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curs_util(3X)							 curs_util(3X)

       delay_output, filter, flushinp, getwin, key_name, keyname, nofilter,
       putwin, unctrl, use_env,	wunctrl	- miscellaneous	curses utility

       #include	<curses.h>

       char *unctrl(chtype c);
       wchar_t *wunctrl(cchar_t	*c);
       char *keyname(int c);
       char *key_name(wchar_t w);
       void filter(void);
       void nofilter(void);
       void use_env(bool f);
       int putwin(WINDOW *win, FILE *filep);
       WINDOW *getwin(FILE *filep);
       int delay_output(int ms);
       int flushinp(void);

       The unctrl routine returns a character string which is a	printable rep-
       resentation of the character c, ignoring	attributes.   Control  charac-
       ters  are  displayed  in	the ^X notation.  Printing characters are dis-
       played as is.  The corresponding	wunctrl	returns	a printable  represen-
       tation of a wide-character.

       The keyname routine returns a character string corresponding to the key

	  -  Printable characters are displayed	as themselves,	e.g.,  a  one-
	     character string containing the key.

	  -  Control characters	are displayed in the ^X	notation.

	  -  DEL (character 127) is displayed as ^?.

	  -  Values  above  128	 are either meta characters (if	the screen has
	     not been initialized, or if meta has been called with a TRUE  pa-
	     rameter),	shown  in  the M-X notation, or	are displayed as them-
	     selves.  In the latter case, the values  may  not	be  printable;
	     this follows the X/Open specification.

	  -  Values  above 256 may be the names	of the names of	function keys.

	  -  Otherwise (if there is no corresponding name)  the	 function  re-
	     turns  null,  to  denote an error.	 X/Open	also lists an "UNKNOWN
	     KEY" return value,	which some implementations return rather  than

       The  corresponding key_name returns a character string corresponding to
       the wide-character value	w.  The	two functions do not return  the  same
       set  of strings;	the latter returns null	where the former would display
       a meta character.

       The filter routine, if used, must be called before initscr  or  newterm
       are called.  The	effect is that,	during those calls, LINES is set to 1;
       the capabilities	clear, cup, cud, cud1, cuu1, cuu,  vpa	are  disabled;
       and the home string is set to the value of cr.

       The  nofilter  routine  cancels	the effect of a	preceding filter call.
       That allows the caller to initialize a screen on	 a  different  device,
       using  a	 different  value of $TERM.  The limitation arises because the
       filter routine modifies the in-memory copy of the terminal information.

       The  use_env  routine, if used, is called before	initscr	or newterm are
       called.	When called with FALSE as an argument, the values of lines and
       columns	specified in the terminfo database will	be used, even if envi-
       ronment variables LINES and COLUMNS (used by default) are  set,	or  if
       curses  is running in a window (in which	case default behavior would be
       to use the window size if LINES and COLUMNS are not  set).   Note  that
       setting	LINES or COLUMNS overrides the corresponding size which	may be
       obtained	from the operating system.

       The putwin routine writes all data associated with window win into  the
       file  to	 which	filep points.  This information	can be later retrieved
       using the getwin	function.

       The getwin routine reads	window related data  stored  in	 the  file  by
       putwin.	 The  routine  then creates and	initializes a new window using
       that data.  It returns a	pointer	to the new window.

       The delay_output	routine	inserts	an ms  millisecond  pause  in  output.
       This  routine should not	be used	extensively because padding characters
       are used	rather than a CPU pause.  If no	padding	 character  is	speci-
       fied, this uses napms to	perform	the delay.

       The  flushinp  routine throws away any typeahead	that has been typed by
       the user	and has	not yet	been read by the program.

       Except for flushinp, routines that return an integer  return  ERR  upon
       failure	and OK (SVr4 specifies only "an	integer	value other than ERR")
       upon successful completion.

       Routines	that return pointers return NULL on error.

       X/Open does not define any error	conditions.  In	this implementation

	       returns an error	if the terminal	was not	initialized.

	  meta returns an error	if the terminal	was not	initialized.

	       returns an error	if the associated fwrite calls return  an  er-

       The  XSI	Curses standard, Issue 4 describes these functions.  It	states
       that unctrl and wunctrl will return a null pointer if unsuccessful, but
       does  not  define any error conditions.	This implementation checks for
       three cases:

	      -	   the parameter is a 7-bit US-ASCII code.  This is  the  case
		   that	X/Open Curses documented.

	      -	   the	parameter  is in the range 128-159, i.e., a C1 control
		   code.  If use_legacy_coding has been	called with a 2	param-
		   eter,  unctrl  returns the parameter, i.e., a one-character
		   string with the parameter as	the first  character.	Other-
		   wise, it returns ``~@'', ``~A'', etc., analogous to ``^@'',
		   ``^A'', C0 controls.

		   X/Open Curses does  not  document  whether  unctrl  can  be
		   called  before  initializing	 curses.   This	implementation
		   permits that, and returns the ``~@'', etc., values in  that

	      -	   parameter  values  outside  the 0 to	255 range.  unctrl re-
		   turns a null	pointer.

       The SVr4	documentation describes	the  action  of	 filter	 only  in  the
       vaguest	terms.	 The  description  here	is adapted from	the XSI	Curses
       standard	(which erroneously fails to describe the disabling of cuu).

       The strings returned by unctrl in this implementation are determined at
       compile	time,  showing C1 controls from	the upper-128 codes with a `~'
       prefix rather than `^'.	Other implementations have  different  conven-
       tions.  For example, they may show both sets of control characters with
       `^', and	strip the parameter to 7 bits.	Or they	may ignore C1 controls
       and treat all of	the upper-128 codes as printable.  This	implementation
       uses 8 bits but does not	modify the  string  to	reflect	 locale.   The
       use_legacy_coding  function  allows  the	caller to change the output of

       Likewise, the meta function allows the caller to	change the  output  of
       keyname,	 i.e.,	it  determines	whether	 to  use  the  `M-' prefix for
       ``meta''	keys (codes in the range 128 to	255).  Both  use_legacy_coding
       and  meta succeed only after curses is initialized.  X/Open Curses does
       not document the	treatment of codes 128 to 159.	When treating them  as
       ``meta''	 keys  (or  if	keyname	is called before initializing curses),
       this implementation returns strings ``M-^@'', ``M-^A'', etc.

       The keyname function may	return the names of user-defined string	 capa-
       bilities	 which	are defined in the terminfo entry via the -x option of
       tic.  This implementation automatically assigns at run-time keycodes to
       user-defined  strings  which  begin  with  "k".	 The keycodes start at
       KEY_MAX,	but are	not guaranteed to be the same value for	different runs
       because	user-defined  codes  are merged	from all terminal descriptions
       which have  been	 loaded.   The	use_extended_names  function  controls
       whether	this  data  is loaded when the terminal	description is read by
       the library.

       The nofilter routine is specific	to ncurses.  It	was not	 supported  on
       Version 7, BSD or System	V implementations.  It is recommended that any
       code depending on ncurses extensions be conditioned using  NCURSES_VER-

       legacy_coding(3X),   curses(3X),	  curs_initscr(3X),   curs_kernel(3X),
       curs_scr_dump(3X), legacy_coding(3X).



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