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CVS(1)			    General Commands Manual			CVS(1)

import.

NAME
       cvs - Concurrent	Versions System

SYNOPSIS
       cvs [ cvs_options ]
	      cvs_command [ command_options ] [	command_args ]

NOTE
       This  manpage is	a summary of some of the features of cvs but it	may no
       longer be kept up-to-date.  For more current  and  in-depth  documenta-
       tion, please consult the	Cederqvist manual (via the info	cvs command or
       otherwise, as described in the SEE ALSO section of this manpage).

DESCRIPTION
       CVS is a	version	control	system,	which allows you to keep old  versions
       of  files  (usually  source  code),  keep  a  log of who, when, and why
       changes occurred, etc., like RCS	or SCCS.  Unlike the simpler  systems,
       CVS  does  not just operate on one file at a time or one	directory at a
       time, but operates on hierarchical collections of directories  consist-
       ing  of	version	controlled files.  CVS helps to	manage releases	and to
       control the concurrent editing of source	files among multiple  authors.
       CVS  allows triggers to enable/log/control various operations and works
       well over a wide	area network.

       cvs keeps a single copy of the master sources.  This copy is called the
       source  ``repository'';	it  contains all the information to permit ex-
       tracting	previous software releases at any time based on	either a  sym-
       bolic revision tag, or a	date in	the past.

ESSENTIAL COMMANDS
       cvs  provides a rich variety of commands	(cvs_command in	the Synopsis),
       each of which often has a wealth	of options, to satisfy the many	 needs
       of  source  management in distributed environments.  However, you don't
       have to master every detail to do useful	work with cvs; in  fact,  five
       commands	 are  sufficient to use	(and contribute	to) the	source reposi-
       tory.

       cvs checkout modules...
	      A	necessary preliminary for most cvs work: creates your  private
	      copy of the source for modules (named collections	of source; you
	      can also use a path relative to  the  source  repository	here).
	      You  can	work  with  this copy without interfering with others'
	      work.  At	least one subdirectory level is	always created.

       cvs update
	      Execute this command from	within your private  source  directory
	      when you wish to update your copies of source files from changes
	      that other developers have made to the source in the repository.

       cvs add file...
	      Use this command to enroll new files  in	cvs  records  of  your
	      working  directory.   The	 files will be added to	the repository
	      the next time you	run `cvs commit'.  Note: You  should  use  the
	      `cvs  import'  command  to bootstrap new sources into the	source
	      repository.  `cvs	add' is	only used for new files	to an  already
	      checked-out module.

       cvs remove file...
	      Use  this	 command  (after  erasing any files listed) to declare
	      that you wish to eliminate files from the	repository.   The  re-
	      moval does not affect others until you run `cvs commit'.

       cvs commit file...
	      Use  this	 command  when you wish	to ``publish'' your changes to
	      other developers,	by incorporating them in  the  source  reposi-
	      tory.

OPTIONS
       The  cvs	command	line can include cvs_options, which apply to the over-
       all cvs program;	a cvs_command, which specifies a particular action  on
       the  source  repository;	 and  command_options and command_arguments to
       fully specify what the cvs_command will do.

       Warning:	you must be careful of precisely where you place options rela-
       tive to the cvs_command.	 The same option can mean different things de-
       pending on whether it is	in the cvs_options position (to	the left of  a
       cvs  command) or	in the command_options position	(to the	right of a cvs
       command).

       There are only two situations where you may omit	cvs_command: `cvs  -H'
       or  `cvs	 --help' elicits a list	of available commands, and `cvs	-v' or
       `cvs --version' displays	version	information on cvs itself.

CVS OPTIONS
       As of release 1.6, cvs supports GNU style long options as well as short
       options.	  Only	a  few long options are	currently supported, these are
       listed in brackets after	the short options whose	functions they	dupli-
       cate.

       Use these options to control the	overall	cvs program:

       -H [ --help ]
	      Display  usage  information about	the specified cvs_command (but
	      do not actually execute the command).  If	you  don't  specify  a
	      command  name,  `cvs  -H'	displays a summary of all the commands
	      available.

       -Q     Causes the command to be really quiet; the command will generate
	      output only for serious problems.

       -q     Causes the command to be somewhat	quiet; informational messages,
	      such as reports of recursion through  subdirectories,  are  sup-
	      pressed.

       -b bindir
	      Use  bindir as the directory where RCS programs are located (CVS
	      1.9 and older).  Overrides the setting of	the RCSBIN environment
	      variable.	  This	value should be	specified as an	absolute path-
	      name.

       -d CVS_root_directory
	      Use CVS_root_directory as	the root  directory  pathname  of  the
	      master  source repository.  Overrides the	setting	of the CVSROOT
	      environment variable.  This value	should be specified as an  ab-
	      solute pathname.

       -e editor
	      Use  editor  to  enter  revision log information.	 Overrides the
	      setting of the CVSEDITOR,	VISUAL,	and EDITOR  environment	 vari-
	      ables.

       -f     Do not read the cvs startup file (~/.cvsrc).

       -n     Do  not  change  any files.  Attempt to execute the cvs_command,
	      but only to issue	reports; do not	remove,	update,	or  merge  any
	      existing files, or create	any new	files.

       -t     Trace  program  execution; display messages showing the steps of
	      cvs activity.  Particularly useful with -n to explore the	poten-
	      tial impact of an	unfamiliar command.

       -r     Makes  new  working files	read-only.  Same effect	as if the CVS-
	      READ environment variable	is set.

       -R     Turns on read-only repository mode.  This	allows	one  to	 check
	      out  from	 a  read-only  repository,  such  as within an anoncvs
	      server, or from a	CDROM repository.  Same	effect as if the  CVS-
	      READONLYFS  environment variable is set.	Using -R can also con-
	      siderably	speed up checkout's over NFS.

       -v [ --version ]
	      Displays version and copyright information for cvs.

       -w     Makes new	working	files  read-write  (default).	Overrides  the
	      setting of the CVSREAD environment variable.

       -g     Forces group-write perms on working files.  This option is typi-
	      cally used when you have multiple	users sharing a	single checked
	      out  source  tree,  allowing them	to operate their shells	with a
	      less dangerous umask.  To	use this feature, create  a  directory
	      to  hold the checked-out source tree, set	it to a	private	group,
	      and set up the directory such that files created	under  it  in-
	      herit  the group id of the directory.  This occurs automatically
	      with FreeBSD.  With SysV you must	typically set the SGID bit  on
	      the  directory.  The users who are to share the checked out tree
	      must be placed in	that group.  Note that the sharing of a	single
	      checked-out  source  tree	 is very different from	giving several
	      users access to a	common CVS repository.	Access to a common CVS
	      repository  already  maintains shared group-write	perms and does
	      not require this option.

	      To use the option	transparently, simply place the	line 'cvs  -g'
	      in your ~/.cvsrc file.  Doing this is not	recommended unless you
	      firewall all your	source checkouts within	 a  private  group  or
	      within a private mode 0700 directory.

       -x     Encrypt all communication	between	the client and the server.  As
	      of this writing, this is only implemented	when using a  Kerberos
	      connection.

