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CVS(1)			    General Commands Manual			CVS(1)

NAME
       cvs - Concurrent	Versions System

SYNOPSIS
       cvs [ cvs_options ]
	      cvs_command [ command_options ] [	command_args ]

NOTE
       This  manpage  is a summary of some of the features of cvs but for more
       in-depth	documentation, consult the Cederqvist manual (as described  in
       the SEE ALSO section of this manpage).

DESCRIPTION
       CVS  is a version control system, which allows you to keep old versions
       of files	(usually source	code), keep  a	log  of	 who,  when,  and  why
       changes	occurred, etc.,	like RCS or SCCS.  Unlike the simpler systems,
       CVS does	not just operate on one	file at	a time or one directory	 at  a
       time,  but operates on hierarchical collections of directories consist-
       ing of version controlled files.	 CVS helps to manage releases  and  to
       control	the concurrent editing of source files among multiple authors.
       CVS allows triggers to enable/log/control various operations and	 works
       well over a wide	area network.

       cvs keeps a single copy of the master sources.  This copy is called the
       source ``repository''; it contains all the information  to  permit  ex-
       tracting	 previous software releases at any time	based on either	a sym-
       bolic revision tag, or a	date in	the past.

ESSENTIAL COMMANDS
       cvs provides a rich variety of commands (cvs_command in the  Synopsis),
       each  of	which often has	a wealth of options, to	satisfy	the many needs
       of source management in distributed environments.  However,  you	 don't
       have  to	 master	every detail to	do useful work with cvs; in fact, five
       commands	are sufficient to use (and contribute to) the  source  reposi-
       tory.

       cvs checkout modules...
	      A	 necessary preliminary for most	cvs work: creates your private
	      copy of the source for modules (named collections	of source; you
	      can  also	 use  a	 path relative to the source repository	here).
	      You can work with	this copy  without  interfering	 with  others'
	      work.  At	least one subdirectory level is	always created.

       cvs update
	      Execute  this  command from within your private source directory
	      when you wish to update your copies of source files from changes
	      that other developers have made to the source in the repository.

       cvs add file...
	      Use  this	 command  to  enroll  new files	in cvs records of your
	      working directory.  The files will be added  to  the  repository
	      the  next	 time  you run `cvs commit'.  Note: You	should use the
	      `cvs import' command to bootstrap	new sources  into  the	source
	      repository.   `cvs add' is only used for new files to an already
	      checked-out module.

       cvs remove file...
	      Use this command (after erasing any  files  listed)  to  declare
	      that  you	 wish to eliminate files from the repository.  The re-
	      moval does not affect others until you run `cvs commit'.

       cvs commit file...
	      Use this command when you	wish to	``publish''  your  changes  to
	      other  developers,  by  incorporating them in the	source reposi-
	      tory.

OPTIONS
       The cvs command line can	include	cvs_options, which apply to the	 over-
       all  cvs	program; a cvs_command,	which specifies	a particular action on
       the source repository; and  command_options  and	 command_arguments  to
       fully specify what the cvs_command will do.

       Warning:	you must be careful of precisely where you place options rela-
       tive to the cvs_command.	 The same option can mean different things de-
       pending	on whether it is in the	cvs_options position (to the left of a
       cvs command) or in the command_options position (to the right of	a  cvs
       command).

       There  are only two situations where you	may omit cvs_command: `cvs -H'
       or `cvs --help' elicits a list of available commands, and `cvs  -v'  or
       `cvs --version' displays	version	information on cvs itself.

CVS OPTIONS
       As of release 1.6, cvs supports GNU style long options as well as short
       options.	 Only a	few long options are currently	supported,  these  are
       listed  in brackets after the short options whose functions they	dupli-
       cate.

       Use these options to control the	overall	cvs program:

       -H [ --help ]
	      Display usage information	about the specified  cvs_command  (but
	      do  not  actually	 execute the command).	If you don't specify a
	      command name, `cvs -H' displays a	summary	of  all	 the  commands
	      available.

       -Q     Causes the command to be really quiet; the command will generate
	      output only for serious problems.

       -q     Causes the command to be somewhat	quiet; informational messages,
	      such  as	reports	 of recursion through subdirectories, are sup-
	      pressed.

       -b bindir
	      Use bindir as the	directory where	RCS programs are located  (CVS
	      1.9 and older).  Overrides the setting of	the RCSBIN environment
	      variable.	 This value should be specified	as an  absolute	 path-
	      name.

       -d CVS_root_directory
	      Use  CVS_root_directory  as  the	root directory pathname	of the
	      master source repository.	 Overrides the setting of the  CVSROOT
	      environment  variable.  This value should	be specified as	an ab-
	      solute pathname.

       -e editor
	      Use editor to enter revision  log	 information.	Overrides  the
	      setting  of  the CVSEDITOR, VISUAL, and EDITOR environment vari-
	      ables.

       -f     Do not read the cvs startup file (~/.cvsrc).

       -l     Do not log the cvs_command in the	command	history	 (but  execute
	      it  anyway).  See	the description	of the history command for in-
	      formation	on command history.

       -n     Do not change any	files.	Attempt	to  execute  the  cvs_command,
	      but  only	 to issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any
	      existing files, or create	any new	files.

       -t     Trace program execution; display messages	showing	the  steps  of
	      cvs activity.  Particularly useful with -n to explore the	poten-
	      tial impact of an	unfamiliar command.

       -r     Makes new	working	files read-only.  Same effect as if  the  CVS-
	      READ environment variable	is set.

       -R     Turns  on	 read-only  repository mode.  This allows one to check
	      out from a read-only  repository,	 such  as  within  an  anoncvs
	      server,  or from a CDROM repository.  Same effect	as if the CVS-
	      READONLYFS environment variable is set.  Using -R	can also  con-
	      siderably	speed up checkout's over NFS.

       -v [ --version ]
	      Displays version and copyright information for cvs.

       -w     Makes  new  working  files  read-write (default).	 Overrides the
	      setting of the CVSREAD environment variable.

       -g     Forces group-write perms on working files.  This option is typi-
	      cally used when you have multiple	users sharing a	single checked
	      out source tree, allowing	them to	operate	their  shells  with  a
	      less  dangerous  umask.  To use this feature, create a directory
	      to hold the checked-out source tree, set it to a private	group,
	      and  set	up  the	directory such that files created under	it in-
	      herit the	group id of the	directory.  This occurs	 automatically
	      with  FreeBSD.  With SysV	you must typically set the SGID	bit on
	      the directory.  The users	who are	to share the checked out  tree
	      must be placed in	that group.  Note that the sharing of a	single
	      checked-out source tree is very different	 from  giving  several
	      users access to a	common CVS repository.	Access to a common CVS
	      repository already maintains shared group-write perms  and  does
	      not require this option.

	      To  use the option transparently,	simply place the line 'cvs -g'
	      in your ~/.cvsrc file.  Doing this is not	recommended unless you
	      firewall	all  your  source  checkouts within a private group or
	      within a private mode 0700 directory.

