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CW(7)		       Miscellaneous Information Manual			 CW(7)

NAME
       CW - the	international Morse code

DESCRIPTION
       CW  is an abbreviation for "continuous wave", the commonly used techni-
       cal term	for Morse code communication.  A  basic	 knowledge  or	under-
       standing	 of  Morse code	is a requirement for Radio Amateurs and	Marine
       Radio Operators in many parts of	the world.

   MORSE CODE TIMINGS
       In Morse	code, a	dot or dash is referred	to as an element.   The	 basic
       timing  unit  is	the dot	period.	 This is the time taken	to send	a dot,
       not including any space before or after the dot.	 The  lengths  of  all
       other elements are then derived from this basic unit, using the follow-
       ing rules:

	      The duration of a	dash is	three dots.

	      The time between each element (dot or dash) is one dot length.

	      The space	between	characters is three dot	lengths.

	      The space	between	words is seven dot lengths.

       The following formula calculates	the dot	period	in  microseconds  from
       the Morse code speed in words per minute:

	      dot period = ( 1200000 / speed )

       This formula arises from	the use	of the word PARIS as a 'standard' word
       for calibrating Morse code speed.  PARIS	is 50 units long when sent  in
       Morse  code.  Analysis of English plain-text indicates that the average
       word is 50 units, including spaces.

   MORSE CODE CHARACTERS
       The following list shows	the IS0	8859-1 (Latin-1) characters that  have
       commonly	understood representations in Morse code:

	      ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789"$()+-./:;=?_@ and space

       In  addition,  following	 ISO 8859-1 and	ISO 8859-2 accented characters
       are also	part of	the generally accepted international Morse code:

	      UACOEEANS	(S with	cedilla),  (Z with caron/hacek),

       Finally,	libcw adds the following ASCII	characters  as	extensions  to
       single character	procedural signals:

	      <>!&^~

   MORSE CODE CHARACTER	TABLES
       The  following  table  shows  the  Morse	 code  equivalents for the ISO
       8859-1, accented	ISO 8859-1, and	accented ISO 8859-2 characters	above.
       The  ASCII  portion  of this table is taken from	the ARRL Handbook, and
       the accented extensions from various other sources:

       Ch   Code      Ch   Code
       ---------------------------
       A    .-	      B	   -...
       C    -.-.      D	   -..
       E    .	      F	   ..-.

       G    --.	      H	   ....
       I    ..	      J	   .---
       K    -.-	      L	   .-..
       M    --	      N	   -.
       O    ---	      P	   .--.
       Q    --.-      R	   .-.
       S    ...	      T	   -
       U    ..-	      V	   ...-
       W    .--	      X	   -..-
       Y    -.--      Z	   --..

       0    -----     1	   .----
       2    ..---     3	   ...--
       4    ....-     5	   .....
       6    -....     7	   --...
       8    ---..     9	   ----.

       "    .-..-.    '	   .----.
       $    ...-..-   (	   -.--.
       )    -.--.-    +	   .-.-.
       ,    --..--    -	   -....-
       .    .-.-.-    /	   -..-.
       :    ---...    ;	   -.-.-.
       =    -...-     ?	   ..--..
       _    ..--.-

       Ch	       Code    Ch		  Code
       -------------------------------------------------
       U	       ..--    A		  .-.-
       C	       -.-..   O		  ---.
       E	       ..-..   A		  .-..-
       A	       .--.-   N		  --.--
       S (S+cedilla)   ----	(Z+caron/hacek)	  --..-

       In addition to the above	standard characters, the following  characters
       are  conventionally used	for punctuation	and procedural signals as fol-
       lows:

       Ch   Code      Ch   Code
       ---------------------------
       "    .-..-.    '	   .----.
       $    ...-..-   (	   -.--.
       )    -.--.-    +	   .-.-.
       ,    --..--    -	   -....-
       .    .-.-.-    /	   -..-.
       :    ---...    ;	   -.-.-.
       =    -...-     ?	   ..--..
       _    ..--.-    @	   .--.-.

       and the following are non-conventional extensions implemented by	libcw:

       Ch   Code     Ch	  Code
       ---------------------------
       <    ...-.-   >	  -...-.-
       !    ...-.    &	  .-...
       ^    -.-.-    ~	  .-.-..

       An alternative view of punctuation and procedural signals is as	combi-
       nation Morse characters:

       Ch   Prosig	Ch   Prosig
       -----------------------------
       "    [AF]	'    [WG]
       $    [SX]	(    [KN]
       )    [KK]	+    [AR]

       ,    [MIM]	-    [DU]
       .    [AAA]	/    [DN]
       :    [OS]	;    [KR]
       =    [BT]	?    [IMI]
       _    [IQ]	@    [AC]
       <    [VA],[SK]	>    [BK]
       !    [SN]	&    [AS]
       ^    [KA]	~    [AL]

NOTES
       Despite	the  fact  that	 this  manual page constantly and consistently
       refers to Morse code elements as	dots and dashes, DO NOT	think in these
       terms  when trying to learn Morse code.	Always think of	them as	'dit's
       and 'dah's.

SEE ALSO
       Man pages for libcw(3,LOCAL), cw(1,LOCAL),  cwgen(1,LOCAL),  cwcp(1,LO-
       CAL), and xcwcp(1,LOCAL).

			       CW Tutor	Package				 CW(7)

NAME | DESCRIPTION | NOTES | SEE ALSO

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