       -z compression-level
	      When  transferring  files	 across	the network use	gzip with com-
	      pression level compression-level	to  compress  and  de-compress
	      data  as	it  is	transferred.  Requires the presence of the GNU
	      gzip program in the current search path  at  both	 ends  of  the
	      link.

USAGE
       Except  when  requesting	general	help with `cvs -H', you	must specify a
       cvs_command to cvs to select a specific	release	 control  function  to
       perform.	  Each	cvs  command accepts its own collection	of options and
       arguments.  However, many options are  available	 across	 several  com-
       mands.	You can	display	a usage	summary	for each command by specifying
       the -H option with the command.

CVS STARTUP FILE
       Normally, when CVS starts up, it	reads the .cvsrc file  from  the  home
       directory of the	user reading it.  This startup procedure can be	turned
       off with	the -f flag.

       The .cvsrc file lists CVS commands with a list of arguments,  one  com-
       mand per	line.  For example, the	following line in .cvsrc:

       diff -c

       will  mean that the `cvs	diff' command will always be passed the	-c op-
       tion in addition	to any other options that are specified	in the command
       line  (in this case it will have	the effect of producing	context	sensi-
       tive diffs for all executions of	`cvs diff' ).

       Global options are specified using the cvs keyword.  For	 example,  the
       following:

       cvs -q

       will  mean  that	all `cvs' commands will	behave as thought he -q	global
       option had been supplied.

CVS COMMAND SUMMARY
       Here are	brief descriptions of all the cvs commands:

       add    Add a new	file or	directory to the repository,  pending  a  `cvs
	      commit'  on the same file.  Can only be done from	within sources
	      created by a previous `cvs checkout' invocation.	Use  `cvs  im-
	      port'  to	 place whole new hierarchies of	sources	under cvs con-
	      trol.  (Does not directly	affect repository; changes working di-
	      rectory.)

       admin  Execute  control	functions  on the source repository.  (Changes
	      repository directly; uses	 working  directory  without  changing
	      it.)

       checkout
	      Make  a working directory	of source files	for editing.  (Creates
	      or changes working directory.)

       commit Apply to the source repository changes, additions, and deletions
	      from your	working	directory.  (Changes repository.)

       diff   Show  differences	 between files in working directory and	source
	      repository, or  between  two  revisions  in  source  repository.
	      (Does not	change either repository or working directory.)

       export Prepare  copies  of a set	of source files	for shipment off site.
	      Differs from `cvs	checkout' in that no cvs administrative	direc-
	      tories  are  created  (and therefore `cvs	commit'	cannot be exe-
	      cuted from a directory prepared with `cvs	export'), and  a  sym-
	      bolic  tag must be specified.  (Does not change repository; cre-
	      ates directory similar to	working	directories).

       history
	      Show reports on cvs commands that	you or others have executed on
	      a	 particular file or directory in the source repository.	 (Does
	      not change repository or working directory.)  History  logs  are
	      kept  only  if enabled by	creation of the	`$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/his-
	      tory' file; see cvs(5).

       import Incorporate a set	of  updates  from  off-site  into  the	source
	      repository, as a ``vendor	branch''.  (Changes repository.)

       init   Initialize  a  repository	by adding the CVSROOT subdirectory and
	      some default control files. You must use this  command  or  ini-
	      tialize the repository in	some other way before you can use it.

       log    Display log information.	(Does not change repository or working
	      directory.)

       rdiff  Prepare a	collection of diffs as a patch file  between  two  re-
	      leases  in the repository.  (Does	not change repository or work-
	      ing directory.)

       release
	      Cancel a `cvs checkout', abandoning any  changes.	  (Can	delete
	      working directory; no effect on repository.)

       remove Remove  files from the source repository,	pending	a `cvs commit'
	      on the  same  files.   (Does  not	 directly  affect  repository;
	      changes working directory.)

       rtag   Explicitly  specify  a  symbolic tag for particular revisions of
	      files in the source repository.  See also	`cvs  tag'.   (Changes
	      repository  directly;  does not require or affect	working	direc-
	      tory.)

       status Show current status of files: latest version, version in working
	      directory,  whether working version has been edited and, option-
	      ally, symbolic tags in the RCS file.  (Does not  change  reposi-
	      tory or working directory.)

       tag    Specify a	symbolic tag for files in the repository.  By default,
	      tags the revisions that were last	synchronized with your working
	      directory.    (Changes  repository directly; uses	working	direc-
	      tory without changing it.)

       update Bring your working directory up to date with  changes  from  the
	      repository.  Merges are performed	automatically when possible; a
	      warning is issued	if manual resolution is	required for conflict-
	      ing changes.  (Changes working directory;	does not change	repos-
	      itory.)

COMMON COMMAND OPTIONS
       This section describes the command_options that	are  available	across
       several	cvs  commands.	Not all	commands support all of	these options;
       each option is only supported for commands where	it makes sense.	  How-
       ever, when a command has	one of these options you can count on the same
       meaning for the option as in other commands.  (Other  command  options,
       which are listed	with the individual commands, may have different mean-
       ings from one cvs command to another.)  Warning:	the history command is
       an  exception;  it  supports many options that conflict even with these
       standard	options.

       -D date_spec
	      Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec  (a	single
	      argument,	 date  description  specifying a date in the past).  A
	      wide variety of date formats are supported,  in  particular  ISO
	      ("1972-09-24  20:05")  or	 Internet  ("24	Sep 1972 20:05").  The
	      date_spec	is interpreted as being	in the local timezone,	unless
	      a	  specific   timezone  is  specified.	The  specification  is
	      ``sticky'' when you use it to make a private copy	 of  a	source
	      file; that is, when you get a working file using -D, cvs records
	      the date you specified, so that further updates in the same  di-
	      rectory  will  use the same date (unless you explicitly override
	      it; see the description of the update command).  -D is available
	      with  the	 checkout, diff, history, export, rdiff, rtag, and up-
	      date commands.  Examples of valid	date specifications include:
			1 month	ago
			2 hours	ago
			400000 seconds ago
			last year
			last Monday
			yesterday
			a fortnight ago
			3/31/92	10:00:07 PST
			January	23, 1987 10:05pm
			22:00 GMT

       -f     When you specify a particular date or tag	to cvs commands,  they
	      normally	ignore	files  that do not contain the tag (or did not
	      exist on the date) that you specified.  Use the -f option	if you
	      want  files retrieved even when there is no match	for the	tag or
	      date.  (The most recent version is used in this situation.)   -f
	      is available with	these commands:	checkout, export, rdiff, rtag,
	      and update.

       -k kflag
	      Alter the	default	processing of  keywords.   The	-k  option  is
	      available	 with  the  add, checkout, diff, rdiff,	export,	and BR
	      update commands.	Your kflag specification  is  ``sticky''  when
	      you  use	it to create a private copy of a source	file; that is,
	      when you use this	option with the	checkout or  update  commands,
	      cvs  associates your selected kflag with the file, and continues
	      to use it	with future update commands on the same	file until you
	      specify otherwise.