       -x     Encrypt all communication	between	the client and the server.  As
	      of  this writing,	this is	only implemented when using a Kerberos
	      connection.

       -z compression-level
	      When transferring	files across the network use  gzip  with  com-
	      pression	level  compression-level  to  compress and de-compress
	      data as it is transferred.  Requires the	presence  of  the  GNU
	      gzip  program  in	 the  current  search path at both ends	of the
	      link.

USAGE
       Except when requesting general help with	`cvs -H', you must  specify  a
       cvs_command  to	cvs  to	 select	a specific release control function to
       perform.	 Each cvs command accepts its own collection  of  options  and
       arguments.   However,  many  options  are available across several com-
       mands.  You can display a usage summary for each	command	by  specifying
       the -H option with the command.

CVS STARTUP FILE
       Normally,  when	CVS  starts up,	it reads the .cvsrc file from the home
       directory of the	user reading it.  This startup procedure can be	turned
       off with	the -f flag.

       The  .cvsrc  file lists CVS commands with a list	of arguments, one com-
       mand per	line.  For example, the	following line in .cvsrc:

       diff -c

       will mean that the `cvs diff' command will always be passed the -c  op-
       tion in addition	to any other options that are specified	in the command
       line (in	this case it will have the effect of producing context	sensi-
       tive diffs for all executions of	`cvs diff' ).

       Global  options	are specified using the	cvs keyword.  For example, the
       following:

       cvs -q

       will mean that all `cvs'	commands will behave as	thought	he  -q	global
       option had been supplied.

CVS COMMAND SUMMARY
       Here are	brief descriptions of all the cvs commands:

       add    Add  a  new  file	or directory to	the repository,	pending	a `cvs
	      commit' on the same file.	 Can only be done from within  sources
	      created  by  a previous `cvs checkout' invocation.  Use `cvs im-
	      port' to place whole new hierarchies of sources under  cvs  con-
	      trol.  (Does not directly	affect repository; changes working di-
	      rectory.)

       admin  Execute control functions	on the	source	repository.   (Changes
	      repository  directly;  uses  working  directory without changing
	      it.)

       checkout
	      Make a working directory of source files for editing.   (Creates
	      or changes working directory.)

       commit Apply to the source repository changes, additions, and deletions
	      from your	working	directory.  (Changes repository.)

       diff   Show differences between files in	working	directory  and	source
	      repository,  or  between	two  revisions	in  source repository.
	      (Does not	change either repository or working directory.)

       export Prepare copies of	a set of source	files for shipment  off	 site.
	      Differs from `cvs	checkout' in that no cvs administrative	direc-
	      tories are created (and therefore	`cvs commit'  cannot  be  exe-
	      cuted  from  a directory prepared	with `cvs export'), and	a sym-
	      bolic tag	must be	specified.  (Does not change repository;  cre-
	      ates directory similar to	working	directories).

       history
	      Show reports on cvs commands that	you or others have executed on
	      a	particular file	or directory in	the source repository.	 (Does
	      not  change  repository or working directory.)  History logs are
	      kept only	if enabled by creation of  the	`$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/his-
	      tory' file; see cvs(5).

       import Incorporate  a  set  of  updates	from  off-site into the	source
	      repository, as a ``vendor	branch''.  (Changes repository.)

       init   Initialize a repository by adding	the CVSROOT  subdirectory  and
	      some  default  control  files. You must use this command or ini-
	      tialize the repository in	some other way before you can use it.

       log    Display log information.	(Does not change repository or working
	      directory.)

       rdiff  Prepare  a  collection  of diffs as a patch file between two re-
	      leases in	the repository.	 (Does not change repository or	 work-
	      ing directory.)

       release
	      Cancel  a	 `cvs  checkout', abandoning any changes.  (Can	delete
	      working directory; no effect on repository.)

       remove Remove files from	the source repository, pending a `cvs  commit'
	      on  the  same  files.   (Does  not  directly  affect repository;
	      changes working directory.)

       rtag   Explicitly specify a symbolic tag	for  particular	 revisions  of
	      files  in	 the source repository.	 See also `cvs tag'.  (Changes
	      repository directly; does	not require or affect  working	direc-
	      tory.)

       status Show current status of files: latest version, version in working
	      directory, whether working version has been edited and,  option-
	      ally,  symbolic  tags in the RCS file.  (Does not	change reposi-
	      tory or working directory.)

       tag    Specify a	symbolic tag for files in the repository.  By default,
	      tags the revisions that were last	synchronized with your working
	      directory.   (Changes repository directly; uses  working	direc-
	      tory without changing it.)

       update Bring  your  working  directory up to date with changes from the
	      repository.  Merges are performed	automatically when possible; a
	      warning is issued	if manual resolution is	required for conflict-
	      ing changes.  (Changes working directory;	does not change	repos-
	      itory.)

COMMON COMMAND OPTIONS
       This  section  describes	 the command_options that are available	across
       several cvs commands.  Not all commands support all of  these  options;
       each  option is only supported for commands where it makes sense.  How-
       ever, when a command has	one of these options you can count on the same
       meaning	for  the option	as in other commands.  (Other command options,
       which are listed	with the individual commands, may have different mean-
       ings from one cvs command to another.)  Warning:	the history command is
       an exception; it	supports many options that conflict  even  with	 these
       standard	options.

       -D date_spec
	      Use  the	most recent revision no	later than date_spec (a	single
	      argument,	date description specifying a date in  the  past).   A
	      wide  variety  of	 date formats are supported, in	particular ISO
	      ("1972-09-24 20:05") or Internet ("24  Sep  1972	20:05").   The
	      date_spec	 is interpreted	as being in the	local timezone,	unless
	      a	 specific  timezone  is	 specified.   The   specification   is
	      ``sticky''  when	you  use it to make a private copy of a	source
	      file; that is, when you get a working file using -D, cvs records
	      the  date	you specified, so that further updates in the same di-
	      rectory will use the same	date (unless you  explicitly  override
	      it; see the description of the update command).  -D is available
	      with the checkout, diff, history,	export,	rdiff, rtag,  and  up-
	      date commands.  Examples of valid	date specifications include:
			1 month	ago
			2 hours	ago
			400000 seconds ago
			last year
			last Monday
			yesterday
			a fortnight ago
			3/31/92	10:00:07 PST
			January	23, 1987 10:05pm
			22:00 GMT

       -f     When  you	specify	a particular date or tag to cvs	commands, they
	      normally ignore files that do not	contain	the tag	 (or  did  not
	      exist on the date) that you specified.  Use the -f option	if you
	      want files retrieved even	when there is no match for the tag  or
	      date.   (The most	recent version is used in this situation.)  -f
	      is available with	these commands:	checkout, export, rdiff, rtag,
	      and update.

       -k kflag
	      Alter  the  default  processing  of  keywords.  The -k option is
	      available	with the add, checkout,	diff, export, rdiff,  and  up-
	      date  commands.  Your kflag specification	is ``sticky'' when you
	      use it to	create a private copy of a source file;	that is,  when
	      you  use	this  option with the checkout or update commands, cvs
	      associates your selected kflag with the file, and	 continues  to
	      use  it  with  future update commands on the same	file until you
	      specify otherwise.

