       check permissions with the label	of the connection as the source, along
       with the	bus name.

       AppArmor	rules for bus mediation	are not	stored in the bus
       configuration files. They are stored in the application's AppArmor
       profile.	Please see apparmor.d(5) for more details.

       If you're trying	to figure out where your messages are going or why you
       aren't getting messages,	there are several things you can try.

       Remember	that the system	bus is heavily locked down and if you haven't
       installed a security policy file	to allow your message through, it
       won't work. For the session bus,	this is	not a concern.

       The simplest way	to figure out what's happening on the bus is to	run
       the dbus-monitor	program, which comes with the D-Bus package. You can
       also send test messages with dbus-send. These programs have their own
       man pages.

       If you want to know what	the daemon itself is doing, you	might consider
       running a separate copy of the daemon to	test against. This will	allow
       you to put the daemon under a debugger, or run it with verbose output,
       without messing up your real session and	system daemons.

       To run a	separate test copy of the daemon, for example you might	open a
       terminal	and type:

	     DBUS_VERBOSE=1 dbus-daemon	--session --print-address

       The test	daemon address will be printed when the	daemon starts. You
       will need to copy-and-paste this	address	and use	it as the value	of the
       DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS	environment variable when you launch the
       applications you	want to	test. This will	cause those applications to
       connect to your test bus	instead	of the DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS	of
       your real session bus.

       DBUS_VERBOSE=1 will have	NO EFFECT unless your copy of D-Bus was
       compiled	with verbose mode enabled. This	is not recommended in
       production builds due to	performance impact. You	may need to rebuild
       D-Bus if	your copy was not built	with debugging in mind.	(DBUS_VERBOSE
       also affects the	D-Bus library and thus applications using D-Bus; it
       may be useful to	see verbose output on both the client side and from
       the daemon.)

       If you want to get fancy, you can create	a custom bus configuration for
       your test bus (see the session.conf and system.conf files that define
       the two default configurations for example). This would allow you to
       specify a different directory for .service files, for example.


       Please send bug reports to the D-Bus mailing list or bug	tracker, see

D-Bus 1.10.16			  07/02/2017			DBUS-DAEMON(1)


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