	      Some  of	the  more  useful  kflags  are -ko and -kb (for	binary
	      files), and -kv which is useful for an export where you wish  to
	      retain keyword information after an import at some other site.

       -l     Local; run only in current working directory, rather than	recur-
	      ring through subdirectories.   Available with the	following com-
	      mands: checkout, commit, diff, export, remove, rdiff, rtag, sta-
	      tus, tag,	and update.

       -n     Do not run any checkout/commit/tag/update	program.   (A  program
	      can be specified to run on each of these activities, in the mod-
	      ules database; this option bypasses  it.)	  Available  with  the
	      checkout,	 export,  and rtag commands.  Warning: this is not the
	      same as the overall `cvs -n' option, which you  can  specify  to
	      the left of a cvs	command!

       -P     Prune  (remove)  directories that	are empty after	being updated,
	      on checkout, or update.  Normally, an empty directory (one  that
	      is void of revision-controlled files) is left alone.  Specifying
	      -P will cause these directories to be silently removed from your
	      checked-out  sources.   This  does not remove the	directory from
	      the repository, only from	your checked out copy.	Note that this
	      option  is  implied  by the -r or	-D options of checkout and ex-
	      port.

       -T     Create/Update CVS/Template by copying it from the	(local)	repos-
	      itory.  This option is useful for	developers maintaining a local
	      cvs repository but committing to a remote	repository.  By	 main-
	      taining  CVS/Template  the  remote commits will still be able to
	      bring up the proper  template  in	 the  commit  editor  session.
	      Available	with the checkout and update commands.

       -p     Pipe the files retrieved from the	repository to standard output,
	      rather than writing them in the  current	directory.   Available
	      with the checkout	and update commands.

       -r tag Use  the	revision  specified by the tag argument	instead	of the
	      default ``head'' revision.  As well as  arbitrary	 tags  defined
	      with the tag or rtag command, two	special	tags are always	avail-
	      able: `HEAD' refers to the most recent version available in  the
	      repository,  and	`BASE' refers to the revision you last checked
	      out into the current working directory.

	      The tag specification is ``sticky'' when	you  use  this	option
	      with  `cvs  checkout' or `cvs update' to make your own copy of a
	      file: cvs	remembers the tag and continues	to use	it  on	future
	      update commands, until you specify otherwise.  tag can be	either
	      a	symbolic or numeric tag.  When a command  expects  a  specific
	      revision,	the name of a branch is	interpreted as the most	recent
	      revision on that branch.	Specifying the -q global option	 along
	      with  the	 -r  command  option  is often useful, to suppress the
	      warning messages when the	RCS file does not contain  the	speci-
	      fied  tag.  -r is	available with the annotate, checkout, commit,
	      diff, history, export, rdiff, rtag, and update commands.	 Warn-
	      ing:  this is not	the same as the	overall	`cvs -r' option, which
	      you can specify to the left of a cvs command!

CVS COMMANDS
       Here (finally) are details on all the cvs commands and the options each
       accepts.	  The  summary	lines at the top of each command's description
       highlight three kinds of	things:

	   Command Options and Arguments
		 Special options are described in detail below;	common command
		 options may appear only in the	summary	line.

	   Working Directory, or Repository?
		 Some  cvs  commands  require  a working directory to operate;
		 some require a	repository.  Also, some	 commands  change  the
		 repository,  some  change  the	 working  directory,  and some
		 change	nothing.

	   Synonyms
		 Many commands have synonyms, which you	may find easier	to re-
		 member	(or type) than the principal name.

       add [-k kflag] [-m 'message'] files...
	      Requires:	repository, working directory.
	      Changes: working directory.
	      Synonym: new
	      Use  the	add  command  to create	a new file or directory	in the
	      source repository.  The files or directories specified with  add
	      must  already  exist  in	the current directory (which must have
	      been created with	the checkout command).	To add a whole new di-
	      rectory  hierarchy  to the source	repository (for	example, files
	      received from a third-party vendor), use the `cvs	 import'  com-
	      mand instead.

	      If  the  argument	to `cvs	add' refers to an immediate sub-direc-
	      tory, the	directory is created  at  the  correct	place  in  the
	      source  repository,  and	the necessary cvs administration files
	      are created in your working directory.  If the directory already
	      exists in	the source repository, `cvs add' still creates the ad-
	      ministration files in your version of the	directory.   This  al-
	      lows  you	to use `cvs add' to add	a particular directory to your
	      private sources even if someone else created that	directory  af-
	      ter your checkout	of the sources.	 You can do the	following:

			example% mkdir new_directory
			example% cvs add new_directory
			example% cvs update new_directory

	      An alternate approach using `cvs update' might be:

			example% cvs update -d new_directory

	      (To add any available new	directories to your working directory,
	      it's probably simpler to use `cvs	checkout' or `cvs update -d'.)

	      The added	files are not placed in	the  source  repository	 until
	      you use `cvs commit' to make the change permanent.  Doing	a `cvs
	      add' on a	file that was removed with the	`cvs  remove'  command
	      will resurrect the file, if no `cvs commit' command intervened.

	      You  will	 have the opportunity to specify a logging message, as
	      usual, when you use `cvs commit' to make the new file permanent.
	      If  you'd	 like  to have another logging message associated with
	      just creation of the file	(for example, to describe  the	file's
	      purpose),	you can	specify	it with	the `-m	message' option	to the
	      add command.

	      The `-k kflag' option specifies the default way that  this  file
	      will  be checked out.  The `kflag' argument is stored in the RCS
	      file and can be changed with `cvs	admin'.	 Specifying  `-ko'  is
	      useful for checking in binaries that shouldn't have keywords ex-
	      panded.

       admin [rcs-options] files...
	      Requires:	repository, working directory.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Synonym: rcs
	      This is the cvs interface	to assorted administrative facilities,
	      similar  to  rcs(1).  This command works recursively, so extreme
	      care should be used.

       checkout	[options] modules...
	      Requires:	repository.
	      Changes: working directory.
	      Synonyms:	co, get
	      Make a working directory containing copies of the	 source	 files
	      specified	 by  modules.	You must execute `cvs checkout'	before
	      using most of the	other cvs commands, since most of them operate
	      on your working directory.

	      modules  are  either  symbolic  names (themselves	defined	as the
	      module `modules' in the source repository; see cvs(5)) for  some
	      collection of source directories and files, or paths to directo-
	      ries or files in the repository.

	      Depending	on the modules you specify, checkout  may  recursively
	      create directories and populate them with	the appropriate	source
	      files.  You can then edit	these source files at  any  time  (re-
	      gardless	of whether other software developers are editing their
	      own copies of the	sources); update them to include  new  changes
	      applied  by others to the	source repository; or commit your work
	      as a permanent change to the repository.

	      Note that	checkout is used to create directories.	 The top-level
	      directory	 created is always added to the	directory where	check-
	      out is invoked, and usually has the same name as	the  specified
	      module.	In  the	case of	a module alias,	the created sub-direc-
	      tory may have a different	name, but you can be sure that it will
	      be  a  sub-directory,  and  that checkout	will show the relative
	      path leading to each file	as it is extracted into	 your  private
	      work area	(unless	you specify the	-Q global option).