	      Some of the more useful kflags  are  -ko	and  -kb  (for	binary
	      files),  and -kv which is	useful for an export where you wish to
	      retain keyword information after an import at some other site.

       -l     Local; run only in current working directory, rather than	recur-
	      ring through subdirectories.   Available with the	following com-
	      mands: checkout, commit, diff, export, remove, rdiff, rtag, sta-
	      tus,  tag,  and  update.	 Warning:  this	is not the same	as the
	      overall `cvs -l' option, which you can specify to	the left of  a
	      cvs command!

       -n     Do  not  run any checkout/commit/tag/update program.  (A program
	      can be specified to run on each of these activities, in the mod-
	      ules  database;  this  option  bypasses it.)  Available with the
	      checkout,	commit,	export,	and rtag commands.  Warning:  this  is
	      not the same as the overall `cvs -n' option, which you can spec-
	      ify to the left of a cvs command!

       -P     Prune (remove) directories that are empty	after  being  updated,
	      on  checkout, or update.	Normally, an empty directory (one that
	      is void of revision-controlled files) is left alone.  Specifying
	      -P will cause these directories to be silently removed from your
	      checked-out sources.  This does not remove  the  directory  from
	      the repository, only from	your checked out copy.	Note that this
	      option is	implied	by the -r or -D	options	of  checkout  and  ex-
	      port.

       -T     Create/Update CVS/Template by copying it from the	(local)	repos-
	      itory.  This option is useful for	developers maintaining a local
	      cvs  repository  but commiting to	a remote repository.  By main-
	      taining CVS/Template the remote commits will still  be  able  to
	      bring  up	 the  proper  template	in  the	commit editor session.
	      Available	with the checkout and update commands.

       -p     Pipe the files retrieved from the	repository to standard output,
	      rather  than  writing  them in the current directory.  Available
	      with the checkout	and update commands.

       -r tag Use the revision specified by the	tag argument  instead  of  the
	      default  ``head''	 revision.   As	well as	arbitrary tags defined
	      with the tag or rtag command, two	special	tags are always	avail-
	      able:  `HEAD' refers to the most recent version available	in the
	      repository, and `BASE' refers to the revision you	 last  checked
	      out into the current working directory.

	      The  tag	specification  is  ``sticky'' when you use this	option
	      with `cvs	checkout' or `cvs update' to make your own copy	 of  a
	      file:  cvs  remembers  the tag and continues to use it on	future
	      update commands, until you specify otherwise.  tag can be	either
	      a	 symbolic  or  numeric	tag.   Specifying the -q global	option
	      along with the -r	command	option is often	 useful,  to  suppress
	      the  warning  messages  when  the	 RCS file does not contain the
	      specified	tag.  -r is available with the checkout, commit, diff,
	      history,	export,	 rdiff,	 rtag,	and update commands.  Warning:
	      this is not the same as the overall `cvs -r' option,  which  you
	      can specify to the left of a cvs command!

CVS COMMANDS
       Here (finally) are details on all the cvs commands and the options each
       accepts.	 The summary lines at the top of  each	command's  description
       highlight three kinds of	things:

	   Command Options and Arguments
		 Special options are described in detail below;	common command
		 options may appear only in the	summary	line.

	   Working Directory, or Repository?
		 Some cvs commands require a  working  directory  to  operate;
		 some  require	a  repository.	Also, some commands change the
		 repository, some  change  the	working	 directory,  and  some
		 change	nothing.

	   Synonyms
		 Many commands have synonyms, which you	may find easier	to re-
		 member	(or type) than the principal name.

       add [-k kflag] [-m 'message'] files...
	      Requires:	repository, working directory.
	      Changes: working directory.
	      Synonym: new
	      Use the add command to create a new file	or  directory  in  the
	      source  repository.  The files or	directories specified with add
	      must already exist in the	current	 directory  (which  must  have
	      been created with	the checkout command).	To add a whole new di-
	      rectory hierarchy	to the source repository (for  example,	 files
	      received	from  a	third-party vendor), use the `cvs import' com-
	      mand instead.

	      If the argument to `cvs add' refers to an	 immediate  sub-direc-
	      tory,  the  directory  is	 created  at  the correct place	in the
	      source repository, and the necessary  cvs	 administration	 files
	      are created in your working directory.  If the directory already
	      exists in	the source repository, `cvs add' still creates the ad-
	      ministration  files  in your version of the directory.  This al-
	      lows you to use `cvs add'	to add a particular directory to  your
	      private  sources even if someone else created that directory af-
	      ter your checkout	of the sources.	 You can do the	following:

			example% mkdir new_directory
			example% cvs add new_directory
			example% cvs update new_directory

	      An alternate approach using `cvs update' might be:

			example% cvs update -d new_directory

	      (To add any available new	directories to your working directory,
	      it's probably simpler to use `cvs	checkout' or `cvs update -d'.)

	      The  added  files	 are not placed	in the source repository until
	      you use `cvs commit' to make the change permanent.  Doing	a `cvs
	      add'  on	a  file	that was removed with the `cvs remove' command
	      will resurrect the file, if no `cvs commit' command intervened.

	      You will have the	opportunity to specify a logging  message,  as
	      usual, when you use `cvs commit' to make the new file permanent.
	      If you'd like to have another logging  message  associated  with
	      just  creation  of the file (for example,	to describe the	file's
	      purpose),	you can	specify	it with	the `-m	message' option	to the
	      add command.

	      The  `-k	kflag' option specifies	the default way	that this file
	      will be checked out.  The	`kflag'	argument is stored in the  RCS
	      file  and	 can be	changed	with `cvs admin'.  Specifying `-ko' is
	      useful for checking in binaries that shouldn't have keywords ex-
	      panded.

       admin [rcs-options] files...
	      Requires:	repository, working directory.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Synonym: rcs
	      This is the cvs interface	to assorted administrative facilities,
	      similar to rcs(1).  This command works recursively,  so  extreme
	      care should be used.

       checkout	[options] modules...
	      Requires:	repository.
	      Changes: working directory.
	      Synonyms:	co, get
	      Make  a  working directory containing copies of the source files
	      specified	by modules.  You must execute  `cvs  checkout'	before
	      using most of the	other cvs commands, since most of them operate
	      on your working directory.

	      modules are either symbolic names	 (themselves  defined  as  the
	      module  `modules'	in the source repository; see cvs(5)) for some
	      collection of source directories and files, or paths to directo-
	      ries or files in the repository.

	      Depending	 on  the modules you specify, checkout may recursively
	      create directories and populate them with	the appropriate	source
	      files.   You  can	 then edit these source	files at any time (re-
	      gardless of whether other	software developers are	editing	 their
	      own  copies  of the sources); update them	to include new changes
	      applied by others	to the source repository; or commit your  work
	      as a permanent change to the repository.