	      Running  `cvs checkout' on a directory that was already built by
	      a	prior checkout is also permitted, and has the same  effect  as
	      specifying the -d	option to the update command described below.

	      The  options  permitted with `cvs	checkout' include the standard
	      command options -P, -f, -k kflag , -l, -n, -p, -r	 tag,  and  -D
	      date.

	      In  addition to those, you can use these special command options
	      with checkout:

	      Use the -A option	to reset any sticky tags,  dates,  or  -k  op-
	      tions.   (If  you	get a working file using one of	the -r,	-D, or
	      -k options, cvs remembers	the corresponding tag, date, or	 kflag
	      and  continues  using it on future updates; use the -A option to
	      make cvs forget these specifications, and	retrieve the  ``head''
	      version of the file).  Does not reset sticky -k options on modi-
	      fied files.

	      The -j branch option merges the changes made between the result-
	      ing  revision and	the revision that it is	based on (e.g.,	if the
	      tag refers to a branch, cvs will merge all changes made in  that
	      branch into your working file).

	      With  two	 -j options, cvs will merge in the changes between the
	      two respective revisions.	 This can be used to ``remove''	a cer-
	      tain delta from your working file.

	      In  addition, each -j option can contain on optional date	speci-
	      fication which, when used	with branches, can  limit  the	chosen
	      revision	to  one	 within	 a specific date.  An optional date is
	      specified	by adding a colon (:) to the tag.  An example might be
	      what  `cvs  import'  tells you to	do when	you have just imported
	      sources that have	conflicts with local changes:

			example% cvs checkout -jTAG:yesterday -jTAG module

	      Use the -N option	with `-d dir' to avoid shortening module paths
	      in  your	working	 directory.   (Normally, cvs shortens paths as
	      much as possible when you	specify	an explicit target directory.)

	      Use the -c option	to copy	the module file, sorted, to the	 stan-
	      dard  output,  instead of	creating or modifying any files	or di-
	      rectories	in your	working	directory.

	      Use the -d dir option to create a	directory called dir  for  the
	      working  files,  instead	of  using the module name.  Unless you
	      also use -N, the paths created under dir will  be	 as  short  as
	      possible.

	      Use  the	-s  option  to	display	 per-module status information
	      stored with the -s option	within the modules file.

       commit [-lR] [-m	'log_message' |	-F file] [-r revision] [files...]
	      Requires:	working	directory, repository.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Synonym: ci
	      Use `cvs commit' when you	want to	incorporate changes from  your
	      working source files into	the general source repository.

	      If  you  don't  specify  particular  files to commit, all	of the
	      files in your working current directory are examined.  commit is
	      careful  to  change  in the repository only those	files that you
	      have really changed.  By default (or if you  explicitly  specify
	      the  -R  option),	 files in subdirectories are also examined and
	      committed	if they	have changed; you can use  the	-l  option  to
	      limit  commit  to	the current directory only.  Sometimes you may
	      want to force a file to be  committed  even  though  it  is  un-
	      changed;	this  is achieved with the -f flag, which also has the
	      effect of	disabling recursion (you can turn it back on  with  -R
	      of course).

	      commit  verifies that the	selected files are up to date with the
	      current revisions	in the source repository; it will notify  you,
	      and  exit	without	committing, if any of the specified files must
	      be made current first with `cvs update'.	commit does  not  call
	      the update command for you, but rather leaves that for you to do
	      when the time is right.

	      When all is well,	an editor is invoked to	allow you to  enter  a
	      log message that will be written to one or more logging programs
	      and placed in the	source repository file.	 You can instead spec-
	      ify the log message on the command line with the -m option, thus
	      suppressing the editor invocation, or use	the -F option to spec-
	      ify that the argument file contains the log message.

	      The  -r option can be used to commit to a	particular symbolic or
	      numeric revision.	 For example, to bring all your	 files	up  to
	      the revision ``3.0'' (including those that haven't changed), you
	      might do:

			example% cvs commit -r3.0

	      cvs will only allow you to commit	to a revision that is  on  the
	      main  trunk  (a  revision	 with a	single dot).  However, you can
	      also commit to a branch revision (one that has an	even number of
	      dots) with the -r	option.	 To create a branch revision, one typ-
	      ically use the -b	option of the rtag or tag commands.  Then, ei-
	      ther  checkout or	update can be used to base your	sources	on the
	      newly created branch.  From that point on,  all  commit  changes
	      made within these	working	sources	will be	automatically added to
	      a	branch revision, thereby not perturbing	main-line  development
	      in  any  way.   For example, if you had to create	a patch	to the
	      1.2 version of the product, even though the 2.0 version  is  al-
	      ready under development, you might do:

			example% cvs rtag -b -rFCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
			example% cvs checkout -rFCS1_2_Patch product_module
			example% cd product_module
			[[ hack	away ]]
			example% cvs commit

	      Say  you	have been working on some extremely experimental soft-
	      ware, based on whatever revision you happened to	checkout  last
	      week.   If others	in your	group would like to work on this soft-
	      ware with	you, but without disturbing main-line development, you
	      could  commit  your  change  to  a  new branch.  Others can then
	      checkout your experimental stuff and utilize the full benefit of
	      cvs conflict resolution.	The scenario might look	like:

			example% cvs tag -b EXPR1
			example% cvs update -rEXPR1
			[[ hack	away ]]
			example% cvs commit

	      Others would simply do `cvs checkout -rEXPR1 whatever_module' to
	      work with	you on the experimental	change.

       diff [-kl] [format_options] [[-r	rev1 | -D date1	| -j  rev1:date1]  [-r
       rev2 | -D date2 | -j rev2:date2]] [files...]
	      Requires:	working	directory, repository.
	      Changes: nothing.
	      You  can compare your working files with revisions in the	source
	      repository, with the `cvs	diff' command.	If you don't specify a
	      particular  revision, your files are compared with the revisions
	      they were	based on.  You can also	use the	standard  cvs  command
	      option -r	to specify a particular	revision to compare your files
	      with.  Finally, if you use -r twice, you can see differences be-
	      tween  two revisions in the repository.  You can also specify -D
	      options to diff against a	revision (on the head branch)  in  the
	      past,  and you can also specify -j options to diff against a re-
	      vision relative to a branch tag in the past.  The	-r and -D  and
	      -j  options  can be mixed	together with at most two options ever
	      specified.

	      See `cvs --help diff' for	a list of supported format_options.

	      If you don't specify any files, diff  will  display  differences
	      for  all those files in the current directory (and its subdirec-
	      tories, unless you use the standard option -l) that differ  from
	      the  corresponding revision in the source	repository (i.e. files
	      that you have changed), or that differ from the revision	speci-
	      fied.

       export [-flNnQq]	-r rev|-D date [-d dir]	[-k kflag] module...
	      Requires:	repository.
	      Changes: current directory.
	      This  command  is	 a  variant of `cvs checkout'; use it when you
	      want a copy of the source	for module without the cvs administra-
	      tive  directories.   For	example, you might use `cvs export' to
	      prepare source for shipment  off-site.   This  command  requires
	      that  you	specify	a date or tag (with -D or -r), so that you can
	      count on reproducing the source you ship to others.

	      The only non-standard options are	`-d  dir'  (write  the	source
	      into  directory  dir)  and  `-N'	(don't	shorten	module paths).
	      These have the same meanings as the same options in `cvs	check-
	      out'.

	      The  -kv	option is useful when export is	used.  This causes any
	      keywords to be expanded such that	an import done at  some	 other
	      site  will  not  lose  the  keyword revision information.	 Other
	      kflags may be used with `cvs export' and are described in	co(1).

       history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...]
	      Requires:	the file `$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history'
	      Changes: nothing.
	      cvs keeps	a history file that tracks each	use of	the  checkout,
	      commit,  rtag,  update,  and release commands.  You can use `cvs
	      history' to display this information in various formats.

	      Warning: `cvs history' uses `-f',	`-l', `-n', and	`-p'  in  ways
	      that conflict with the descriptions in COMMON COMMAND OPTIONS.

	      Several  options	(shown	above as -report) control what kind of
	      report is	generated:

	     -c	 Report	on each	time commit was	 used  (i.e.,  each  time  the
		 repository was	modified).

	     -m	module
		 Report	 on a particular module.  (You can meaningfully	use -m
		 more than once	on the command line.)

	     -o	 Report	on checked-out modules.

	     -T	 Report	on all tags.

	     -x	type
		 Extract a particular set of record types X from the cvs  his-
		 tory.	 The  types are	indicated by single letters, which you
		 may specify in	combination.  Certain commands have  a	single
		 record	 type:	checkout  (type	 `O'), release (type `F'), and
		 rtag (type `T').  One of four record types may	result from an
		 update:  `W', when the	working	copy of	a file is deleted dur-
		 ing update (because it	was gone from  the  repository);  `U',
		 when a	working	file was copied	from the repository; `G', when
		 a merge was necessary and it succeeded; and 'C', when a merge
		 was  necessary	but collisions were detected (requiring	manual
		 merging).  Finally, one of three record  types	 results  from
		 commit:  `M',	when  a	file was modified; `A',	when a file is
		 first added; and `R', when a file is removed.

	     -e	 Everything  (all  record  types);  equivalent	to  specifying
		 `-xMACFROGWUT'.

	     -z	zone
		 Use time zone zone when outputting history records.  The zone
		 name LT stands	for local  time;  numeric  offsets  stand  for
		 hours	and  minutes  ahead of UTC.  For example, +0530	stands
		 for 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of (i.e. east	of) UTC.

	    The	options	shown as -flags	constrain the report without requiring
	    option arguments:

	     -a	 Show data for all users (the default is to show data only for
		 the user executing `cvs history').

	     -l	 Show last modification	only.

	     -w	 Show only the records for modifications done  from  the  same
		 working directory where `cvs history' is executing.

	    The	 options  shown	as -options args constrain the report based on
	    an argument:

	     -b	str
		 Show data back	to a record containing the string str  in  ei-
		 ther the module name, the file	name, or the repository	path.

	     -D	date
		 Show data since date.

	     -p	repository
		 Show data for a particular source repository (you can specify
		 several -p options on the same	command	line).

	     -r	rev
		 Show records referring	to revisions since the revision	or tag
		 named	rev appears in individual RCS files.  Each RCS file is
		 searched for the revision or tag.

	     -t	tag
		 Show records since tag	tag was	 last  added  to  the  history
		 file.	 This  differs from the	-r flag	above in that it reads
		 only the history file,	not the	RCS files, and is much faster.

	     -u	name
		 Show records for user name.

       import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag...
	      Requires:	Repository, source distribution	directory.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Use `cvs import' to incorporate an  entire  source  distribution
	      from  an outside source (e.g., a source vendor) into your	source
	      repository directory.  You can use this command both for initial
	      creation	of a repository, and for wholesale updates to the mod-
	      ule form the outside source.

	      The repository argument gives a directory	name (or a path	 to  a
	      directory) under the CVS root directory for repositories;	if the
	      directory	did not	exist, import creates it.

	      When you use import for updates to source	that has been modified
	      in your source repository	(since a prior import),	it will	notify
	      you of any files that conflict in	the two	branches  of  develop-
	      ment; use	`cvs checkout -j' to reconcile the differences,	as im-
	      port instructs you to do.

	      By default, certain file names are ignored during	`cvs  import':
	      names  associated	 with CVS administration, or with other	common
	      source control systems; common names  for	 patch	files,	object
	      files,  archive  files, and editor backup	files; and other names
	      that are usually artifacts of assorted utilities.	 For an	up  to
	      date  list  of ignored file names, see the Cederqvist manual (as
	      described	in the SEE ALSO	section	of this	manpage).

	      The outside source is saved in a first-level branch, by  default
	      `1.1.1'.	 Updates are leaves of this branch; for	example, files
	      from the first imported collection of source  will  be  revision
	      `1.1.1.1', then files from the first imported update will	be re-
	      vision `1.1.1.2',	and so on.

	      At least three arguments are required.  repository is needed  to
	      identify	the  collection	of source.  vendortag is a tag for the
	      entire branch (e.g., for `1.1.1').  You  must  also  specify  at
	      least  one  releasetag  to  uniquely  identify  the files	at the
	      leaves created each time you execute `cvs	import'.  The release-
	      tag  should  be  new,  not previously existing in	the repository
	      file, and	uniquely identify the imported release.

	      One of the standard cvs command options is  available:  -m  mes-
	      sage.  If	you do not specify a logging message with -m, your ed-
	      itor is invoked (as with commit) to allow	you to enter one.

	      There are	three additional special options.

	      Use `-d' to specify that each file's time	of  last  modification
	      should be	used for the checkin date and time.

	      Use  `-b	branch'	 to  specify  a	 first-level branch other than
	      `1.1.1'.

	      Use `-I name' to specify file names that should be ignored  dur-
	      ing  import.   You can use this option repeatedly.  To avoid ig-
	      noring any files at all (even those ignored by default), specify
	      `-I !'.

       log [-l]	rlog-options [files...]
	      Requires:	repository, working directory.
	      Changes: nothing.
	      Synonym: rlog
	      Display  log  information	 for files.  Among the more useful op-
	      tions are	-h to display only the header (including  tag  defini-
	      tions,  but omitting most	of the full log); -r to	select logs on
	      particular revisions or ranges of	revisions; and	-d  to	select
	      particular  dates	or date	ranges.	 See rlog(1) for full explana-
	      tions.  This command is recursive	by default, unless the -l  op-
	      tion is specified.

       rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] [-r t|-D d [-r t2|-D d2]]	modules...
	      Requires:	repository.
	      Changes: nothing.
	      Synonym: patch
	      Builds  a	 Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two releases,
	      that can be fed directly into the	patch program to bring an  old
	      release  up-to-date  with	 the new release.  (This is one	of the
	      few cvs commands that operates directly from the repository, and
	      doesn't  require	a prior	checkout.)  The	diff output is sent to
	      the standard output device.  You can specify (using the standard
	      -r  and  -D  options) any	combination of one or two revisions or
	      dates.  If only one revision or date  is	specified,  the	 patch
	      file  reflects differences between that revision or date and the
	      current ``head'' revisions in the	RCS file.