	      Note that	checkout is used to create directories.	 The top-level
	      directory	created	is always added	to the directory where	check-
	      out  is  invoked,	and usually has	the same name as the specified
	      module.  In the case of a	module alias, the  created  sub-direc-
	      tory may have a different	name, but you can be sure that it will
	      be a sub-directory, and that checkout  will  show	 the  relative
	      path  leading  to	each file as it	is extracted into your private
	      work area	(unless	you specify the	-Q global option).

	      Running `cvs checkout' on	a directory that was already built  by
	      a	 prior	checkout is also permitted, and	has the	same effect as
	      specifying the -d	option to the update command described below.

	      The options permitted with `cvs checkout'	include	 the  standard
	      command  options	-P,  -f, -k kflag , -l,	-n, -p,	-r tag,	and -D
	      date.

	      In addition to those, you	can use	these special command  options
	      with checkout:

	      Use  the	-A  option  to reset any sticky	tags, dates, or	-k op-
	      tions.  (If you get a working file using one of the -r,  -D,  or
	      -k  options, cvs remembers the corresponding tag,	date, or kflag
	      and continues using it on	future updates;	use the	-A  option  to
	      make  cvs	forget these specifications, and retrieve the ``head''
	      version of the file).

	      The -j branch option merges the changes made between the result-
	      ing  revision and	the revision that it is	based on (e.g.,	if the
	      tag refers to a branch, cvs will merge all changes made in  that
	      branch into your working file).

	      With  two	 -j options, cvs will merge in the changes between the
	      two respective revisions.	 This can be used to ``remove''	a cer-
	      tain delta from your working file.

	      In  addition, each -j option can contain on optional date	speci-
	      fication which, when used	with branches, can  limit  the	chosen
	      revision	to  one	 within	 a specific date.  An optional date is
	      specified	by adding a colon (:) to the tag.  An example might be
	      what  `cvs  import'  tells you to	do when	you have just imported
	      sources that have	conflicts with local changes:

			example% cvs checkout -jTAG:yesterday -jTAG module

	      Use the -N option	with `-d dir' to avoid shortening module paths
	      in  your	working	 directory.   (Normally, cvs shortens paths as
	      much as possible when you	specify	an explicit target directory.)

	      Use the -c option	to copy	the module file, sorted, to the	 stan-
	      dard  output,  instead of	creating or modifying any files	or di-
	      rectories	in your	working	directory.

	      Use the -d dir option to create a	directory called dir  for  the
	      working  files,  instead	of  using the module name.  Unless you
	      also use -N, the paths created under dir will  be	 as  short  as
	      possible.

	      Use  the	-s  option  to	display	 per-module status information
	      stored with the -s option	within the modules file.

       commit [-lnR] [-m 'log_message' | -f file] [-r revision]	[files...]
	      Requires:	working	directory, repository.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Synonym: ci
	      Use `cvs commit' when you	want to	incorporate changes from  your
	      working source files into	the general source repository.

	      If  you  don't  specify  particular  files to commit, all	of the
	      files in your working current directory are examined.  commit is
	      careful  to  change  in the repository only those	files that you
	      have really changed.  By default (or if you  explicitly  specify
	      the  -R  option),	 files in subdirectories are also examined and
	      committed	if they	have changed; you can use  the	-l  option  to
	      limit  commit  to	the current directory only.  Sometimes you may
	      want to force a file to be  committed  even  though  it  is  un-
	      changed;	this  is achieved with the -f flag, which also has the
	      effect of	disabling recursion (you can turn it back on  with  -R
	      of course).

	      commit  verifies that the	selected files are up to date with the
	      current revisions	in the source repository; it will notify  you,
	      and  exit	without	committing, if any of the specified files must
	      be made current first with `cvs update'.	commit does  not  call
	      the update command for you, but rather leaves that for you to do
	      when the time is right.

	      When all is well,	an editor is invoked to	allow you to  enter  a
	      log message that will be written to one or more logging programs
	      and placed in the	source repository file.	 You can instead spec-
	      ify the log message on the command line with the -m option, thus
	      suppressing the editor invocation, or use	the -F option to spec-
	      ify that the argument file contains the log message.

	      The  -r option can be used to commit to a	particular symbolic or
	      numeric revision.	 For example, to bring all your	 files	up  to
	      the revision ``3.0'' (including those that haven't changed), you
	      might do:

			example% cvs commit -r3.0

	      cvs will only allow you to commit	to a revision that is  on  the
	      main  trunk  (a  revision	 with a	single dot).  However, you can
	      also commit to a branch revision (one that has an	even number of
	      dots) with the -r	option.	 To create a branch revision, one typ-
	      ically use the -b	option of the rtag or tag commands.  Then, ei-
	      ther  checkout or	update can be used to base your	sources	on the
	      newly created branch.  From that point on,  all  commit  changes
	      made within these	working	sources	will be	automatically added to
	      a	branch revision, thereby not perturbing	main-line  development
	      in  any  way.   For example, if you had to create	a patch	to the
	      1.2 version of the product, even though the 2.0 version  is  al-
	      ready under development, you might do:

			example% cvs rtag -b -rFCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
			example% cvs checkout -rFCS1_2_Patch product_module
			example% cd product_module
			[[ hack	away ]]
			example% cvs commit

	      Say  you	have been working on some extremely experimental soft-
	      ware, based on whatever revision you happened to	checkout  last
	      week.   If others	in your	group would like to work on this soft-
	      ware with	you, but without disturbing main-line development, you
	      could  commit  your  change  to  a  new branch.  Others can then
	      checkout your experimental stuff and utilize the full benefit of
	      cvs conflict resolution.	The scenario might look	like:

			example% cvs tag -b EXPR1
			example% cvs update -rEXPR1
			[[ hack	away ]]
			example% cvs commit

	      Others would simply do `cvs checkout -rEXPR1 whatever_module' to
	      work with	you on the experimental	change.

       diff [-kl] [rcsdiff_options] [[-r rev1 |	-D date1 | -j rev1:date1]  [-r
       rev2 | -D date2 | -j rev2:date2]] [files...]
	      Requires:	working	directory, repository.
	      Changes: nothing.
	      You  can compare your working files with revisions in the	source
	      repository, with the `cvs	diff' command.	If you don't specify a
	      particular  revision, your files are compared with the revisions
	      they were	based on.  You can also	use the	standard  cvs  command
	      option -r	to specify a particular	revision to compare your files
	      with.  Finally, if you use -r twice, you can see differences be-
	      tween  two revisions in the repository.  You can also specify -D
	      options to diff against a	revision (on the head branch)  in  the
	      past,  and you can also specify -j options to diff against a re-
	      vision relative to a branch tag in the past.  The	-r and -D  and
	      -j  options  can be mixed	together with at most two options ever
	      specified.

	      See rcsdiff(1) for a list	of other accepted options.

	      If you don't specify any files, diff  will  display  differences
	      for  all those files in the current directory (and its subdirec-
	      tories, unless you use the standard option -l) that differ  from
	      the  corresponding revision in the source	repository (i.e. files
	      that you have changed), or that differ from the revision	speci-
	      fied.

       export [-flNnQq]	-r rev|-D date [-d dir]	[-k kflag] module...
	      Requires:	repository.
	      Changes: current directory.
	      This  command  is	 a  variant of `cvs checkout'; use it when you
	      want a copy of the source	for module without the cvs administra-
	      tive  directories.   For	example, you might use `cvs export' to
	      prepare source for shipment  off-site.   This  command  requires
	      that  you	specify	a date or tag (with -D or -r), so that you can
	      count on reproducing the source you ship to others.

	      The only non-standard options are	`-d  dir'  (write  the	source
	      into  directory  dir)  and  `-N'	(don't	shorten	module paths).
	      These have the same meanings as the same options in `cvs	check-
	      out'.

	      The  -kv	option is useful when export is	used.  This causes any
	      keywords to be expanded such that	an import done at  some	 other
	      site  will  not  lose  the  keyword revision information.	 Other
	      kflags may be used with `cvs export' and are described in	co(1).

       history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...]
	      Requires:	the file `$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history'
	      Changes: nothing.
	      cvs keeps	a history file that tracks each	use of	the  checkout,
	      commit,  rtag,  update,  and release commands.  You can use `cvs
	      history' to display this information in various formats.

	      Warning: `cvs history' uses `-f',	`-l', `-n', and	`-p'  in  ways
	      that conflict with the descriptions in COMMON COMMAND OPTIONS.

	      Several  options	(shown	above as -report) control what kind of
	      report is	generated:

	     -c	 Report	on each	time commit was	 used  (i.e.,  each  time  the
		 repository was	modified).

	     -m	module
		 Report	 on a particular module.  (You can meaningfully	use -m
		 more than once	on the command line.)

	     -o	 Report	on checked-out modules.

	     -T	 Report	on all tags.

	     -x	type
		 Extract a particular set of record types X from the cvs  his-
		 tory.	 The  types are	indicated by single letters, which you
		 may specify in	combination.  Certain commands have  a	single
		 record	 type:	checkout  (type	 `O'), release (type `F'), and
		 rtag (type `T').  One of four record types may	result from an
		 update:  `W', when the	working	copy of	a file is deleted dur-
		 ing update (because it	was gone from  the  repository);  `U',
		 when a	working	file was copied	from the repository; `G', when
		 a merge was necessary and it succeeded; and 'C', when a merge
		 was  necessary	but collisions were detected (requiring	manual
		 merging).  Finally, one of three record  types	 results  from
		 commit:  `M',	when  a	file was modified; `A',	when a file is
		 first added; and `R', when a file is removed.

	     -e	 Everything  (all  record  types);  equivalent	to  specifying
		 `-xMACFROGWUT'.

	     -z	zone
		 Use time zone zone when outputting history records.  The zone
		 name LT stands	for local  time;  numeric  offsets  stand  for
		 hours	and  minutes  ahead of UTC.  For example, +0530	stands
		 for 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of (i.e. east	of) UTC.

	    The	options	shown as -flags	constrain the report without requiring
	    option arguments:

	     -a	 Show data for all users (the default is to show data only for
		 the user executing `cvs history').

	     -l	 Show last modification	only.

	     -w	 Show only the records for modifications done  from  the  same
		 working directory where `cvs history' is executing.

	    The	 options  shown	as -options args constrain the report based on
	    an argument:

	     -b	str
		 Show data back	to a record containing the string str  in  ei-
		 ther the module name, the file	name, or the repository	path.

	     -D	date
		 Show data since date.

	     -p	repository
		 Show data for a particular source repository (you can specify
		 several -p options on the same	command	line).

	     -r	rev
		 Show records referring	to revisions since the revision	or tag
		 named	rev appears in individual RCS files.  Each RCS file is
		 searched for the revision or tag.

	     -t	tag
		 Show records since tag	tag was	 last  added  to  the  history
		 file.	 This  differs from the	-r flag	above in that it reads
		 only the history file,	not the	RCS files, and is much faster.

	     -u	name
		 Show records for user name.

       import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag...
	      Requires:	Repository, source distribution	directory.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Use `cvs import' to incorporate an  entire  source  distribution
	      from  an outside source (e.g., a source vendor) into your	source
	      repository directory.  You can use this command both for initial
	      creation	of a repository, and for wholesale updates to the mod-
	      ule form the outside source.

	      The repository argument gives a directory	name (or a path	 to  a
	      directory) under the CVS root directory for repositories;	if the
	      directory	did not	exist, import creates it.

	      When you use import for updates to source	that has been modified
	      in your source repository	(since a prior import),	it will	notify
	      you of any files that conflict in	the two	branches  of  develop-
	      ment; use	`cvs checkout -j' to reconcile the differences,	as im-
	      port instructs you to do.

	      By default, certain file names are ignored during	`cvs  import':
	      names  associated	 with CVS administration, or with other	common
	      source control systems; common names  for	 patch	files,	object
	      files,  archive  files, and editor backup	files; and other names
	      that are usually artifacts of assorted utilities.	 For an	up  to
	      date  list  of ignored file names, see the Cederqvist manual (as
	      described	in the SEE ALSO	section	of this	manpage).

	      The outside source is saved in a first-level branch, by  default
	      `1.1.1'.	 Updates are leaves of this branch; for	example, files
	      from the first imported collection of source  will  be  revision
	      `1.1.1.1', then files from the first imported update will	be re-
	      vision `1.1.1.2',	and so on.

	      At least three arguments are required.  repository is needed  to
	      identify	the  collection	of source.  vendortag is a tag for the
	      entire branch (e.g., for `1.1.1').  You  must  also  specify  at
	      least one	releasetag to identify the files at the	leaves created
	      each time	you execute `cvs import'.

	      One of the standard cvs command options is  available:  -m  mes-
	      sage.  If	you do not specify a logging message with -m, your ed-
	      itor is invoked (as with commit) to allow	you to enter one.

	      There are	three additional special options.

	      Use `-d' to specify that each file's time	of  last  modification
	      should be	used for the checkin date and time.

	      Use  `-b	branch'	 to  specify  a	 first-level branch other than
	      `1.1.1'.

	      Use `-I name' to specify file names that should be ignored  dur-
	      ing  import.   You can use this option repeatedly.  To avoid ig-
	      noring any files at all (even those ignored by default), specify
	      `-I !'.

       log [-l]	rlog-options [files...]
	      Requires:	repository, working directory.
	      Changes: nothing.
	      Synonym: rlog
	      Display  log  information	 for files.  Among the more useful op-
	      tions are	-h to display only the header (including  tag  defini-
	      tions,  but omitting most	of the full log); -r to	select logs on
	      particular revisions or ranges of	revisions; and	-d  to	select
	      particular  dates	or date	ranges.	 See rlog(1) for full explana-
	      tions.  This command is recursive	by default, unless the -l  op-
	      tion is specified.

       rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] [-r t|-D d [-r t2|-D d2]]	modules...
	      Requires:	repository.
	      Changes: nothing.
	      Synonym: patch
	      Builds  a	 Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two releases,
	      that can be fed directly into the	patch program to bring an  old
	      release  up-to-date  with	 the new release.  (This is one	of the
	      few cvs commands that operates directly from the repository, and
	      doesn't  require	a prior	checkout.)  The	diff output is sent to
	      the standard output device.  You can specify (using the standard
	      -r  and  -D  options) any	combination of one or two revisions or
	      dates.  If only one revision or date  is	specified,  the	 patch
	      file  reflects differences between that revision or date and the
	      current ``head'' revisions in the	RCS file.