	      Note that	if the software	release	affected is contained in  more
	      than  one	 directory, then it may	be necessary to	specify	the -p
	      option to	the patch command when patching	the  old  sources,  so
	      that  patch  is able to find the files that are located in other
	      directories.

	      The standard option flags	-f, and	-l  are	 available  with  this
	      command.	There are also several special option flags:

	      If you use the -s	option,	no patch output	is produced.  Instead,
	      a	summary	of the changed or added	files between the two releases
	      is sent to the standard output device.  This is useful for find-
	      ing out, for example, which files	have changed between two dates
	      or revisions.

	      If  you  use  the	 -t option, a diff of the top two revisions is
	      sent to the standard output device.  This	 is  most  useful  for
	      seeing what the last change to a file was.

	      If you use the -u	option,	the patch output uses the newer	``uni-
	      diff'' format for	context	diffs.

	      You can use -c to	explicitly specify the `diff -c' form of  con-
	      text diffs (which	is the default), if you	like.

       release [-dQq] modules...
	      Requires:	Working	directory.
	      Changes: Working directory, history log.
	      This command is meant to safely cancel the effect	of `cvs	check-
	      out'.  Since cvs doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary
	      to  use this command.  You can always simply delete your working
	      directory, if you	like; but you risk losing changes you may have
	      forgotten,  and  you leave no trace in the cvs history file that
	      you've abandoned your checkout.

	      Use `cvs release'	to avoid these problems.  This command	checks
	      that no un-committed changes are present;	that you are executing
	      it from immediately above, or inside, a cvs  working  directory;
	      and  that	 the repository	recorded for your files	is the same as
	      the repository defined in	the module database.

	      If all these conditions are true,	`cvs release' leaves a	record
	      of  its  execution  (attesting  to your intentionally abandoning
	      your checkout) in	the cvs	history	log.

	      You can use the -d flag to request that your working  copies  of
	      the source files be deleted if the release succeeds.

       remove [-lR] [files...]
	      Requires:	Working	directory.
	      Changes: Working directory.
	      Synonyms:	rm, delete
	      Use  this	 command to declare that you wish to remove files from
	      the source repository.  Like most	 cvs  commands,	 `cvs  remove'
	      works  on	 files	in your	working	directory, not directly	on the
	      repository.  As a	safeguard, it also  requires  that  you	 first
	      erase the	specified files	from your working directory.

	      The  files are not actually removed until	you apply your changes
	      to the repository	with commit; at	that point, the	 corresponding
	      RCS  files  in  the source repository are	moved into the `Attic'
	      directory	(also within the source	repository).

	      This command is recursive	by default, scheduling all  physically
	      removed files that it finds for removal by the next commit.  Use
	      the -l option to avoid this recursion, or	just specify that  ac-
	      tual files that you wish remove to consider.

       rtag [-falnRQq] [-b] [-d] [-r tag | -D date] symbolic_tag modules...
	      Requires:	repository.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Synonym: rfreeze
	      You  can use this	command	to assign symbolic tags	to particular,
	      explicitly specified source versions in  the  repository.	  `cvs
	      rtag' works directly on the repository contents (and requires no
	      prior checkout).	Use `cvs tag' instead, to base	the  selection
	      of versions to tag on the	contents of your working directory.

	      In general, tags (often the symbolic names of software distribu-
	      tions) should not	be removed, but	the -d option is available  as
	      a	 means	to remove completely obsolete symbolic names if	neces-
	      sary (as might be	the case for an	Alpha release, say).

	      `cvs rtag' will not move a tag that already exists.  With	the -F
	      option,  however,	`cvs rtag' will	re-locate any instance of sym-
	      bolic_tag	that already exists on that file to the	new repository
	      versions.	  Without  the -F option, attempting to	use `cvs rtag'
	      to apply a tag that already exists on that file will produce  an
	      error message.

	      The  -b  option makes the	tag a ``branch'' tag, allowing concur-
	      rent, isolated development.  This	is most	useful for creating  a
	      patch to a previously released software distribution.

	      You  can	use  the  standard -r and -D options to	tag only those
	      files that already contain a certain tag.	 This method would  be
	      used  to	rename a tag: tag only the files identified by the old
	      tag, then	delete the old tag, leaving the	new tag	on exactly the
	      same files as the	old tag.

	      rtag executes recursively	by default, tagging all	subdirectories
	      of modules you specify in	the argument.  You  can	 restrict  its
	      operation	 to top-level directories with the standard -l option;
	      or you can explicitly request recursion with -R.

	      The modules database can specify a program to execute whenever a
	      tag  is specified; a typical use is to send electronic mail to a
	      group of interested parties.  If you want	to  bypass  that  pro-
	      gram, use	the standard -n	option.

	      Use  the	-a option to have rtag look in the `Attic' for removed
	      files that contain the specified tag.  The tag is	 removed  from
	      these  files, which makes	it convenient to re-use	a symbolic tag
	      as development continues (and files get removed from the up-com-
	      ing distribution).

       status [-lRqQ] [-v] [files...]
	      Requires:	working	directory, repository.
	      Changes: nothing.
	      Display  a  brief	report on the current status of	files with re-
	      spect to the source repository, including	any  ``sticky''	 tags,
	      dates,  or  -k  options.	 (``Sticky'' options will restrict how
	      `cvs update' operates until you reset them; see the  description
	      of `cvs update -A...'.)

	      You can also use this command to anticipate the potential	impact
	      of a `cvs	update'	on your	working	source directory.  If  you  do
	      not  specify  any	 files	explicitly,  reports are shown for all
	      files that cvs has placed	in your	working	 directory.   You  can
	      limit  the  scope	of this	search to the current directory	itself
	      (not its subdirectories) with the	standard -l  option  flag;  or
	      you  can explicitly request recursive status reports with	the -R
	      option.

	      The -v option causes the symbolic	tags for the RCS  file	to  be
	      displayed	as well.

       tag  [-lQqR]  [-F]  [-b]	 [-d]  [-r  tag	 |  -D date] [-f] symbolic_tag
       [files...]
	      Requires:	working	directory, repository.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Synonym: freeze
	      Use this command to assign symbolic tags to the nearest  reposi-
	      tory versions to your working sources.  The tags are applied im-
	      mediately	to the repository, as with rtag.

	      One potentially surprising aspect	of the fact that cvs tag oper-
	      ates  on	the  repository	is that	you are	tagging	the checked-in
	      revisions, which may differ from locally modified	files in  your
	      working  directory.  If you want to avoid	doing this by mistake,
	      specify the -c option to cvs tag.	 If there are any locally mod-
	      ified  files,  CVS  will	abort with an error before it tags any
	      files.

	      One use for tags is to record  a	``snapshot''  of  the  current
	      sources  when the	software freeze	date of	a project arrives.  As
	      bugs are fixed after the freeze date, only those changed sources
	      that are to be part of the release need be re-tagged.