	      Note that	if the software	release	affected is contained in  more
	      than  one	 directory, then it may	be necessary to	specify	the -p
	      option to	the patch command when patching	the  old  sources,  so
	      that  patch  is able to find the files that are located in other
	      directories.

	      The standard option flags	-f, and	-l  are	 available  with  this
	      command.	There are also several special options flags:

	      If you use the -s	option,	no patch output	is produced.  Instead,
	      a	summary	of the changed or added	files between the two releases
	      is sent to the standard output device.  This is useful for find-
	      ing out, for example, which files	have changed between two dates
	      or revisions.

	      If  you  use  the	 -t option, a diff of the top two revisions is
	      sent to the standard output device.  This	 is  most  useful  for
	      seeing what the last change to a file was.

	      If you use the -u	option,	the patch output uses the newer	``uni-
	      diff'' format for	context	diffs.

	      You can use -c to	explicitly specify the `diff -c' form of  con-
	      text diffs (which	is the default), if you	like.

       release [-dQq] modules...
	      Requires:	Working	directory.
	      Changes: Working directory, history log.
	      This command is meant to safely cancel the effect	of `cvs	check-
	      out'.' Since cvs doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary
	      to  use this command.  You can always simply delete your working
	      directory, if you	like; but you risk losing changes you may have
	      forgotten,  and  you leave no trace in the cvs history file that
	      you've abandoned your checkout.

	      Use `cvs release'	to avoid these problems.  This command	checks
	      that no un-committed changes are present;	that you are executing
	      it from immediately above, or inside, a cvs  working  directory;
	      and  that	 the repository	recorded for your files	is the same as
	      the repository defined in	the module database.

	      If all these conditions are true,	`cvs release' leaves a	record
	      of  its  execution  (attesting  to your intentionally abandoning
	      your checkout) in	the cvs	history	log.

	      You can use the -d flag to request that your working  copies  of
	      the source files be deleted if the release succeeds.

       remove [-lR] [files...]
	      Requires:	Working	directory.
	      Changes: Working directory.
	      Synonyms:	rm, delete
	      Use  this	 command to declare that you wish to remove files from
	      the source repository.  Like most	 cvs  commands,	 `cvs  remove'
	      works  on	 files	in your	working	directory, not directly	on the
	      repository.  As a	safeguard, it also  requires  that  you	 first
	      erase the	specified files	from your working directory.

	      The  files are not actually removed until	you apply your changes
	      to the repository	with commit; at	that point, the	 corresponding
	      RCS  files  in  the source repository are	moved into the `Attic'
	      directory	(also within the source	repository).

	      This command is recursive	by default, scheduling all  physically
	      removed files that it finds for removal by the next commit.  Use
	      the -l option to avoid this recursion, or	just specify that  ac-
	      tual files that you wish remove to consider.

       rtag [-falnRQq] [-b] [-d] [-r tag | -D date] symbolic_tag modules...
	      Requires:	repository.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Synonym: rfreeze
	      You  can use this	command	to assign symbolic tags	to particular,
	      explicitly specified source versions in  the  repository.	  `cvs
	      rtag' works directly on the repository contents (and requires no
	      prior checkout).	Use `cvs tag' instead, to base	the  selection
	      of versions to tag on the	contents of your working directory.

	      In general, tags (often the symbolic names of software distribu-
	      tions) should not	be removed, but	the -d option is available  as
	      a	 means	to remove completely obsolete symbolic names if	neces-
	      sary (as might be	the case for an	Alpha release, say).

	      `cvs rtag' will not move a tag that already exists.  With	the -F
	      option,  however,	`cvs rtag' will	re-locate any instance of sym-
	      bolic_tag	that already exists on that file to the	new repository
	      versions.	  Without  the -F option, attempting to	use `cvs rtag'
	      to apply a tag that already exists on that file will produce  an
	      error message.

	      The  -b  option makes the	tag a ``branch'' tag, allowing concur-
	      rent, isolated development.  This	is most	useful for creating  a
	      patch to a previously released software distribution.

	      You  can	use  the  standard -r and -D options to	tag only those
	      files that already contain a certain tag.	 This method would  be
	      used  to	rename a tag: tag only the files identified by the old
	      tag, then	delete the old tag, leaving the	new tag	on exactly the
	      same files as the	old tag.

	      rtag executes recursively	by default, tagging all	subdirectories
	      of modules you specify in	the argument.  You  can	 restrict  its
	      operation	 to top-level directories with the standard -l option;
	      or you can explicitly request recursion with -R.

	      The modules database can specify a program to execute whenever a
	      tag  is specified; a typical use is to send electronic mail to a
	      group of interested parties.  If you want	to  bypass  that  pro-
	      gram, use	the standard -n	option.

	      Use  the	-a option to have rtag look in the `Attic' for removed
	      files that contain the specified tag.  The tag is	 removed  from
	      these  files, which makes	it convenient to re-use	a symbolic tag
	      as development continues (and files get removed from the up-com-
	      ing distribution).

       status [-lRqQ] [-v] [files...]
	      Requires:	working	directory, repository.
	      Changes: nothing.
	      Display  a  brief	report on the current status of	files with re-
	      spect to the source repository, including	any  ``sticky''	 tags,
	      dates,  or  -k  options.	 (``Sticky'' options will restrict how
	      `cvs update' operates until you reset them; see the  description
	      of `cvs update -A...'.)

	      You can also use this command to anticipate the potential	impact
	      of a `cvs	update'	on your	working	source directory.  If  you  do
	      not  specify  any	 files	explicitly,  reports are shown for all
	      files that cvs has placed	in your	working	 directory.   You  can
	      limit  the  scope	of this	search to the current directory	itself
	      (not its subdirectories) with the	standard -l  option  flag;  or
	      you  can explicitly request recursive status reports with	the -R
	      option.

	      The -v option causes the symbolic	tags for the RCS  file	to  be
	      displayed	as well.

       tag  [-lQqR]  [-F]  [-b]	 [-d]  [-r  tag	 |  -D date] [-f] symbolic_tag
       [files...]
	      Requires:	working	directory, repository.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Synonym: freeze
	      Use this command to assign symbolic tags to the nearest  reposi-
	      tory versions to your working sources.  The tags are applied im-
	      mediately	to the repository, as with rtag.

	      One use for tags is to record  a	``snapshot''  of  the  current
	      sources  when the	software freeze	date of	a project arrives.  As
	      bugs are fixed after the freeze date, only those changed sources
	      that are to be part of the release need be re-tagged.

	      The  symbolic  tags  are meant to	permanently record which revi-
	      sions of which files were	used in	creating a software  distribu-
	      tion.  The checkout, export and update commands allow you	to ex-
	      tract an exact copy of a tagged release at any time in  the  fu-
	      ture,  regardless	 of whether files have been changed, added, or
	      removed since the	release	was tagged.

	      You can use the standard -r and -D options  to  tag  only	 those
	      files  that already contain a certain tag.  This method would be
	      used to rename a tag: tag	only the files identified by  the  old
	      tag, then	delete the old tag, leaving the	new tag	on exactly the
	      same files as the	old tag.

	      Specifying the -f	flag in	addition to the	-r or  -D  flags  will
	      tag  those  files	 named on the command line even	if they	do not
	      contain the old tag or did not exist on the specified date.

	      By default (without a -r or -D flag) the versions	to  be	tagged
	      are  supplied  implicitly	 by  the  cvs  records of your working
	      files' history rather than applied explicitly.

	      If you use `cvs tag -d symbolic_tag...', the  symbolic  tag  you
	      specify  is  deleted  instead  of	being added.  Warning: Be very
	      certain of your ground before you	delete a tag; doing  this  ef-
	      fectively	 discards some historical information, which may later
	      turn out to have been valuable.

	      `cvs tag'	will not move a	tag that already exists.  With the  -F
	      option,  however,	 `cvs tag' will	re-locate any instance of sym-
	      bolic_tag	that already exists on that file to the	new repository
	      versions.	 Without the -F	option,	attempting to use `cvs tag' to
	      apply a tag that already exists on that file will	produce	an er-
	      ror message.

	      The  -b  option makes the	tag a ``branch'' tag, allowing concur-
	      rent, isolated development.  This	is most	useful for creating  a
	      patch to a previously released software distribution.

	      Normally,	 tag  executes recursively through subdirectories; you
	      can prevent this by using	the standard -l	option,	or specify the
	      recursion	explicitly by using -R.

       update [-ACdflPpQqR] [-d] [-r tag|-D date] files...
	      Requires:	repository, working directory.
	      Changes: working directory.
	      After  you've run	checkout to create your	private	copy of	source
	      from the	common	repository,  other  developers	will  continue
	      changing the central source.  From time to time, when it is con-
	      venient in your development process, you can use the update com-
	      mand  from  within your working directory	to reconcile your work
	      with any revisions applied to  the source	repository since  your
	      last checkout or update.

	      update keeps you informed	of its progress	by printing a line for
	      each file, prefaced with one of the characters `U	A R M C	?'  to
	      indicate the status of the file:

       U file	 The  file  was	brought	up to date with	respect	to the reposi-
		 tory.	This is	done for any file that exists in  the  reposi-
		 tory  but  not	in your	source,	and for	files that you haven't
		 changed but are not the most recent versions available	in the
		 repository.

       A file	 The  file has been added to your private copy of the sources,
		 and will be added to the source repository when you run  `cvs
		 commit' on the	file.  This is a reminder to you that the file
		 needs to be committed.

       R file	 The file has been removed  from  your	private	 copy  of  the
		 sources,  and will be removed from the	source repository when
		 you run `cvs commit' on the file.  This is a reminder to  you
		 that the file needs to	be committed.

       M file	 The  file is modified in your working directory.  `M' can in-
		 dicate	one of two states for a	file you're working on:	either
		 there	were  no modifications to the same file	in the reposi-
		 tory, so that your file remains as you	last saw it; or	 there
		 were modifications in the repository as well as in your copy,
		 but they were merged successfully, without conflict, in  your
		 working directory.

       C file	 A conflict was	detected while trying to merge your changes to
		 file with changes from	the source repository.	file (the copy
		 in  your  working directory) is now the result	of merging the
		 two versions; an unmodified copy of your file is also in your
		 working directory, with the name `.#file.version', where ver-
		 sion is the revision that your	modified  file	started	 from.
		 (Note	that some systems automatically	purge files that begin
		 with  `.#' if they have not been accessed for a few days.  If
		 you intend to keep a copy of your original file, it is	a very
		 good idea to rename it.)

       ? file	 file is in your working directory, but	does not correspond to
		 anything  in the source repository, and is not	in the list of
		 files for cvs to ignore (see the description of  the  -I  op-
		 tion).

	    Use	 the -A	option to reset	any sticky tags, dates,	or -k options.
	    (If	you get	a working copy of a file by using one of the  -r,  -D,
	    or -k options, cvs remembers the corresponding tag,	date, or kflag
	    and	continues using	it on future updates; use  the	-A  option  to
	    make  cvs  forget  these specifications, and retrieve the ``head''
	    version of the file).

	    The	-jbranch option	merges the changes made	between	the  resulting
	    revision  and  the	revision that it is based on (e.g., if the tag
	    refers to a	branch,	cvs will merge all changes made	in that	branch
	    into your working file).

	    With two -j	options, cvs will merge	in the changes between the two
	    respective revisions.  This	can be used to	``remove''  a  certain
	    delta from your working file.  E.g., If the	file foo.c is based on
	    revision 1.6 and I want to remove the changes made between 1.3 and
	    1.5, I might do:

		      example% cvs update -j1.5	-j1.3 foo.c   #	note the order...

	    In	addition, each -j option can contain on	optional date specifi-
	    cation which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen	 revi-
	    sion to one	within a specific date.	 An optional date is specified
	    by adding a	colon (:) to the tag.

		      -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier

	    Use	the -d option to create	any  directories  that	exist  in  the
	    repository	if  they're missing from the working directory.	 (Nor-
	    mally, update acts only on directories and files that were already
	    enrolled  in your working directory.)  This	is useful for updating
	    directories	that were created in the repository since the  initial
	    checkout;  but it has an unfortunate side effect.  If you deliber-
	    ately avoided certain directories in the repository	when you  cre-
	    ated  your	working	directory (either through use of a module name
	    or by listing explicitly the files and directories you  wanted  on
	    the	 command line),	then updating with -d will create those	direc-
	    tories, which may not be what you want.

	    Use	-I name	to ignore files	whose names match name (in your	 work-
	    ing	 directory)  during  the update.  You can specify -I more than
	    once on the	command	line to	specify	several	files to  ignore.   By
	    default,  update ignores files whose names match certain patterns;
	    for	an up to date list of ignored file names, see  the  Cederqvist
	    manual (as described in the	SEE ALSO section of this manpage).

	    Use	`-I !' to avoid	ignoring any files at all.

	    Use	the `-C' option	to overwrite locally modified files with clean
	    copies  from  the  repository  (the	 modified  file	 is  saved  in
	    `.#file.revision', however).

	    The	 standard  cvs	command	options	-f, -k,	-l, -P,	-p, and	-r are
	    also available with	update.

FILES
       For more	detailed information on	cvs supporting files, see cvs(5).