	      The  symbolic  tags  are meant to	permanently record which revi-
	      sions of which files were	used in	creating a software  distribu-
	      tion.  The checkout, export and update commands allow you	to ex-
	      tract an exact copy of a tagged release at any time in  the  fu-
	      ture,  regardless	 of whether files have been changed, added, or
	      removed since the	release	was tagged.

	      You can use the standard -r and -D options  to  tag  only	 those
	      files  that already contain a certain tag.  This method would be
	      used to rename a tag: tag	only the files identified by  the  old
	      tag, then	delete the old tag, leaving the	new tag	on exactly the
	      same files as the	old tag.

	      Specifying the -f	flag in	addition to the	-r or  -D  flags  will
	      tag  those  files	 named on the command line even	if they	do not
	      contain the old tag or did not exist on the specified date.

	      By default (without a -r or -D flag) the versions	to  be	tagged
	      are  supplied  implicitly	 by  the  cvs  records of your working
	      files' history rather than applied explicitly.

	      If you use `cvs tag -d symbolic_tag...', the  symbolic  tag  you
	      specify  is  deleted  instead  of	being added.  Warning: Be very
	      certain of your ground before you	delete a tag; doing  this  ef-
	      fectively	 discards some historical information, which may later
	      turn out to have been valuable.

	      `cvs tag'	will not move a	tag that already exists.  With the  -F
	      option,  however,	 `cvs tag' will	re-locate any instance of sym-
	      bolic_tag	that already exists on that file to the	new repository
	      versions.	 Without the -F	option,	attempting to use `cvs tag' to
	      apply a tag that already exists on that file will	produce	an er-
	      ror message.

	      The  -b  option makes the	tag a ``branch'' tag, allowing concur-
	      rent, isolated development.  This	is most	useful for creating  a
	      patch to a previously released software distribution.

	      Normally,	 tag  executes recursively through subdirectories; you
	      can prevent this by using	the standard -l	option,	or specify the
	      recursion	explicitly by using -R.

       update [-ACdflPpQqR] [-d] [-r tag|-D date] files...
	      Requires:	repository, working directory.
	      Changes: working directory.
	      After  you've run	checkout to create your	private	copy of	source
	      from the	common	repository,  other  developers	will  continue
	      changing the central source.  From time to time, when it is con-
	      venient in your development process, you can use the update com-
	      mand  from  within your working directory	to reconcile your work
	      with any revisions applied to  the source	repository since  your
	      last checkout or update.

	      update keeps you informed	of its progress	by printing a line for
	      each file, prefaced with one of the characters `U	P A R M	 C  ?'
	      to indicate the status of	the file:

       U file	 The  file  was	brought	up to date with	respect	to the reposi-
		 tory.	This is	done for any file that exists in  the  reposi-
		 tory  but  not	 in your working directory, and	for files that
		 you haven't changed but are  not  the	most  recent  versions
		 available in the repository.

       P file	 Like U, but the CVS server sends a patch instead of an	entire
		 file.	This accomplishes the same thing as U using less band-
		 width.

       A file	 The  file has been added to your private copy of the sources,
		 and will be added to the source repository when you run  `cvs
		 commit' on the	file.  This is a reminder to you that the file
		 needs to be committed.

       R file	 The file has been removed  from  your	private	 copy  of  the
		 sources,  and will be removed from the	source repository when
		 you run `cvs commit' on the file.  This is a reminder to  you
		 that the file needs to	be committed.

       M file	 The  file is modified in your working directory.  `M' can in-
		 dicate	one of two states for a	file you're working on:	either
		 there	were  no modifications to the same file	in the reposi-
		 tory, so that your file remains as you	last saw it; or	 there
		 were modifications in the repository as well as in your copy,
		 but they were merged successfully, without conflict, in  your
		 working directory.

       C file	 A conflict was	detected while trying to merge your changes to
		 file with changes from	the source repository.	file (the copy
		 in  your  working directory) is now the result	of merging the
		 two versions; an unmodified copy of your file is also in your
		 working directory, with the name `.#file.version', where ver-
		 sion is the revision that your	modified  file	started	 from.
		 (Note	that some systems automatically	purge files that begin
		 with  `.#' if they have not been accessed for a few days.  If
		 you intend to keep a copy of your original file, it is	a very
		 good idea to rename it.)

       ? file	 file is in your working directory, but	does not correspond to
		 anything  in the source repository, and is not	in the list of
		 files for cvs to ignore (see the description of  the  -I  op-
		 tion).

	    Use	 the -A	option to reset	any sticky tags, dates,	or -k options.
	    (If	you get	a working copy of a file by using one of the  -r,  -D,
	    or -k options, cvs remembers the corresponding tag,	date, or kflag
	    and	continues using	it on future updates; use  the	-A  option  to
	    make  cvs  forget  these specifications, and retrieve the ``head''
	    version of the file).

	    The	-jbranch option	merges the changes made	between	the  resulting
	    revision  and  the	revision that it is based on (e.g., if the tag
	    refers to a	branch,	cvs will merge all changes made	in that	branch
	    into your working file).

	    With two -j	options, cvs will merge	in the changes between the two
	    respective revisions.  This	can be used to	``remove''  a  certain
	    delta from your working file.  E.g., If the	file foo.c is based on
	    revision 1.6 and I want to remove the changes made between 1.3 and
	    1.5, I might do:

		      example% cvs update -j1.5	-j1.3 foo.c   #	note the order...

	    In	addition, each -j option can contain on	optional date specifi-
	    cation which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen	 revi-
	    sion to one	within a specific date.	 An optional date is specified
	    by adding a	colon (:) to the tag.

		      -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier

	    Use	the -d option to create	any  directories  that	exist  in  the
	    repository	if  they're missing from the working directory.	 (Nor-
	    mally, update acts only on directories and files that were already
	    enrolled  in your working directory.)  This	is useful for updating
	    directories	that were created in the repository since the  initial
	    checkout;  but it has an unfortunate side effect.  If you deliber-
	    ately avoided certain directories in the repository	when you  cre-
	    ated  your	working	directory (either through use of a module name
	    or by listing explicitly the files and directories you  wanted  on
	    the	 command line),	then updating with -d will create those	direc-
	    tories, which may not be what you want.

	    Use	-I name	to ignore files	whose names match name (in your	 work-
	    ing	 directory)  during  the update.  You can specify -I more than
	    once on the	command	line to	specify	several	files to  ignore.   By
	    default,  update ignores files whose names match certain patterns;
	    for	an up to date list of ignored file names, see  the  Cederqvist
	    manual (as described in the	SEE ALSO section of this manpage).

	    Use	`-I !' to avoid	ignoring any files at all.

	    Use	the `-C' option	to overwrite locally modified files with clean
	    copies  from  the  repository  (the	 modified  file	 is  saved  in
	    `.#file.revision', however).

	    The	 standard  cvs	command	options	-f, -k,	-l, -P,	-p, and	-r are
	    also available with	update.

FILES
       For more	detailed information on	cvs supporting files, see cvs(5).