       Files in	home directories:

       .cvsrc The cvs initialisation file.  Lines in this file can be used  to
	      specify  default	options	for each cvs command.  For example the
	      line `diff -c' will ensure that `cvs diff' is always passed  the
	      -c option	in addition to any other options passed	on the command
	      line.

       .cvswrappers
	      Specifies	wrappers to be used in addition	to those specified  in
	      the CVSROOT/cvswrappers file in the repository.

       Files in	working	directories:

       CVS    A	directory of cvs administrative	files.	Do not delete.

       CVS/Entries
	      List and status of files in your working directory.

       CVS/Entries.Backup
	      A	backup of `CVS/Entries'.

       CVS/Entries.Static
	      Flag: do not add more entries on `cvs update'.

       CVS/Root
	      Pathname	to  the	repository ( CVSROOT ) location	at the time of
	      checkout.	 This file is used instead of the CVSROOT  environment
	      variable if the environment variable is not set.	A warning mes-
	      sage will	be issued when the contents of this file and the  CVS-
	      ROOT  environment	 variable differ.  The file may	be over-ridden
	      by the presence of the CVS_IGNORE_REMOTE_ROOT environment	 vari-
	      able.

       CVS/Repository
	      Pathname	to  the	 corresponding directory in the	source reposi-
	      tory.

       CVS/Tag
	      Contains the per-directory ``sticky'' tag	or  date  information.
	      This  file  is  created/updated when you specify -r or -D	to the
	      checkout or update commands, and no files	are specified.

       CVS/Checkin.prog
	      Name of program to run on	`cvs commit'.

       CVS/Update.prog
	      Name of program to run on	`cvs update'.

       Files in	source repositories:

       $CVSROOT/CVSROOT
	      Directory	of global administrative files for repository.

       CVSROOT/commitinfo,v
	      Records programs for filtering `cvs commit' requests.

       CVSROOT/cvswrappers,v
	      Records cvs wrapper commands to be used when checking files into
	      and out of the repository.  Wrappers allow the file or directory
	      to be processed on the way in and	out of CVS.  The intended uses
	      are  many, one possible use would	be to reformat a C file	before
	      the file is checked in, so all of	the  code  in  the  repository
	      looks the	same.

       CVSROOT/editinfo,v
	      Records  programs	 for  editing/validating  `cvs commit' log en-
	      tries.

       CVSROOT/history
	      Log file of cvs transactions.

       CVSROOT/loginfo,v
	      Records programs for piping `cvs commit' log entries.

       CVSROOT/modules,v
	      Definitions for modules in this repository.

       CVSROOT/rcsinfo,v
	      Records pathnames	to templates used during a `cvs	commit'	opera-
	      tion.

       CVSROOT/taginfo,v
	      Records programs for validating/logging `cvs tag'	and `cvs rtag'
	      operations.

       MODULE/Attic
	      Directory	for removed source files.

       #cvs.lock
	      A	lock directory created by cvs when doing sensitive changes  to
	      the source repository.

       #cvs.tfl.pid
	      Temporary	lock file for repository.

       #cvs.rfl.pid
	      A	read lock.

       #cvs.wfl.pid
	      A	write lock.

ENVIRONMENT
       CVSROOT
	      Should  contain  the full	pathname to the	root of	the cvs	source
	      repository (where	the RCS	files  are  kept).   This  information
	      must  be	available to cvs for most commands to execute; if CVS-
	      ROOT is not set, or if you wish to override it for  one  invoca-
	      tion,  you  can  supply  it on the command line: `cvs -d cvsroot
	      cvs_command...' You may not need to set CVSROOT if your cvs  bi-
	      nary has the right path compiled in.

       CVSREAD
	      If  this	is  set, checkout and update will try hard to make the
	      files in your working directory read-only.   When	 this  is  not
	      set,  the	 default  behavior  is	to permit modification of your
	      working files.

       CVSREADONLYFS
	      If this is set, the -R option is assumed,	and  cvs  operates  in
	      read-only	repository mode.

       RCSBIN Specifies	 the full pathname where to find RCS programs, such as
	      co(1) and	ci(1) (CVS 1.9 and older).

       CVSEDITOR
	      Specifies	the program to use for recording log  messages	during
	      commit.  If not set, the VISUAL and EDITOR environment variables
	      are tried	(in that order).  If neither is	set,  a	 system-depen-
	      dent default editor (e.g., vi) is	used.

       CVS_IGNORE_REMOTE_ROOT
	      If  this	variable is set	then cvs will ignore all references to
	      remote repositories in the CVS/Root file.

       CVS_OPTIONS
	      Specifies	a set of default options for cvs.  These  options  are
	      interpreted  before  the startup file (~/.cvsrc) is read and can
	      be overridden by explicit	command	line parameters.

       CVS_RSH
	      cvs uses the contents of this variable to	determine the name  of
	      the  remote shell	command	to use when starting a cvs server.  If
	      this variable is not set then `ssh' is used.

       CVS_SERVER
	      cvs uses the contents of this variable to	determine the name  of
	      the  cvs server command.	If this	variable is not	set then `cvs'
	      is used.

       CVSWRAPPERS
	      This variable is used by the `cvswrappers' script	 to  determine
	      the  name	 of  the wrapper file, in addition to the wrappers de-
	      faults contained in the repository (CVSROOT/cvswrappers) and the
	      user's home directory (~/.cvswrappers).

AUTHORS
       Dick Grune
	      Original	author	of  the	 cvs  shell  script  version posted to
	      comp.sources.unix	in the	volume6	 release  of  December,	 1986.
	      Credited with much of the	cvs conflict resolution	algorithms.

       Brian Berliner
	      Coder  and  designer  of	the cvs	program	itself in April, 1989,
	      based on the original work done by Dick.

       Jeff Polk
	      Helped Brian with	the design of the cvs module and vendor	branch
	      support  and author of the checkin(1) shell script (the ancestor
	      of `cvs import').

       And many	others too numerous to mention here.

SEE ALSO
       The most	comprehensive manual for CVS is	Version	Management with	CVS by
       Per Cederqvist et al.  Depending	on your	system,	you may	be able	to get
       it with the info	cvs command or it may be available  as	cvs.ps	(post-
       script),	cvs.texinfo (texinfo source), or cvs.html.

       For CVS updates,	more information on documentation, software related to
       CVS, development	of CVS,	and more, see:
		 http://www.cyclic.com	    http://www.loria.fr/~molli/cvs-in-
		 dex.html

       ci(1),  co(1),  cvs(5),	cvsbug(8), diff(1), grep(1), patch(1), rcs(1),
       rcsdiff(1), rcsmerge(1),	rlog(1).

									CVS(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | NOTE | DESCRIPTION | ESSENTIAL COMMANDS | OPTIONS | CVS OPTIONS | USAGE | CVS STARTUP FILE | CVS COMMAND SUMMARY | COMMON COMMAND OPTIONS | CVS COMMANDS | FILES | ENVIRONMENT | AUTHORS | SEE ALSO

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