       Files in	home directories:

       .cvsrc The cvs initialization file.  Lines in this file can be used  to
	      specify  default	options	for each cvs command.  For example the
	      line `diff -c' will ensure that `cvs diff' is always passed  the
	      -c option	in addition to any other options passed	on the command
	      line.

       .cvswrappers
	      Specifies	wrappers to be used in addition	to those specified  in
	      the CVSROOT/cvswrappers file in the repository.

       Files in	working	directories:

       CVS    A	directory of cvs administrative	files.	Do not delete.

       CVS/Entries
	      List and status of files in your working directory.

       CVS/Entries.Backup
	      A	backup of `CVS/Entries'.

       CVS/Entries.Static
	      Flag: do not add more entries on `cvs update'.

       CVS/Root
	      Pathname	to  the	repository ( CVSROOT ) location	at the time of
	      checkout.	 This file is used instead of the CVSROOT  environment
	      variable if the environment variable is not set.	A warning mes-
	      sage will	be issued when the contents of this file and the  CVS-
	      ROOT  environment	 variable differ.  The file may	be over-ridden
	      by the presence of the CVS_IGNORE_REMOTE_ROOT environment	 vari-
	      able.

       CVS/Repository
	      Pathname	to  the	 corresponding directory in the	source reposi-
	      tory.

       CVS/Tag
	      Contains the per-directory ``sticky'' tag	or  date  information.
	      This  file  is  created/updated when you specify -r or -D	to the
	      checkout or update commands, and no files	are specified.

       CVS/Checkin.prog
	      Name of program to run on	`cvs commit'.

       CVS/Update.prog
	      Name of program to run on	`cvs update'.

       Files in	source repositories:

       $CVSROOT/CVSROOT
	      Directory	of global administrative files for repository.

       CVSROOT/commitinfo,v
	      Records programs for filtering `cvs commit' requests.

       CVSROOT/cvswrappers,v
	      Records cvs wrapper commands to be used when checking files into
	      and out of the repository.  Wrappers allow the file or directory
	      to be processed on the way in and	out of CVS.  The intended uses
	      are  many, one possible use would	be to reformat a C file	before
	      the file is checked in, so all of	the  code  in  the  repository
	      looks the	same.

       CVSROOT/editinfo,v
	      Records  programs	 for  editing/validating  `cvs commit' log en-
	      tries.

       CVSROOT/history
	      Log file of cvs transactions.

       CVSROOT/loginfo,v
	      Records programs for piping `cvs commit' log entries.

       CVSROOT/modules,v
	      Definitions for modules in this repository.

       CVSROOT/rcsinfo,v
	      Records pathnames	to templates used during a `cvs	commit'	opera-
	      tion.

       CVSROOT/taginfo,v
	      Records programs for validating/logging `cvs tag'	and `cvs rtag'
	      operations.

       MODULE/Attic
	      Directory	for removed source files.

       #cvs.lock
	      A	lock directory created by cvs when doing sensitive changes  to
	      the source repository.

       #cvs.tfl.pid
	      Temporary	lock file for repository.

       #cvs.rfl.pid
	      A	read lock.

       #cvs.wfl.pid
	      A	write lock.

ENVIRONMENT
       CVSROOT
	      Should  contain  the full	pathname to the	root of	the cvs	source
	      repository (where	the RCS	files  are  kept).   This  information
	      must  be	available to cvs for most commands to execute; if CVS-
	      ROOT is not set, or if you wish to override it for  one  invoca-
	      tion,  you  can  supply  it on the command line: `cvs -d cvsroot
	      cvs_command...' You may not need to set CVSROOT if your cvs  bi-
	      nary has the right path compiled in.

       CVSREAD
	      If  this	is  set, checkout and update will try hard to make the
	      files in your working directory read-only.   When	 this  is  not
	      set,  the	 default  behavior  is	to permit modification of your
	      working files.

       CVSREADONLYFS
	      If this is set, the -R option is assumed,	and  cvs  operates  in
	      read-only	repository mode.

       RCSBIN Specifies	 the full pathname where to find RCS programs, such as
	      co(1) and	ci(1) (CVS 1.9 and older).

       CVSEDITOR
	      Specifies	the program to use for recording log  messages	during
	      commit.  If not set, the VISUAL and EDITOR environment variables
	      are tried	(in that order).  If neither is	set,  a	 system-depen-
	      dent default editor (e.g., vi) is	used.

       CVS_CLIENT_PORT
	      If  this	variable is set	then cvs will use this port in pserver
	      mode rather than the default port	(cvspserver 2401).

       CVS_IGNORE_REMOTE_ROOT
	      If this variable is set then cvs will ignore all	references  to
	      remote repositories in the CVS/Root file.

       CVS_OPTIONS
	      Specifies	 a  set	of default options for cvs.  These options are
	      interpreted before the startup file (~/.cvsrc) is	read  and  can
	      be overridden by explicit	command	line parameters.

       CVS_RSH
	      cvs  uses	the contents of	this variable to determine the name of
	      the remote shell command to use when starting a cvs server.   If
	      this variable is not set then `ssh' is used.

       CVS_SERVER
	      cvs  uses	the contents of	this variable to determine the name of
	      the cvs server command.  If this variable	is not set then	 `cvs'
	      is used.

       CVSWRAPPERS
	      This  variable  is used by the `cvswrappers' script to determine
	      the name of the wrapper file, in addition	to  the	 wrappers  de-
	      faults contained in the repository (CVSROOT/cvswrappers) and the
	      user's home directory (~/.cvswrappers).

AUTHORS
       Dick Grune
	      Original author of  the  cvs  shell  script  version  posted  to
	      comp.sources.unix	 in  the  volume6  release  of December, 1986.
	      Credited with much of the	cvs conflict resolution	algorithms.

       Brian Berliner
	      Coder and	designer of the	cvs program  itself  in	 April,	 1989,
	      based on the original work done by Dick.

       Jeff Polk
	      Helped Brian with	the design of the cvs module and vendor	branch
	      support and author of the	checkin(1) shell script	(the  ancestor
	      of `cvs import').

       And many	others too numerous to mention here.

SEE ALSO
       The most	comprehensive manual for CVS is	Version	Management with	CVS by
       Per Cederqvist et al.  Depending	on your	system,	you may	be able	to get
       it  with	 the  info cvs command or it may be available as cvs.ps	(post-
       script),	cvs.texinfo (texinfo source), or cvs.html.

       For CVS updates,	more information on documentation, software related to
       CVS, development	of CVS,	and more, see:
		 http://cvs.nongnu.org

       ci(1),  co(1),  cvs(5),	cvsbug(8), diff(1), grep(1), patch(1), rcs(1),
       rcsdiff(1), rcsmerge(1),	rlog(1).

									CVS(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | NOTE | DESCRIPTION | ESSENTIAL COMMANDS | OPTIONS | CVS OPTIONS | USAGE | CVS STARTUP FILE | CVS COMMAND SUMMARY | COMMON COMMAND OPTIONS | CVS COMMANDS | FILES | ENVIRONMENT | AUTHORS | SEE ALSO

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